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Table 1.

1: Physical Sciences
Activity 1
What Solutions Do You Find In Your Home Or In A Store?

OBJECTIVES:
After performing this activity, you should be able to:
1. Describe some observable characteristics or properties
of common solutions found at home or in stores; and
2. Present the data gathered in table form to show some
properties of common solutions you observed.
Activity 2
What Are Some Properties Of Solutions?

Objectives

When you finish this activity you should be able to:


1. Compare the evidence gathered with the
predictions you made; and
2. Describe some properties of solutions based on
observations.
Materials needed • 12 clear bottles or cups or
• 1 L of water small beakers
• 7 cups • 2 pieces each, measuring
• 6 pieces, spoon spoons (1/2 tsp and 1 tsp)
• Either of the following: • 2 pieces each, measuring
cheesecloth(katsa), old white cups (1/2 cup and 1 cup)
T-shirt or filter paper • 3 funnels or improvised
• 2 tablespoons of each of the funnel made from 500 ml
following: sugar, salt, mongo plastic bottle
seeds, powdered juice, • Iron stand with iron ring
cooking oil, two different • 1 stirring rod
types of vinegar (one which • 1 flashlight
is clear and another which
appears cloudy)
Procedure
1. Predict which among the given samples will dissolve in water. Write
your predictions in column 2 of Table 2.
2. Pour one cup of water in each cup.
3. Add ½ teaspoon of each of the seven samples. Stir the mixture with
a teaspoon to dissolve as much of each sample as possible. Use a
different teaspoon for each of the cups.
Q1. Describe the appearance of the mixture (uniform or not
uniform) that resulted after mixing. Write your answer in column 3.
Q2. How many phases do you observe? Write your answers and
observations in column 4.
4. Filter the mixture with filter paper using a setup similar to figure 1.
you may use katsa or old, white t-shirt with the improvised funnel
fro the plastic bottle.
Figure 1. A filtration setup. The funnel is supported on an iron ring and
the filtrate is received in another container.
Table 2. Data Table for Activity 2
Q3. In which mixture were you able to separate the components by
filtration?
Write your observations in column 5 of Table 1.

Note: In column 3, you may describe the mixture in other ways such as homogeneous
or heterogeneous. You may also describe the color of the mixture.

5. Place the liquid collected from each filtration in a small beaker or clear
transparent glass bottle. Shine light through the liquid using a flashlight
placed on the side of the beaker. The room where you are working should
be dark. Using a black background may help you see the light across the
liquid. If the room is not dark, you can put the setup inside a cabinet in your
laboratory.
Q4. In column 6, write whether the path of light can be seen across the
liquid.
Q5. Which of the samples are solutions? Write your answer in column7.
Q6. Based on activity 2, what are some common characteristics of solutions
you observed?
Activity 3
What are the Evidences that Make a Solution
Saturated?

After performing this activity you will be able to:

1. Determine how much solid solute dissolves in a given


volume of water; through

2. Describe the appearance of a saturated solution.


Materials needed
 6 teaspoons sugar
 1 cup of water
 1 measuring cup (1 cup capacity)
 1 measuring spoon (1/2 tsp capacity)
 2 small transparent bottle
 2 stirrers (may be stirring rod, chopstick,
hard straw, or coffee stirrer)
Procedure
1.Pour 20 mL (approximately 2 tablespoons) of water in a small
transparent bottle. Add ½ teaspoon of sugar and stir.
Q7. What is the appearance of the solution/ write your
observations.
1.To the sugar solution in step #1, add ½ teaspoon sugar and stir
the solution to dissolve the sugar. At this point, you have added
1 teaspoon sugar.
2.Add ½ teaspoon of sugar to the same cup until the added sugar
no longer dissolves.
Q8. How many teaspoons of sugar have you added until the
sugar no longer dissolves?
Q9. So, how many teaspoons of sugar dissolved completely in
20 ml of water?
Activity 4
Size Matters!
Objective
After performing this activity the learners shall
be able to:

 Design and perform an equipment which will show


the effect of particles size
Procedure
1.Write a hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you
could conduct to find out which dissolve faster: granules
(uncrushed) of table salt or the same amount of crushed
salt.
2.Identify variables (for example, amount of table salt) that
you need to control in order to have a fair test.
3.Identify the dependent and independent variables.
4.List all the materials you need, including the amount and
ask these from your teacher.
5.Be sure to record your observations and tabulate them.
Write everything you observed during the dissolving test.
Q10. What is your conclusion? Does the
size of the salt affect how fast it dissolves
in water?

Q11. Does your conclusion support or


reject your hypothesis?

Q12. Based on what you know about


dissolving, try to explain your results.
Activity 5
How Fast Does Coffee Dissolve In Hot Water? In
Cold Water?
Objective
After performing this activity the learners
shall be able to:

 Investigate how the temperature affects how fast


a solid solute dissolves in water.
Procedure
1. Discuss with your group mates how to answer the question for
investigation, “How fast does coffee dissolve in hot water? In cold
water?” Write your hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test that
you could find out how coffee dissolves in cold and in hot water.
Note: Do not use 3-in-1 coffee as your sample. Use coffee granules.
2. Identify variables (for example, amount of coffee) that you need to
control in order to have a fair test.
3. Identify the dependent and the independent variables.
4. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask these
from your teacher.
5. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure to
record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything you
observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the evidence
from which you can draw your conclusions.
Q13. What is your conclusion? Does coffee
dissolve faster in cold or in hot water? Use the
observations and results you recorded to
explain your answer.

Q14. Does your conclusion support or reject


your hypothesis? Explain your results.
Activity 6
Which Dissolves Faster in Hot and in Cold Water:
Sugar or Salt?
Objective
After performing this activity the learners shall
be able to:

 Investigate how the nature of solute and solvent


affect how fast a solid solute dissolves in water.
Procedure
1. Discuss with your group mates how you will do your investigation.
2. Write your hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you could conduct
to find out answers to the given two questions above.
3. Identify variables (for example, amount of coffee) that you need to control
in order to have a fair test.
4. Identify the dependent and independent variables.
5. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask. These from
your teacher.
6. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure to
record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything you
observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the evidence
from which you can draw your conclusions.
Q15. What is your conclusion? Does coffee dissolve faster in cold or in hot
water? Use the observations and results you recorded to explain your
answer.
7. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis?
Explain your results.

Q16. The following questions can guide you:


a.Does sugar dissolve faster in hot water than in cold water?
Explain your answer, based on your observations from the
investigation.
b.Does salt dissolve faster in hot than in cold water? Explain
your answer, based on your observations from the
investigation.
c.Which is affected more by increasing the temperature of the
water- how fast salt dissolves or how fast sugar dissolves?
Explain your answer.
Activity 1
Seawater! See Water and Salts!

Part A

Objective
In this part, you should be able to collect
distilled water and salts from seawater.
Materials needed pieces of broken ceramics
or porcelain tiles)
• Seawater or 20% salt • Hand lens
solution • Metal tongs
• Erlenmeyer flask (sample • Spoon
flask) • Safety matches
• Test tube (receiver) • Wire gauze (asbestos
• Glass tube bent at right scraped off)
angle, with rubber/cork • Evaporating dish (or
attachment (delivery tube) aluminum foil)
• Water bath • Alcohol lamp
• Small boiling chips (e.g. • Tripod
Procedure
1. Prepare a distillation setup as shown in Figure 1. Place about 60
mL of seawater in the sample flask. Add 2-3 small boiling chips.
2. Apply heat to the sample flask until you have collected about 15
mL of the distilled water (distillate).
3. While allowing the remaining seawater to cool, prepare an
evaporation setup as shown in Figure 2.
4. Transfer the cooled liquid to the evaporating dish. Aluminum foil
may be used as an alternative for evaporating dish.
5. Apply heat to the seawater until all the liquid has evaporated. Let
it cool. Using a hand lens, examine what is left in the evaporating
dish.
Q1. What do you see? Did you notice the solid that was left
after all the liquid has evaporated?
6. The solid that is left behind in the evaporating dish is called the
residue. Set aside this residue for part B.
Figure 2. Evaporation
Figure 1. Simple Distillation using a water bath
Part B

Objective
In this part, you should be able to compare the residue
collected from part A with table salt using flame test.

Materials needed • Spatula or coffee stirrer


• Residue collected from • Match
part A • Safety eyewear (e.g.,
• Denatured alcohol goggles, eyeglasses)
• Aluminum cooking foil
• Table salt
Procedure
1. Preparation of aluminum boxes. Cut 5x5 cm aluminum
cooking foil. Fold the edges of the aluminum foil to form
a box as shown in figure 3. make at least 6 boxes.
2. In one aluminum box, place a pinch of table salt. In
another aluminum box, place a small amount of the
residue from Part A. Take another aluminum box and
leave it empty.
3. Add approximately 1 mL of denatured alcohol to each
box. Light the alcohol and observe the color of the flame
produced. Record this color in table 1. Compare the
intensity of the flame colors.
Table 1. Color of the flame of the different samples.

Sample Color
No sample
Table salt
Residue from Part A
Q2. How does the color of the flame of the residue compare
with that of table salt? What can you say about the identity of
the residue fro0m Part A?
Activity 2
Looks May Be Deceiving

Part A
Objectives
In this activity, you should be able to:
1. Assemble pro0perly the setup for boiling (see Figure 4);
2. Describe the change in temperature of a substance during
boiling;
3. Describe the change in temperature of a mixture during
boiling; and
4. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based on
how temperature changes during boiling.
Materials needed
• Cork/ rubber to fit
• Distilled water
thermometer
• Seawater or salt water
• Iron stand/clamp
• Beaker (50-mL), 2 pcs
• Alcohol lamp/ Bunsen
• Aluminum foil, (5x5 cm),
burner
2 pcs
• Safety matches
• Thermometer (with
• Watch/timer
readings up to 110°C)
• Graphing paper
Procedure
1. Place about 15 mL of distilled water
into a beaker. Label it properly.
Describe the appearance and odor
of your sample. In your worksheet,
write your descriptions in Table 2.
2. Cover the mouth of the beaker with
aluminum foil. Using the tip of your
pen, poke a hole at the center of
the foil. The hole should be big
enough for the thermometer to
pass through.
3. Prepare the setup as shown in
figure 4.
Note: Make sure that the thermometer bulb
is just above the surface of the sample (about Figure 4. Setup for boiling
1mm).
4. Begin recording the temperature when the sample starts to boil vigorously.
Record your temperature reading in Table 2 under the column, Distilled water.
5. Continue boiling and take at least 5 readings at intervals of 30 seconds after
the liquid has started to boil vigorously. Note even the slight changes in
temperature. Record your temperature readings in Table 2 under the column,
Distilled water.
6. Stop heating when the liquid sample reaches half of its original volume.
7. Present your data for distilled water in a graph. Place the temperature reading
along the y-axis and the time along the x-axis. Label the graphs appropriately.
Q3. Refer to the graph and your data for distilled water, what do you notice
about its temperature during boiling?
Q4. How would you define a substance based on what you have observed?
8. Repeat steps 1 to 7 using seawater. This time, record your temperature
readings in Table 2 under column, Seawater. Note even the slight changes in
temperature.
Q5. Refer to the graph and your data for seawater, what do you notice about
its temperature during boiling?
Q6. How would you define a mixture based on what you have observed?
Table 2. Temperature readings of the liquid samples during boiling at
30-sec interval
Properties Distilled Water Seawater

Appearance/ Odor
Temperature (°C) at
start of boiling
30 Sec

60 Sec
Temperature
90 Sec
(°C) after
120 Sec

150 Sec
Part B
Objectives

In this activity, you should be able to:


1. Assemble properly the setup for melting (see Figure 6);
2. Describe the appearance of a substance while it is
melting;
3. Describe the appearance of a mixture while it is
melting; and
4. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based
on how they appear as they melt.
Materials needed

• Benzoic acid • Cover of an ice cream


• Benzoic acid-salt mixture can (about 7-8 cm
• Ballpen cap/coffee stirrer diameter)
• Alcohol lamp • Paper
• Tripod • Scissors/cutter
• Wire gauze • Marker pen
• Safety matches
• Watch/timer
Procedure

1. Construction of an improvised melting dish from a cover of an ice cream


can. This may be prepared ahead.
a. Trace the outline of the cover of an ice cream can on a piece of paper.
Cut the paper following the outline. Adjust the cut-out so it fits well
in the inner part of the ice cream can cover. (See figure 5a)
b. Fold the cut-out into 4 equal parts. Place the folded cut-out on top of
the cover (inner part) of the ice cream can. See figure 5b.
c. Following the crease of the paper, trace lines using a marker pen into
the cover. Remove the cut-out. See figure 5c.
d. In each radius, locate points which are equidistant from the center.
Using the tip of a cutter, etch and mark these points as X1, X2, X3, AND
X4. See figure 6.
5a 5b 5c
Your improvised melting dish should look similar as Figure 6.
Samples will be placed at the X marks. This melting dish may hold as much
as 4 samples at one time.

2. Prepare the setup as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 6. Improvised melting dish Figure 7. Setup for melting


3. Using the tip of a ballpen cap, place about a scoop of benzoic acid in X1
and benzoic acid-salt mixture in X4 marks of the improvised melting dish.
Do not put anything in the X2 and X3 marks.
Note: The figure below illustrates how much one scoop of sample is.
4. Examine each sample. Describe the appearance. In your
worksheet, write your descriptions for the two samples in Table 3.
5. Make sure that each sample receives the same amount of heat.
Observe each sample as it melts.
Table 3. Appearance of the solid samples
Activity 1
Water, “Wat-er” You Made of?
Objectives
In this activity, you should be able to:
1. Carry out the electrolysis of water; and
2. Identify the components of water.
Procedure
1. Fill the sample container of the electrolysis apparatus half-full with 5%
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution.
2. Fill each “electrolysis syringe” with 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
solution up to the zero mark. To do this, insert the tip of the “collecting
syringe” through the whole of the plastic straw and suck out the air.
Initially, the plunger of the “collecting syringe” should be in the zero
position. The 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution will rise and fill the
“electrolysis syringe” as you pull the plunger of the “collecting syringe”.
positive
amplitude

negative
amplitude

Figure 7.7: The amplitude


Figure 8.6: Anatomy of the Vocal Folds or Cords
Figure 8.7: Parts of The Human Ear
Conduction of Heat of Various Materials
100
100
90
Speed of Heat Conduction
Compared to Copper (%)

80
70
59
60
50
40
30
30
20
20 16.5

10 3.5
0.008 0.02 0.04 0.14 0.3
0

Materials
Types of
Impacts Sources
Greenhouse Gas
Burning of fossil fuels,
Carbon dioxide Contributes to 50% of the earth’s global
deforestation, changes in
(CO2) warming
land use
Traps heat 20-30 times more efficiently Landfills, wetlands, flooded
Methane
that carbon dioxide; contributes to 16% of rice paddies, natural gas,
(CH4)
the warming phenomenon on earth and biomass burning
Formed when nitrous oxide
Ozone Contributes to 8% of the global warming
reacts with unburned
(O3) phenomenon on Earth
hydrocarbons
Accounts for 6% of the global warming Forest fires, burning of fossil
Nitrous oxide
phenomenon on Earth; traps heat 230 fuel, and motor vehicle
(NO)
times more efficiently than carbon dioxide exhaust
Pressurized spray cans,
Most destructive greenhouse gas; heat-
Chlorofluorocarbons polystyrene, solvents,
trapping property is 20,000 times than
(CFCs) refrigerator, and air
that of carbon dioxide
conditioning units
60%

50%
49%

40%

30%
24%
20%
14% 13%
10%

0%
Energy use Industrial Deforestation Agricultural
processes activities
Energy use Industrial processes Deforestation Agricultural activities

Figure 11.5: Human activities that contribute to the global warming phenomenon
60%

50%
50%

40%

30%

20%
20% 16%
10% 8% 6%
0%
Carbon dioxide Chlorofluorocarbons Methane Ozone Nitrous oxide

Carbon dioxide Chlorofluorocarbons Methane Ozone Nitrous oxide

Figure 11.6: Greenhouse gases that are being released because of human activities
Figure 12.16: The moon as it covers the sun during
solar eclipse
A

Figure 12.17: The position of the sun, earth, and moon during solar eclipse
Sun
Earth Moon

Figure 12.18: The diagram showing how a lunar eclipse occurs


SPRING TIDE
to Moon Solar and Lunar
Tidal effects add

Lunar
Tidal NEAP TIDE
Effect Solar and Lunar
Tidal effects cancel

to Moon
to Sun
Solar
Tidal
Effect to Sun

Figure 12.20: Diagram showing how the different types of tides occur