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AUTOMATED GUIDED
VEHICLE
(AGV)
INTRODUCTION
 AGV system were first introduced in 1950 in USA
 The Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) is a
mobile robot used in industrial applications to
move materials from point to point.
 Guidance is achieved by using sensors on the
vehicles that follow the guide wires.
 An automated guided vehicle system is a material
handling system that uses independently operated ,
self propelled vehicle that are guided along
defined pathways on the floor.
 TYPES OF VEHICLES

 Towing Vehicles
AGV with no load carrying facility
loads up to 50,000 pounds

 Unit load Transporters


to carry individual loads
loads ranging between 12,000 to 60,000 pounds
 Standard Automatic Guided pallet
Trucks
service palletized loads
truck version has travel up to 20 feet
 Assembly Line Vehicles
vehicles have a fixture on board that accept the
frame initial parts of the product that is to be
assembled.
 Light Load Transporters
to carry boxes, baskets, small parts, etc.
It generally has a footprint allowing its use in tight
spaces and narrow aisles.
These vehicles are used for a wide range of functions
from mailrooms to clean rooms in every type of
manufacturing and office environments.
Advantages of AGV
 Reduction in labor force.
 Improved productivity and quality.
 Job enrichment and worker satisfaction
 Reduction in space requirement
 Reduction in product damage
 System adaptability and flexibility
Disadvantages of AGV
 Expensive
 External use is limited
 Requirement of specially designed floor space
 Performance is affected if guide path bed is not
stable
 Equal support from worker is required
AGV SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
 Vehicles
The vehicle consists of a frame, batteries on board
charging unit, electrical system drive unit,
steering, precision stop unit, on board controller,
communication unit, safety system and work
platform.
 Frame
The frame is usually constructed of welded
steel member with aluminum cover Plate.
 Batteries and charging
powered by 24 or 48v D.C. industrial batteries.
Opportunity charging or full cycle charging.
 Drive unit
 Steering
The major components of power steering system are
the steering antenna, the steering motors and their
controllers, steering linkage and steering limit
switches.
 Precision stop controller
used to stop AGV with close location accuracy
at workstation and charge station.
At some point before an up coming precision
stop location, the vehicle will receive a precision
stop command from off board controller or by
code bar on board on the floor
 On board controller :
The vehicle controller is used to monitor
vehicle performance through encoder data to
determine position and velocity discrete digital
input, monitor functions as controls, activation
of safety devices, battery conditions, steering
limit, break release, running light drive
controller status.
 Communication Unit :
The communication System may be either
continuous or discrete.
 Safety :

Safety systems may be divided in to three specific


categories, vehicle to Vehicle, vehicle to object,
and vehicle to people.
 Battery Charging
The most commonly used battery charging
technologies are Battery Swap,
Automatic/Opportunity Charging, and
Automatic Battery Swap.
GUIDE PATH AND GUIDENCE
SYSTEM
 Passive Tracking
The optical method may be simply involved a light
sensitive photocell mounted on the vehicle, which
follows the tape on floor
 Active Tracking
involves use of guide wire and most commonly
used Technique in industry. A low voltage ( less
than 40 v), low current (less than 400 ma), low
frequency (Ñ to 15 kHz.) and signal is conducted
through a wire buried in a slot in the floor
Floor and system controls:
 vehicle control system
The top level of vehicle control system often
communicates with and under the control the
facility’s host computer .
 Vehicle processor
Generally the vehicle processor knows the
vehicle location, and it can interpret
commands received from floor control unit
and can monitor on board safety devices.
AGV GUIDENCE &
CONTROLES
 Guide Path Techniques
Passive Techniques:
use of chemical, paint and adhesive strips or tape
where by the AGV focuses a beam of light on the
reflective tape and tracks the path by measuring
the amplitude of reflected beam.
vehicles with metal detecting sensors following
stainless steel tape
 Active Techniques :

This method involves cutting a slot in the floor (1/8


to ¾ inch wide ) and (1/2 to 1.5 inch deep), in to
which one or more wires are placed and grouted
and epoxyed.
 Traffic Control
Zone control
Forward sensing control
Combination control
APPLICATION OF AGVS
 Driverless train operation
 Storage / Distribution system
 Assembly line operation
 Miscellaneous Applications
FUTURE TRENDS
 Guidance
 Vehicle communication
 system controller
 Vehicle
 Improved Graphical Display
 Safety: