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Fluid Mechanics

TA. Igor Sepulveda


Previous example
A pipe in certain point has a velocity
probe measuring a steady value (no
time - varying) of 3 m/s, while a similar
probe at section 2 records 9 m/s.
Estimate the acceleration, if any, with a
distance of 2 m.
Topics overview

Flow rate, average velocity and stress


are examples to develop between
plates and pipe flow.
Viscosity
demonstration
A thin moving plate is separated from two
fixed plates by two fluids of unequal viscosity
and unequal spacing, as shown below. The
contact area is A. Determine a) the force
required, and b) is there a necessary relation
between the two viscosity values?
A block of weight W slides down an
inclined plane on a thin film of oil,
as in the figure at bottom. The film
contact area is A and its thickness
h. Assuming a linear velocity
distribution in the film, derive an
analytic expression for the terminal
velocity V of the block.
Viscosity
A large movable plate is located between
two large fixed plates as shown. Two
Newtonian fluids having the viscosities
indicated are contained between the
plates. Determinate the magnitude and
direction of the shearing stresses that
act on the fixed walls when the moving
plate has a velocity of 4 m/s as shown.
Assume that the velocity distribution
between
6m plates is linear.
m 4m/s

3m
m
Volume flow
The volume flow Q over a dam is proportional
to dam width B and also varies with gravity g
and excess water height H upstream, as
shown in Fig. P1.14. What is the only possible
dimensionally homogeneous relation for this
flow rate?
Shear stress
In Figure, if the fluid is glycerin at 20°C and
the width between plates is 6 mm, what
shear stress (in Pa) is required to move the
upper plate at V = 5.5 m/s?

What is the flow Reynolds number if “L” is


taken to be the distance between plates?
Linear velocity
A shaft 6.00 cm in diameter and 40 cm long is
pulled steadily at V = 0.4 m/s through a
sleeve 6.02 cm in diameter. The clearance is
filled with oil, ν = 0.003 m2/s and SG = 0.88.
Estimate the force required to pull the shaft.
Linear velocity
An amazing number of commercial and
laboratory devices have been developed to
measure fluid viscosity. Consider a concentric
shaft, as the previous problem, but fixed
axially and rotated inside the sleeve. Let the
inner and outer cylinders have radio ri and
ro, respectively, with total sleeve length L.
Let the rotational rate be Ω (rad/s) and the
applied torque be M. Using these
parameters, derive a theoretical relation for
the viscosity μ of the fluid between the
cylinders.