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Age Impact on: Performance Turnover Absenteeism Productivity Satisfaction .
Sex/ Gender Problem-solving ability Analytical skill Competitive drive Motivation Leadership Sociability & Learning ability not gender dependant. Shahnaz Hussain Lady takes time off to attend to domestic needs .g. turnover& absenteeism due to family responsibilities e.
higher income level & different outcomes/disillusionment .social sciences) & specialised-narrow & focussed(engineering.computer science) .medicine.Type of education general(arts.Education Level & type of education affects individual behavior with increased expectations about positive outcomes/satisfying job.humanities.
Management to identify the abilities(out of 9 basic abilities)(High score on one?) if these are major inputs needed for a task.manual dexterity.perceptual speed 2]Physical abilities-in one s stamina. Made up of 2 sets of skills: 1]Intellectual abilities-needed to perform mental activities. IQ tests as in admission tests.Abilities Refers to an individual s capacity to perform various tasks in a job.number aptitude. . verbal comprehension..
Ability-Job Fit Hiring procedures-focus on general abilities/abilities for job requirement. Job satisfaction to be considered. ignoring fit between the two.measurement of skills.Technology changes. assessing attitudes & personality is difficult. . Employees abilities should neither exceed nor fall short.
Marital status & no of dependants Marital status:Influence on absenteeism. No of dependants: Related to absence.Imposes responsibility. turnover & satisfaction.need for a steady job. . women.steady income. esp.
Others Background experience: esp for creative individuals. Irene.g.e. raised a daughter.Pierre & Marie Curie. great scientists. .high level of energy.self confidence. Personal Traits: linked to creativity in individuals such as openness.who won a nobel prize in Chemistry.etc. Thomas Edison influenced by mother.
& to analyse situations& data effectively. .Cognitive Abilities An individual s power to think intelligently. Intelligence a precondition for creativity.Firms look out for this trait for creativity & innovation. Ability to think both convergently(perceiving similarities between situations & events) and divergently.
Environmental Factors Include such variables as economic. maybe reduced skills required.esp lower leveljobs through automation.status symbol. level of job satisfaction Economic outlook-industry employment affected by economic cycles. social.political.worker & cartpuller Wage rates-satisfy basic needs. measure of achievement. robotics. motivation changes with job security Technological change-changes job opportunities.public sector employees insulated from economy. job satisfactn? . computerisation. ECONOMIC factors: Employment level-job opportunities/job security/beh of Prof & Exec.
affecting behavior. perceptions. .Culture varies from country to country.achievement needs. values & behavior. preferences. Work ethics. behaviors.Environmental Factors Cultural environment Forces affecting society s basic values . work ethics.effort-reward expectations & values are cultural factors. within a country. This shapes their basic beliefs.
Environmental Factors Work Ethics tinged with morals.stability of government. uses personal performance feedback Political Factors. Achievement one with high need to achieve tends to have a high degree of responsibility.implying hard work & commitment. political ideology of the government .Strong work ethics ensures motivated employees.
Organisational Systems & Resources OB is also influenced by physical facilities. décor organisation structure & design-different departments reporting relationships.ventilation. secretarial support. . lighting.& supervision to provide advice to coaching to ind members & reward systems. Organisations establish reward systems to compensate.lines of communication leadership.
satisfied employee shows better productivity .Attract talent & retain competent employees Dissatisfied employee tends to withdraw & shows less productivity.Types of Work related BehaviorBehavior in organisations Joining the organisation-Excitement &anxiety-new assignment & expectations to fulfill Remaining with the organisation.
Types of Work related BehaviorBehavior in organisations. lack of motivation Performing required tasks.. family responsibilities.Need to harness their abilities & put to organisational effectiveness .Hired to perform tasks(goal directed activities under the individual s control)above min standards.contd Maintaining work attendance-Expected to report for work. absenteeism is caused due to various reasons health.job dissatisfaction.
.co-operating with fellow employees..accepting occasional impositions.Include tleratingambiguities.Types of Work related BehaviorBehavior in organisations.sharing resources.contd Exhibiting organisational citizenshiporganisational effectiveness depends onmore than just satisfactory performanceRelies also on organisational citizenshipbehaviors which extend beyond job related tasks.
How do employees becopme good organisation citizens Firms can develop citizen trust by ensuring fairness of the company s treatment of employees. by correcting the equity felt by an employee. The other is the degree to which employees hold strong ethical values. . does well for the firm to hire someone with this value.& a sense of social responsibility An employee with social consciousness will reach out to others to help out.
Types of Work related BehaviorBehavior in organisations.contd Psychological factors Are the individual s mental characteristics& attributes that affect behaviorThough not observable. . have a considerable role in affecting behaviorProminentpsychological factors are personality. attitudes.perception. values & learning..
Models of individual behavior Theory X and Theory Y Model Economic & self actualizing Model Behavioristic & Humanistic model Rational & emotional Model .
in need of constant prodding Assumption. which effective management may channelise towards organisational goals .theory Y Individual has tremendous potential.Theory X and Theory Y Model Assumption.theory X Individual is lazy. non-creative.
specialising work functions.Economic & self actualizing Model Economic model of the human being conceptualises the individual as totally economic in orientation Concept derived from scientific management philosophy of late 1880s Scientific management concerned for standardising jobs. .providing economic incentives for standard/better performance.
job competence &self-actualisation. Firm should provide proper conditions.Economic & self actualizing Model Self actualizing Model.Adherents crave for personal growth.People strive for goals like self fulfillment & self actualisation. .Individual is motivated to grow. mature & achieve/become all he is capable of. Model underlines that individual cannot be adequately described by physiological & economic considerations alone.
Behavioristic & Humanistic model Scholars believe that individuals can be described only in terms of behavior.ind is more philosophical than scientific.Beh model scholars believe that beh is environmentally determined. In the humanistic model.Humanists believe the ind is capable of conscious reasoning & contol of their destiny .these theorists interested only inobservable behavioras contrasted with thoughts or feelings.
collect all relavant information. serious & computational.Freudians perceive human beings as irrational..Rational & emotional Model Rational model.Emotional model -human beings guided by emotions.Ego/reality and super-ego/values of society. They are deliberate. because of constant conflicts among Id/birth.levels of consciousness .individual is highly rational like a computer.analyse the data & then arrive at a solution.
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