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INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
- forces of attraction and
repulsion between molecules
that hold molecules, ions, and
atoms together.
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INTRAMOLECULAR FORCES
-are forces of chemical
bonds within a
molecule.
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INTRAMOLECULAR VS.
INTERMOLECULAR
An intramolecular bond is the
chemical bond within a molecule.
An intermolecular force is a
force that occurs between
molecules. 4
INTRAMOLECULAR VS.
INTERMOLECULAR

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Solid Liquid Gas 6
FOUR MAIN TYPES OF
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES:
1. Ion-ion interaction
2. Dipole-dipole interaction
3. Hydrogen bonding
4. Dispersion forces also known as
London forces
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1. ION-ION INTERACTION
Ion-ion interaction exists
between oppositely charged
ions.
It occurs between ionic
compounds. 8
Ions of like charges repel while
opposite charges attract.
The strength of ion-ion interaction is
inversely proportional to the square
of distance between the ions.
This is the strongest intermolecular
force.
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2. DIPOLE-DIPOLE INTERACTION
Occurs between polar
molecules. This is due to the
partial positive pole and the
partial negative pole of the
molecule.
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2. DIPOLE-DIPOLE INTERACTION

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The dipole-dipole force is the
electrostatic attraction that is caused
when the dipoles of polar molecules
position their positive and negative
ends near each other.

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The dipole-dipole force is the
electrostatic attraction that is caused
when the dipoles of polar molecules
position their positive and negative
ends near each other.

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H Cl --------- H Cl
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3. HYDROGEN BONDING
Usually negatively charged F, O,
N is attracted to the positively
charged H.
Very important biologically
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Only molecules that have O, N, or F
attached to H experience hydrogen
bonding.
Hydrogen bonds are the strongest type
of intermolecular force.

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A hydrogen bond is the strong
dipole-dipole interaction that occurs
when a hydrogen atom bonded to a
small highly electronegative atom
(oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine) is
attracted to a partially negative atom
on a nearby molecule 18
HYDROGEN BONDING
A dipole-dipole interaction where the
H atom is noncovalently attracted to an
electronegative atom.
The H must have a large positive delta
and the other atom must have a source
of electrons to be attracted to H
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4. LONDON DISPERSION FORCE
All molecules experience London Dispersion Forces,
but they have the greatest impact in non-polar
molecules
London Dispersion Force is the weakest
intermolecular force
The strength of the London force increases with:
–Increasing size
–Increasing surface area of contact or proximity
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Attraction resulting
from a random
Instantaneous Induced dipole on momentary non
Instantaneous Dipole neighboring
atom.
He symmetrical electron
Uneven Distribution Resultant attractive distribution
Force
London forces between
two Helium atoms

You can also think of it as the negative electrons


from one molecule being attracted to the positive
nucleus of an adjacent molecule.

Repulsive forces
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Attractive forces
The stronger the intermolecular forces are, the
more energy it will require to pull the
molecules apart
Molecules that have strong intermolecular
forces also have high melting points and
boiling points
Intermolecular forces can also affect solubility 22