RURAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE HULKOTIHULKOTI-582205 20082008-2009

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Khushboo Singh Shalini Tamar

REAL±WORLD AND FUTURE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 5. 2. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 6. WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY? NANOMATERIALS. 3. INTRODUCTION. REFERENCES . NANOTUBE RINGS ‡ ‡ 4. NANOTUBES. DRAWBACKS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 7. CONCLUSION 8.CONTENTS: 1.

Nanotechnology is a new technology for building electronic devices with dimensions ranging from atoms up to 100 nm with programmed precision. fact- . chemistry and physics-people who are normally some of the most physicsskeptical and fact-oriented people around.INTRODUCTION    To understand the very large. Nanotechnology has often been viewed as almost magical by professionals in computer science. their properties undergo amazing changes. we must understand the very small. manufacturing. When materials are reduced to very small dimensions.

atom by atom. The technology will enable scientists and engineers to see and manipulate matter at the molecular level. .WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?   Nanotechnology refers to the technology of rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate materials to nano specifications such as a nanometer. create new structures with fundamentally new molecular organization and exploit the novel properties at that scale.

carbon was known only in two forms: graphite and diamond .NANOMATERIALS   It is amazing what one can do by just putting atoms where you want them. Until the discovery of the buckyball in 1985. Carbon is the only element in nature found with varying physical and chemical characteristics.

Nanocomponents. switches and reactors. Some of the hot plasma resulting from the vapourised carbon recondensed as carbon nanotubes. optical materials. Nanodevices. Thomas and Ajayan produced nanotubes using graphite rods and electricity. . Different carbon modifications (tubes within tubes. such as ceramics. such as coatings and connectors. such as sensors. later called multimultiwalled carbon nanotubes) were made subsequently Engineered Nanostructures: Nanostuctured materials. polymers & metals.      The material was found to be stronger than conventional carbon. Shortly afterwards.

They might look like a bit of rolled-up. but this rolledhoneycomb lattice of carbon atoms is the stuff of engineer¶s dream.000 times thinner than a human hair. Nanotubes are tiny tubes of carbon about 10. microscopic chicken wire. the hollow threads of carbon are going to change the world. These consist of rolled up sheets of mono layer or multi layer carbon atoms bonded together in a hexagon .NANOTUBES   Nanotubes.

7 micron. Shown below is an AFM micrograph of a one micron-diameter ring (the purple circle) placed over gold micronelectrodes (the light blue objects). The rings are composed of many layers of single-walled nanotubes. singleand have a radius of typically 0. .NANOTUBE RINGS   We have found a way to convert ropes of straight nanotubes into nanotube rings. which we can position on metal electrodes. The rings. allow us to study novel electric transport phenomena.

. The rings. allow us to study novel electric transport phenomena. which we can position on metal electrodes. Shown below is an AFM micrograph of a one micron-diameter ring (the purple microncircle) placed over gold electrodes (the light blue objects).

The plot above shows the resistance of a ring as a function of the magnetic field applied through it. Applying a magnetic field breaks time-reversal invariance. and the constructive interference is lost .

I would never have expected the construction of the abacus mentioned above.REAL± REAL±WORLD AND FUTURE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY  Disappointingly.   . For example. the Foresight Institute is already carrying out research in the designing and building of two nano technology devices-a nanoscale robotic devicesarm and a computing device that demonstrates the feasibility of building a nano technology computer. nobody has yet created a working nanotech-scale robotic nanotecharm. or really any kind of nanomachine selfIn the short-term future. or as self-replicating nanobot. Knowing this. it is difficult to predict what sorts of breakthroughs shortwill be made.

Wheels. lighter. The uses in the medical field are endless. you¶d ingest nanobots that would burrow into your DNA and repair the defective gene.APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:   MATERIALS: Nanotechnology will enable us to make new materials. and even interactive MEDICINE: If a genetic disease ran in your family. These new materials will be stronger. That can be used to cleanly store energy         . NANOCOMPUTERS: With the use of Carbon Nanotube Components and Molecular Components more powerful and fast computers can be made POWER STORAGE: Nanotechnology will help to build smaller and more efficient Fuel Cells Fly .

as they are very drugeffective. . The use of modern technology does not require large manufacturing facilities or rare raw materials. who open the mail. if inhaled) put in envelopes could infect thousands of people. Terrorist may grab drug-resistant strains.DRAWBACKS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY     It has been reported that nanotubes can damage lung tissues in mice. Knowledge will play a critical role and can lead to mass destruction. relatively cheap to produce. and east to deploy For example. a few grams of anthrax (fatal.

This exercise has benefited humankind in terms of unexpected benefits from innovations and new ideas. Ultimately. The human mind tends to travel on ever-new paths with no specific destination. .CONCLUSION:  To sum up. Hence scientific community is encouraged to give timely warning against possible risk or misuse. human behaviour cannot fully be explained by pre-set hard prewiring of the brain. our intuition and imagination as well as a sense of values are the best safeguards against the victory of mindless robots.

Eric Drexler.com . Electronics for you (April 2005) & www. www. ³Solid state Physics´ by Basavaraj. ³Nano the Next Revolution´ by Mohan Sundara Rajan. ³Engines of Creation´ by K.google.efymag.com ³nanotechnology´.REFERENCES:       Nanotechnology IEEE Transaction.

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