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Tcx Book
PHYSICS lor Scicniss and Lnainccrs
wih Modcrn Phvsics (6
h
cdi
Bv Scrwav S Icwc
· An Incrprcaion ol Ouanum Mcchanics
· Onc Dimcnsional Vavc Iuncions S Lxpccaion Valucs
· Thc Pariclc Indcr Boundarv Condiions
· Thc Schrodinacr Lquaion
· Thc pariclc in a BOX
· A pariclc in a Vcll ol linic Hciah
· Tunnclina Throuah a Pocnial Lncrav Barricr
· Thc Scannina Tunnclina Microscopc
· Thc Simplc Harmonic Oscillaor
AN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
What is a wave function ? What is its physicaI
interpretation ?
Lxpcrimcnal cvidcnccs provcd ha boh macr and
clccromaancic radiaion cxhibi wavc and pariclc naurc
dcpcndina on hc phcnomcnon bcina obscrvcd.
Makina a conccpual connccion bcwccn pariclcs and
wavcs, lor an clccromaancic radiaion, wc havc hc
probabiliv pcr uni volumc ol lindina a phoon in a aivcn
rcaion ol spacc a an insan ol imc as
Probabilit
·
AN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
What is a wave function ? What is its physicaI
interpretation ?
Takina hc analoav bcwccn clccromaancic radiaion and
macr Gcrman hcorcical phvsicis Max Born in 1928 aavc
a saislacorv and acncrallv acccpcd 'hc probabilisic
incrprcaion` ol hc wavc luncion o (x,i lor macr wavcs.
1. A wavc luncion o (x,i is a mahcmaical ool uscd in
quanum mcchanics o dcscribc hc momcnarv sacs ol
subaomic pariclcs.
2. I is no a mcasurablc quaniv and is ampliudc docs no
rcprcscn hc displaccmcn as in hc casc ol a wavc on a
srcchcd srina or a wacr wavc.
3
Vha is a wavc luncion . Vha is is phvsical
incrprcaion .
`. In acncral, hc complcc wavc luncion + lor a svscm
dcpcnds on hc posiions ol all hc pariclcs in hc svscm and
on imc and can bc wricn as
+(r
j
,t) = o(r
j
) e
iæt
or
=
whcrc r
j
is hc posiion vccor ol hc j
h
pariclc in hc svscm.
A is hc ampliudc ol hc wavc which is a luncion ol
posiion 'x`.
1 i =
Spacc dcpcndcn
Timc dcpcndcn
A e
ikx
e
·iwt
S
o(xi mav bc a complcx luncion (il pariclc is lrcci or
a rcal luncion (il pariclc is boundi, dcpcndina on hc
svscm .
Vhcrc w(2li is hc anaular lrcqucncv ol hc wavc
luncion and k(2//i is hc wavc numbcr.
For any system in which the potential energy is time
independent and depends only on the positions oI particles
within the system, the important inIormation about the system is
contained within the space part of the wave function.
. o itself is not significant .
Thouah wc can no mcasurc o, wc can mcasurc hc
absoluc squarc o
2
o o' whcrc o' is hc complcx
conjuaac ol o , is alwavs rcal and posiivc.
o
2
aivcs hc probabiliv dcnsiv (probabiliv pcr uni
volumci or probabiliv ampliudc ol lindina a pariclc a a
aivcn poin a somc insan.
Lxamplc: Il dV is a small volumc clcmcn surroundina
somc poin, hcn hc probabiliv ol lindina hc pariclc in
ha volumc clcmcn is
o
2
dV.
AN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
. Thc wavc luncion o conains wihin i all hc
inlormaion ha can bc known abou hc pariclc.
!T· AN!PAL
What is a wave function ? What is its physicaI
interpretation ?
8
o Vavc luncion lor a pariclc movina alona hc x axis.
P(xi dx o
2
dx is hc probabiliv o lind hc pariclc in hc
inlinicsimal incrval dx around hc poin x.
Thc probabiliv ol lindina hc pariclc in hc arbirarv incrval
a · x · b is
Thc probabiliv P
ab
is hc arca undcr hc curvc ol o
2
vcrsus
x bcwccn hc poins xa and xb as shown in liaurc.
Vhcrc o
2
o o' whcrc o' is hc complcx conjuaac ol o ,
Mahcmaical lcaurcs ol a wavc luncion
OneDimensional Wave Functions and Expectation Values
dx P
2
b
a
ab
= o
1. Probabiliv luncion:
2. Condiion ol normalizaion:
Thc probabiliv ol a pariclc bcina in hc
incrval a · x · b is hc arca undcr hc
probabiliv dcnsiv curvc lrom a o b.
Thc oal probabiliv ol lindina hc pariclc is 1.
Iorcina his condiion on hc wavc luncion is callcd normalizaion:
1 dx
×
× ·
2
=
o
ormalizaion mcans ha hc pariclc cxiss a somc poin in spacc Thc
wavc cquaion saislicd bv o is hc Schrodinacr cquaion and o can bc
compucd lrom i. All hc mcasurcablc quaniics ol a pariclc, such as
is cncrav and momcnum, can bc dcrivcd lrom a knowlcdac ol o.
athematicaI features of a wave function
3. Expectation value
Thc avcraac posiion a which onc cxpccs o lind hc pariclc
alcr manv mcasurcmcns is callcd hc cxpccaion valuc ol x
ol x and is dclincd bv hc cquaion:
1x x x o o ÷
C
C

athematicaI features of a wave function
Thc cxpccaion valuc ol anv luncion l(xi associacd wih
hc pariclc is
1x ) x ( f ) x ( f o o ÷
C
C

11
. o(xi mav bc a complcx luncion or a rcal luncion,
dcpcndina on hc svscm.
. Thc spacc dcrivaivcs ol o (xi, mus bc linic, coninuous
and sinalc valucd cvcrv whcrc.
6. o (xi mus bc coninuous in spacc hcrc mus bc no
disconinuous jumps in hc valuc ol hc wavc luncion a anv
poin.
Mahcmaical lcaurcs ol a wavc luncion
12
OTL: Thc sandard lorm ol a complcx numbcr is aib.
Thc noaion c
i0
is cquivalcn o hc sandard lorm as lollows:
c
i0
cos0isin0
c
iw
cos(wiisin(wi coswisinw
c
ikx
cos kxisinkx coskxisinkx
AN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
$ !$E 41.1 A wave Function for a particle
A pariclc wavc luncion is aivcn bv hc cquaion
o (xi A c
ax
2
Vha is hc valuc ol A il his wavc luncion is
normalizcd.
!T· AN!PAL
13
+(x)
o (xi A c
ax
2
14
1
a 2 2
1
A 2
1
a 2 2
1
dx e
1 dx e A 2
1 ) dx e dx e ( A dx e A
dx e A dx ) Ae ( dx
1 dx
2
0
ax
2
0
ax 2 2
0
0
ax 2 ax 2 2 ax 2 2
ax 2 2 2 ax
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
=
¦
¦
'
+
'
x
=
x
=
=
= + = =
= = o
= o
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
1
a 2
A
¦
'
+
'
x
=
AN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
SJ: Section 41.1 P 1 A free electron has a
wave function where x is in
meters.
Find (a) its de Broglie wavelength,
(b) its momentum, and
(c) its kinetic energy in electron volts.
) x 1 . S ( i
1
e A ) x (
L
= o
1S
N!T·NAN!PAL 16
THE SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION
The appropriate wave equation for matter waves was
1evelope1 b $chrödinger.
$chrödinger equation as it applies to a particle of
mass m confined to moving along x axis and
interacting with its environment through a potential
energy function U(x) is
here is a constant equal to the total energy of
the system (the particle and its environment).
o = o +
o
1x
1
m
1 !T· AN!PAL
o = o +
o
1x
1
m
%he above equation is referred to as the one·
1imensional, timeindependent $chrödinger
equation.
18 !T· AN!PAL
THE SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION
0 ) U E (
m 2
dx
d
SWE have We
2 2
2
= o +
o
ppIication of SWE for a particIe in a one dimensionaI,
infinite potentiaI weII or a particIe in a box
In liaurc (ai, a pariclc ol mass 'm` and
vclociv 'v`, conlincd o bouncina bcwccn
wo impcncrablc walls scparacd bv a
disancc L i.c i is movina insidc a box
alona hc xaxis bcwccn x0 and xL.
This is a onc dimcnsional ¨box" ol
inlinic hciah.
Iiaurc (bi shows hc pocnial cncrav
luncion lor hc svscm.
L
C C
x
Let the potential energ of
the particle insi1e the box
be zero, but rises to infinit
on outsi1e the box.
I(xi 0, lor 0 · x · L,
and I (xi C , lor x · 0, x > L
Sincc I (xi C , lor x · 0, x > L ,
o(xi 0 in hcsc rcaions.
Also o(x 0i 0 and o(x Li 0.
Onlv hosc wavc luncions ha saislv hcsc boundarv
condiions arc allowcd.
21
mE 2
k &
2
h
mE 2
k , Where
) 1 ..( .......... 0 k
dx
d
0
mE 2
dx
d
: gives 0 U , box the Within
0 ) U E (
m 2
dx
d
SWE have We
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
=
x
=
=
= + +
+
÷
=
o
+
+
=
= o +
o
Thc acncral soluion ol his dillcrcnial cquaion (1i is:
o(xi A sin kx B cos kx.....(`i
A and B arc consans dccrmincd bv hc propcrics ol
hc wavc luncion as wcll as boundarv and normalizaion
condiions.
Sincc hc pariclc can no havc hc inlinic cncrav, i can
no cxis ousidc hc box.
Hcncc hc wavc luncion mus bc zcro a x0 and xL
ha is a hc walls as wcll as ousidc hc box.
23
Applvina hc lirs boundarv condiion o(xi0 a x0 so
cquaion (`i bccomcs:
0Asin 0 B cos0
B0
÷á(xi A sin(kxi
Applvina hc sccond boundarv condition o(x)÷0 at x÷L
so equation (3) becomes:
A sin (kL) ¹B cos (kL)÷0
= A sin(kL) + B cos(kL) = A sin(kL) + ,
an1 since A , sin(kL) .
( kL n x,
( ( n 1, , 3, .....quantum number)
24
W %he allowed wave functions are given by
) .........(
L
x n
sin A (x) u
n
¦
'
+
'
x
=
The corresponding wave functions:
%he allowed wave Iunctions are given by
) .........(
L
x n
sin A (x) u
n
¦
'
+
'
x
=
Thc consan A mav bc cvaluacd usina hc normalizaion
condiion. Subsiuina lor hc wavc luncion and applvina
hc appropriac limis (0 o Li.
C
C
=
¦
¦
¦
¦
'
+
'
x
= o
L
1 1x
L
x n
sin A or 1 1x
%o find the constant A, apply normalization
condition
) 5 .( ..........
L
x n
sin
L
2
) x (
have we ), ( eqn in
L
2
A ng substituti
L
2
A 1 ) 0 L (
2
A
1
L
x n 2
sin )
n 2
L
( x
2
A
dx )
L
nx 2
cos( dx
2
A
1 dx
L
nx 2
cos 1
2
A
n
2
L
0
L
0
2
L
0
L
0
2
L
0
2
¦
'
+
'
x
= o
=
= ( =
=
)
`
¦

´
 x
x
=
¦
¦
¦
x
=
¦
¦
¦
¦
'
+
'
x
=
Pariclc in hc Inlinic Pocnial Vcll
¦
'
+
'
x
= o n
L
x
sin
L
2
state n For the
n
th
Thc wavc luncion and hc probabiliv dcnsiv ol hc pariclc
in around sac and hc lirs wo cxcicd sac arc skcchcd
bclow.
Iia. (aiThc wavc luncions (+) lor:
n 1, 2, and `.
Iia. (bi Thc probabiliv dcnsiics (+
2
)
lor: n 1, 2, and `.
28
%E WELL (EERGY LEVELS)
For a particle within an infinite potential well of width L,
we have
x = n kL have We
¦
'
+
'
= = =
2
n L or
L
n 2
k gives
2 x
2
x
Thc pariclc in a pocnial box can no havc an arbirarv
cncrav, bu i can havc onlv discrcc cncrav. Lach valuc ol hc
incacr n corrcsponds o a quanizcd cncrav valuc, L
n
. All hc
ohcr cncraics arc lorbiddcn lor hc pariclc.
2
2
2
n
n
L m 8
h
E
¦
¦
'
+
'
=
Where n = 1, 2 , 3 ...
x
=
x = = ( =
2
h
n L
mE 2
k L ,
mE 2
k
Also
PARTICLL I A BOX:IIIITL VLLL (LLRGY LLVLLSi
30
L m 8
h
E , ) n ( energy allowed lowest The = =
Accordina o quanum mcchanics, hc pariclc can ncvcr bc
a rcs.
Ior n1, hc pariclc is in hc around sac or zcro poin
cncrav sac
31
Ior n >1 hc pariclc is in
hc cxcicd sac.
Lxcicd sacs corrcsponds o:
n 2, `, 4  havc cncraics
aivcn bv 4L
1
, 9L
1 ,
16L
1
.
%hus, the allowed energy values
are Ior a particle in a box are:
E
1
, E
1,
9 E
1
,
16 E
1
.....
PART!CLE !N A BOX
SJ: PSE 41.2 A Bound Electron
An electron is confined between two impenetrable
walls .2 nm apart. Determine the energy levels
for the states n =1 ,2 , and 3.
3 !T· AN!PAL
Civen: L. nm
eV 8 . 8 E 9 E , 3 n For
eV 7 . 37 E E , 2 n For
eV 2 . 9 J 10 x 51 . 1 E
) 10 x 00 . 2 )( kg 10 x 11 . 9 ( 8
) 10 x 63 . 6 (
L m 8
h
E , ) 1 n ( energy allowed lowest %he
1 3
1 2
18
1
2 10 31
3
2
2
1
= = =
= = =
= =
= = =
PART!CLE !N A BOX
SJ: PSE 41.3 Energy Quantization for a Macroscopic
Object
A .5 kg baseball is confined between two rigid
walls of a stadium that can be modeled as a box of
length 1 m. Calculate the minimum speed of the
baseball.
If the baseball is moving with a speed of 15 m/s,
what is the quantum number of the state in which
the baseball will be?
33 !T· AN!PAL
34
37
2
n
2
3 2 2
n
36 2 1 2
71
1
2
3
2
2
1
10 x 26 . 2
h
E mL 8
n
J 10 x 62 . 5 150 x ) 500 . 0 (
2
1
mv
2
1
E
: obiect c macroscopi Ior e arg l very n number Quantum ) b (
s m 10 x 63 . 6 )
m
K 2
( v gives mv
2
1
K E
J 10 x 10 . 1 E
) m 100 )( kg 500 . 0 ( 8
) 10 x 63 . 6 (
L m 8
h
E , ) 1 n ( energy allowed lowest (a)%he
= =
= = =
= = = =
=
= = =
PART!CLE !N A BOX
SJ: PSE 41.4 Model of an Atom
(A) Using the simple model of a particle in a box to
represent an atom, estimate the energy (in eV)
required to raise an atom from the state n =1 to the
state n =2. Assume the atom has a radius of .1 nm
and that the moving electron carries the energy that
has been added to the atom.
(B) Atoms may be excited to higher energy states by
absorbing photon energy. Calculate the wavelength of
the photon that would cause the transition from the
state n =1 to the state n =2.
3S !T· AN!PAL
36
L length of the box 1iameter of the atom.nm
m
e
.1 x 1
·31
kg.
nm 8 . 3
E
hc
hc
E ) b (
eV 3 . 28 ) 1 ( 2 . 9 ) 2 ( 2 . 9 E E E
eV n 2 . 9 J 10 x 51 . 1 E
n
) 10 x 00 . 2 )( kg 10 x 11 . 9 ( 8
) 10 x 63 . 6 (
n )
L m 8
h
( E ) n ( energy allowed %he
2 2
1 2
2 18
n
2
2 10 31
3
2
2
2
n
=
A
= 2
2
= A
= = = A
= =
= =
37
SJ: Section 41.2 P 3
An clccron is conlincd o a oncdimcnsional rcaion in
which is aroundsac (n1i cncrav is 2.00 cV. (ai wha is hc
lcnah ol hc rcaion.
(bi How much cncrav is rcquircd o promoc hc clccron o
is lirs cxcicd sac.
38
SJ: Section 41.2 P 4
An clccron ha has an cncrav ol approximaclv 6 cV movcs
bcwccn riaid walls 1.00 nm apar.
Iind (ai hc quanum numbcr n lor hc cncrav sac ha hc
clccron occupics and (bi hc prccisc cncrav ol hc clccron.
eV 03 . 6
mL 8
n h
E : n or energy ecise Pr ) b (
n gives
n
) 10 x 00 . 1 )( kg 10 x 11 . 9 ( 8
) 10 x 63 . 6 (
n )
L m 8
h
(
10 x 6 . 1 x 6 eV 6 E ) n ( energy allowed (a)%he
2
2 2
2
2 10 31
2 3
2
2
2
19
n
= = =
=
=
=
= =
33
SJ: Section 41.2 P 5
An electron is containe1 in a one·1imensional box of length
.1nm. (a) Draw an energ·level 1iagram for the electron for
levels up to n. (b) Fin1 the wavelengths of all photons that
can be emitte1 b the electron in making 1ownwar1 transitions
that coul1 eventuall carr it from the n to the n1 state.
eV 603 E 16 E
eV 339 E 9 E
eV 151 E E
eV 7 . 37 E
) 10 x 100 . 0 )( kg 10 x 11 . 9 ( 8
) 10 x 63 . 6 (
E
n )
L m 8
h
( E ) 1 n ( energy allowed %he
1
1 3
1 2
1
2 9 31
3
1
2
2
2
1
= =
= =
= =
=
=
= =
n (e)
40
hen electron falls from state to state 3, it gives out a
photon of energ
s transition other Ior Similarly nm 71 .
E
hc
transition 3 : photon the oI wavelength , So
c
h hI eV 26 eV 339 eV 603 E  E E : transition 3
3
=
A
= 2
F
2
= = = = = A F
n1 around sac
n=3
n=
n=4
41
SJ: Section 41.2 P 6
An alpha particle in a nucleus can be mo1ele1 as a particle
moving in a box of length 1.00 x 10
·14
m ( the approximate
1iameter of a nucleus). sing this mo1el, estimate the energ
an1 momentum of an alpha particle in its lowest energy
state. (m
Đ
ƹx1Ŧ66x 1
Ŵ27
ka)
) 10 x 6 . 1 x 10 x 517 . 0 x 10 x 66 . 1 x x 2 E m 2 p
MeV 517 . 0
) 10 x 00 . 1 )( kg 10 x 66 . 1 x ( 8
) 10 x 63 . 6 (
E
n )
L m 8
h
( E ) 1 n ( energy allowed %he
19 6 27
2 1 27
3
1
2
2
2
1
¬
= =
= =
= =
42
SJ: Section 41.2 P 7
A rubv lascr cmis 694.`nm liah. Assumc liah ol his
wavclcnah is duc o a ransiion ol an clccron in a box lrom
is n2 sac o is n1 sac. Iind hc lcnah ol hc box.
43
SJ: Section 41.2 P 8
A lascr cmis liah ol wavclcnah Ĝ. Assumc his liah is duc
o a ransiion ol an clccron in a box lrom is n2 sac o is
n1. Iind hc lcnah ol hc box.
44
SJ: Section 41.2 P 11
se the particle in a box to mo1el to calculate the three energ
levels of a neutron trappe1 in a nucleus of diameter
20.0fm.
ass of neutronmass of the proton
Femto1
·1S
PART!CLE !N A BOX
SJ: Section 41.2 P 10
A proton is confined to move in a onedimensional box
of length .2 nm.
(a) Find the lowest possible energy of the proton.
(b) What is the lowest possible energy for an electron
confined to the same box?
(c) Account for the great difference in results for (a) and
(b)
S
46
47
SJ: Section 41.2 P 18
The wave·function of an electron is
¦
'
+
'
x
= o
L
x 2
sin
L
2
) x (
n
Fin1 the probabilit of fin1ing the electron between x an1
xL/.
48
TRY TH!S EXERCISE:
The wave·function of an electron is
¦
'
+
'
x
= o
L
x n
sin
L
2
) x (
n
Obtain an expression for the probabilit of fin1ing the
electron between x = a and x = b.
(RFR PR!OS APL)
Applicaion ol SVL lor a pariclc in a wcll ol linic Hciah
· A pariclc is rappcd in hc wcll ol
pocnial cncrav ol linic hciah
I and lcnah L.
· Thc oal cncrav L ol hc pariclc
wcll svscm is lcss han I.
· Pariclc cncrav L · I :
classicallv hc pariclc is
pcrmancnlv bound in hc
pocnial wcll. Thc rcaions I and
III ousidc hc well are classicall
forbi11en regions.
Bu in quanum mcchanics, hc pariclc
in addiion o bouncina back and lorh
has a ccrain probabiliv ol pcncraina
ino hc classicallv lorbiddcn rcaions I
and III.
So, a linic probabiliv cxiss ha hc
pariclc can bc lound ousidc hc wcll
cvcn il L · I.
Tha is, hc wavc luncion is acncrallv
nonzcro in rcaions I and III.
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
S
S1
In rcaions II, whcrc I 0, hc allowcd
wavc luncions arc aaain sinusoidal.
Bu hc boundarv condiions no
lonacr rcquirc ha hc wavc luncion
mus bc zcro a hc cnds ol hc wcll, as
was hc casc wih inlinic squarc wcll.
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
I(xi 0, lor 0 · x · L, (Rcaion IIi
I (xi linic valuc , lor x · 0, x > L (Rcaions I and IIIi
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
%he $chrödinger equation outside the finite well in
regions I and III is
0 C
dx
d
gives 0 ) E U (
m 2
dx
d
2
2
2
2 2
2
= o
o
= o
o
regions these in E U as
t tan cons positive is ) E U (
2
m 2
2
C where
=
Ceneral solution of the above equation is
x C x C
e e A ) x (
+ = o
S
!n regions ! and !!! (x < 0, x > L) the SWE :
á(xi Ac
Cx
Bc
Cx
Soluion lor hc wavc luncion (á(xii
should bc linic.
So in rcaion I (x·0i, B 0, and
u
I
(xi Ac
Cx
o avoid an inlinic valuc lor u(xi
lor larac ncaaivc valucs ol x.
In rcaion III (x>Li, A 0, and
u
III
(xi Bc
Cx
o avoid an inlinic valuc lor u(xi
lor larac posiivc valucs ol x.
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
o
!
A e
C
for
o
!!!
e
C
for L
%hus, the wave functions outside the finite
potential well are
) E U ( m
where
*
=
S
$chrodinger equation inside the square well
potential in region II, where U = is
dx
2
d
2
o
II
+
o
II
= 0
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
k
2
¦
¦
¦
¦
'
+
'
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
= x
k
m
cos C x
k
m
sin F
u
SS
. ts tan cons are G and F where
kx cos G kx sin F
is solution %he
+ = o
mE 2
k
Where
=
Thc boundarv condiions rcquirc ha,
Rcsuls show ha hc wavc luncion ousidc hc
pocnial wcll dccav cxponcniallv wih disancc.
$o, the wave function is smooth where the regions
meet.
To dccrminc hc consans A, B, I, G, S hc
allowcd valucs ol cncrav L, applv hc lour boundarv
condiions and hc normalizaion condiion.
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
S6 !T· AN!PAL
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
x x
1x 1x
1
) ( ) (
= =
=
=
du u
u u
L x L x
dx
d
dx
d
) L ( ) L (
= =
=
=
u u
u u
oundary conditions
oundary conditions
L 0
&
E
S !T· AN!PAL
%hus. we equate the two expressions for the wave function and its
derivative at .
&0
N!T·NAN!PAL S8
This, oachcr wih hc normalizaion condiion,
dccrmincs hc ampliudcs ol hc wavc luncion and
hc consans in hc cxponcnial crm.
This dccrmincs hc allowcd cncraics ol hc pariclc.
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
Ousidc hc pocnial wcll, classical
phvsics lorbids hc prcscncc ol hc
pariclc. Ouanum mcchanics
shows hc wavc luncion dccavs
cxponcniallv o zcro. A larac
ncaaivc x valucs,+
1
is approachcs
zcro: a larac posiivc valucs, +
III
approachcs zcro.
Vavc luncions
á [
2
Probabiliv dcnsiics
á
Ousidc hc box, hc
probabiliv ol lindina hc
pariclc dccrcascs
cxponcniallv.
A PARTICLE IN A WELL OF FINITE HEIGHT
60
TUNNELING THROUGH A
POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
Considcr a pariclc ol cncrav L approachina
a pocnial barricr ol hciah I, (L · Ii.
Pocnial cncrav has a consan valuc ol I
in hc rcaion ol widh L and is zcro in all
ohcr rcaions. This is callcd a squarc barricr
and I is callcd hc barricr hciah.
Sincc L · I, classicallv hc rcaions II and
III shown in hc ncx liaurc arc lorbiddcn
o hc pariclc incidcn lrom lcl.
Bu accordina o quanum mcchanics, all
rcaions arc acccssiblc o hc pariclc,
rcaardlcss ol is cncrav.
61
Barricr ol hciah I
x xL
! !! !!!
Particle
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
!otential energy function and wave function for a
particle incident from the left on a barrier of height U
and width L.
%he wave function is sinusoidal in regions I and III but
exponentially decaying in region II.
6
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
By applying the boundary conditions, ie o and its first
derivative must be continuous at boundaries (at x =
and x = L), full solution to the $chrödinger equation
can be found which is shown in figure.
%he probability of locating the particle beyond the
barrier in region III is nonzero. %he movement of the
particle to the far side of the barrier is called tunneling
or barrier penetration.
%he probability of tunneling can be described with a
transmission coefficient % and a reflection coefficient R.
63
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
%he transmission coefficient (%) represents the
probability that the particle penetrates to the other
side of the barrier, and reflection coefficient (R)is
the probability that the particle is reflected by the
barrier.
Because the particles must be either reflected or
transmitted we have, R + % = 1.
An approximate expression for the transmission
coefficient, when % 1 is
6 !T· AN!PAL
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
This violaion ol classical phvsics is allowcd bv hc
unccrainv principlc. Thc pariclc can violac classical
phvsics bv AL lor a shor imc, A ¯ / AL.
) ( m
C where
*
=
1 << T when T
L C
,
e è
6S !T· AN!PAL
N!T·NAN!PAL 66
Example of tunneling
Alpha decay:
Alpha dccav is hc cmission ol alpha pariclcs (hclium nuclci
composcd ol wo proons and wo ncuronsi bv unsablc
hcavv nuclci (radium, horium, uranium cci. In ordcr lor an
alpha pariclc o cscapc lrom hc nuclcus, i mus pcncrac a
barricr whosc hciah is scvcral imcs laracr han hc cncrav
ol hc nuclcusalpha pariclc svscm.
Appcaton of 1unneng
· An electrically conducting (positively
charged) probe with a very sharp edge is
brought near the surIace to be studied
· %he empty space between the tip and the
surIace represents the 'barrier¨.
· %he tip and the surIace are two walls oI
the 'potential well¨.
· I a voltage is applied between surIace
and tip, electrons in the atoms oI the
surIace material can be made to tunnel
preIerentially Irom surIace to tip to
produce a tunneling current. n this way
the tip samples the distribution oI
electrons iust above the surIace.
THE SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
SJ: PSE 41.6 A 3eV electron is incident on a
square barrier of height 4 eV. What is the probability
that the electron will tunnel through the barrier if its
width is (A) 1. nm? (B) .1 nm?
68
· e·3 e1 e1.6 x 1
·18
]
15 . 32 CL 2
9
3
1 31
10 x 5 . 8 e e %
: is barrier through tunneling oI y probabilit the %hus
2
h
where
) E U ( m 2
C g sin U (
. 32 ) m 10 x 0 . 1 (
J 10 x 05 . 1
) 8 10 x 6 . 1 )( 10 x 11 . 9 ( 2
2 CL 2
= = =
x
=
=
= =
N!T·NAN!PAL 63
() For L.1nm, CL3.
039 . 0 e è %
3.2 
L C 2
e = =
Now the electron has a much higher probabilit (3.) of
penetrating the barrier in wi1th of the barrier is less means
more chance in tunneling.
TUNNELING THROUGH A POTENTIAL ENERGY BARRIER
SJ: Section 41.6 P 27
An electron with kinetic energy
E = 5. eV is incident on a
barrier with thickness L = .2
nm and height U = 1. eV as
shown in the figure.
What is the probability that the electron (a) will tunnel
through the barrier? (b) will be reflected?
N!T·NAN!PAL 71
N!T·NAN!PAL 72
SJ: Section 41.6 P 28
An clccron havina oal cncrav L4.0 cV approachcs a
rccanaular cncrav barricr wih I.00 cV and L90pm.
Classicallv, hc clccron canno pass hrouah hc barricr
bccausc L·I. Howcvcr, quanummcchanicallv hc
probabiliv ol unnclina is no zcro. Calculac his
probabiliv, which is hc ransmission cocllicicn.
N!T·NAN!PAL 73
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC
OSCILLATOR
ass m
x
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
To cxplain blackbodv radiaion, Planck aavc
quanum rcamcn o hc vibraina characs (lor ca.
vibraina characs in hc walls ol hc caviv ol a
blackbodv cmiina radiaioni as simplc harmonic
oscillaors.
In his modcl vibraina characs ac as simplc
harmonic oscillaors and cmi LM radiaion
Thc quanizaion ol cncrav ol harmonic oscillaors is
prcdiccd bv OM.
N!T·NAN!PAL 7S
xample: particle on a spring,
Hooke's law restoring force with
spring constant k:
ass m
x
!articles (vibrating charges) is subject to a linear
restoring force = ( ), where is the position of
the particle relative to equilibrium ( ) and is
force constant.
%he potential energy of the system is,
U =
m o
Where the angular frequency of vibration is
m / k o =
Is oal cncrav L K I ' k A
2
' m
2
A
2
Classicallv, hc pariclc oscillacs bcwccn hc poins
x A and x  A, whcrc A is hc ampliudc ol
hc moion.
In hc classical modcl, anv valuc ol L is allowcd,
includina L 0, which is hc oal cncrav whcn hc
pariclc is in rcs a x 0.
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
u u
u
E x m
2
1
dx
d
m 2
2 2
2
2 2
= æ +
%he $chrödinger equation for this problem is
6
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
The solution of the above equation is given b
x C
e
= u
o E and
o m
where
= =
2
x ) 2 m (
e u B
æ
=
Where B is a constant determined from the
normalization condition.
·PHYS!CS·OANT CHAN!CS·1·11 !T· AN!PAL
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
%he energy levels of a harmonic oscillator are
quantized. %he energy for an arbitrary quantum
number n is given by
%he state n = corresponds to the ground state, whose
energy is E
= (½)h the state n = 1 corresponds to
the first excited state, whose energy is E
1
= (3/2) h,
and so on.
8 ·PHYS!CS·OANT CHAN!CS·1·11 !T· AN!PAL
&
0
= E
0
= E
1
= E
2
= E
3
Energy level diagram for
a simple harmonic
oscillator, superimposed
on the potential energy
function.
%he levels are equally spaced with AE = h.
%he ground state energy is E
= (½)h.
·PHYS!CS·OANT CHAN!CS·1·11 !T· AN!PAL
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
x
o m
1 ·1 · 3 ·3
n
u
x
o m
1 ·1 · 3 ·3
The classical an1 quantum mechanical probabilities
8 ·PHYS!CS·OANT CHAN!CS·1·11 !T· AN!PAL
n
u
x
o m
1 ·1 · 3 ·3
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
The blue curves represent the classical probabilities an1 the re1
ones the quantum probabilities for a simple harmonic
oscillator.
n
u
81 ·PHYS!CS·OANT CHAN!CS·1·11 !T· AN!PAL
In classical physics, probability densities are the
greatest near the endpoints of its motion where it has
the least kinetic energy. %his is in sharp contrast to the
quantum case for small n. In the limit of large n, the
probabilities start to resemble each other more closely
as shown in figure.
THE SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
!lank´s equation for the energy levels of the oscillators
differs from the equation given by quantum harmonic
oscillator only in the term ½ added to n. However this
additional term does not affect the energy emitted in a
transition.
8 ·PHYS!CS·OANT CHAN!CS·1·11 !T· AN!PAL
83
"&ES%S Ŷ "&%& ECHCS
[RKS]
hat is a wave function ? hat is its physical
interpretation ? [2]
hat are the mathematical features of a wave
function? [2]
3 y solving the schr¶dinger equation, obtain the wave
functions for a particle of mass m in a one
dimensional #box# of length L [5]
4 pply the schrodinger equation to a particle in a
onedimensional #box# of length L and obtain the
energy values of the particle [5]
S. Sketch the lowest three energ states, wave·
functions, probabilit 1ensities for the particle in a
one·1imensional ¨box". (3]
84
"&ES%S Ŷ "&%& ECHCS
[RKS]
6. The wave·function for a particle confine1 to moving
in a one·1imensional box is
se the normalization con1ition
on o to show that (2]
. The wave·function of an electron is
Obtain an expression for the probabilit of fin1ing
the electron between x a an1 x b. (3]
8S
"&ES%S Ŷ "&%& ECHCS
[RKS]
8. Sketch the potential·well 1iagram of finite height
an1 length L, obtain the general solution of the
Schro1inger equation for a particle of mass m in
it.
(S]
. Sketch the lowest three energ states, wave·
functions, probabilit 1ensities for the particle in a
potential well of finite height. (3]
1. Cive a brief account of tunneling of a particle
through a potential energ barrier. (4]
11. Cive a brief account of the quantum treatment of a
simple harmonic oscillator.
(S]
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