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Course title: Course Teacher : Prepared by:

Water Supply & Sewerage Sir Javed Aziz Faraz Nazar (EN-07) 3rd Semester

INTRODUCTION

Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. Once the treatment units are selected and designed, it is important to determine that plant is able to pass the equal amount of flow at each stage of process. Therefore it is very important to determine hydraulic losses and determine the hydraulic profile of the plant.

HYDRAULIC PROFILE

Hydraulic profile describes the water level required for the wastewater to flow through the plant.

Hydraulic profile is normally prepared for the main liquid flow path i.e. from plant entrance to point of discharge but can also be prepared for ancillary flow directions viz sludge treatment and disposal

Major Types of Flow

Open Channel flow or Gravity Flow vs. Closed Conduit Flow

Open channel flow has a free surface as in a natural stream, swale, or man-made channel. The slope of the channel will be classified as hydraulically mild, critical or steep depending on whether this slope is less than, equal to, or greater than the critical slope computed for the channel on the basis of its critical depth, discharge and roughness. In Open channel flow, Atmospheric pressure is acting on the surface of the water.

Open Channel flow or Gravity Flow vs. Closed Conduit Flow A closed conduit (pipe or culvert) may flow full or partially full, depending on whether the runoff event is larger or smaller than the design value. Full flow in a conduit is confined without a free surface and is sometimes referred to as pipe flow or pressure flow. In Planning the hydraulic design of a wastewater treatment plant, designer should look into the possible maximum flow in the plant is gravity flow, and for this he take the first treatment unit on higher ground level, so that flow for further treatment units is through gravity thus conserving cost of the pumps and energy expenses.

FLOW IN PIPES (PRESSURE FLOW)

Calculating losses in pipes

Total Head loss = Friction loss + Minor loss ¨H = ¨Hf + ¨Hm

Friction Losses (major Losses)

Friction losses are a complex function of the system geometry, the fluid properties and the flow rate in the system. By observation, the head loss is roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate in most engineering flows (fully developed, turbulent pipe flow). The most common equations are used to calculate frictional losses in close conduit. Darcy-Weisbach Hazen William

Darcy Weisbach Equation

¨H = fL V2/D2g

Where ¨ H = Head loss due to friction F = Friction factor (meter) L = Length of pipe (meter) D = Diameter of pipe (meter) V = Velocity in pipe (m/s) [range 0.6-3.0, ideally 0.9-1.5]

Hazen William Equation

¨Hf = 10.68 x L x Q1.85 / C1.85 x D4.87

Where ¨Hf = Head loss due to friction Q = Flow D = Diameter of pipe (meter) C = Coefficient of roughness

Minor Losses

These losses represent additional energy dissipation in the flow, usually caused by secondary flows induced by curvature or recirculation. The minor losses are any head loss present in addition to the head loss for the same length of straight pipe.

¨Hm = K V2/2g

K is the sum of the loss coefficients in the length of pipe, each contributing to theoverall head loss.

FITTINGS Valves Globe Angle Gate

K

10 2 0.15 2 0.5

- Swing check Pipe Entrance (Reservoir to pipe) Bends: - 90o - 45o Tees: - Line flow - Branch flow Pipe Exit (Pipe to reservoir)

0.3 0.4

0.2 1.0 1.0

FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL (GRAVITY FLOW)

Open channel flow (gravity flow) does not necessarily mean that channel is open from top; it is rather a flow situation where hydraulic grade line is same as the water surface. Open channel may be required to design while detailing any component of wastewater treatment unit or interconnection between two units. Manning equation is used for the determination of flow velocity V = 1/n x R2/3 x S1/2

Most conventional water treatment plants require 16-17ft of headloss across the plant. This means that a difference of 16-17ft must exist between the water level at the head of the plant and the high water level in the clearwell, which is at the tailend of he processes. An advanced plant with preozonation, postozonation and GAC may require 25 ft of headloss. A flat and level site is NOT the best choice for the average plant. The ideal plant will have a 3-5% slope. The hydraulic profile involves a careful consideration of frictional losses in pipes, minor losses and losses in control structures.

Typical headlosses

Treatment Unit Bar Screen Grit Chamber Primary Sedimentation Aeration Tank Trickling Filter Secondary Sedimentation Filtration Carbon adsorption Chlorine contact tank

Headloss Range ft .5-1 1.5-4 1.5-3 .7-2 10-20 1.5-3 10-16 10-20 .7-6

FLOW DIVERSION, CONTROL & MEASUREMENT

Weirs Weirs are more commonly used as flow control devices i.e. to maintain required water surfaces in unit process, in wastewater treatment plants. They are some times also used for flow measurement in treatment plants. Weirs are classified according to the shape of notch. Common weir types are : triangular (V-notch) and rectangular.

Rectangular Weir

Rectangular weir may be constructed with or without end contraction. When weir is constructed without end contraction then flow over rectangular weir is calculated as follows: Q = Cw x L x H1.5

Whereas head on weir at known discharge can be calculated as: H = [Q / Cw x L]0.67 Cw = Coefficient of discharge L = Length of weir

Triangular (V-Notch)

Triangular weir angle ranges from 22.5 to 120 degree, but 900 V-notch is the most commonly used weir. Discharge through V-notch weir is calculated through following formula; Q = Cw x H0.4 Whereas the head on weir can be calculated using : H = [Q/Cw]0.4 Q H Cw = = = flow Head on weir coefficient of discharge

**Inlet and Outlet Hydraulics A. Inlet
**

A A

B

A

ecti n A-A

d2

Q4

Q3

Q2

Q1

d2

ecti n B-B

enter ine

1.Q4 u .90 Q1, In order to achieve equal flow through the orifices, the head through the orifices should be >> than the flume losses.

1.Orifice discharge formula: Q = .6A(2gh)^1/2

¡

£ ¢ ¡

B

Inlet and Outlet Hydraulics

Where: Q = discharge, cfs .6 = constant of for US Customary system h = head on weir crest, ft g = acceleration due to gravity, ft2/s The velocity in the influent pipe should be sufficient to main the suspended solids in suspension but < 4fps to avoid excessive headloss.

Inlet and Outlet Hydraulics

B. Outlet

A B

A

B

PLAN

V-notch weir Weir Plate H0

d

Section B-B Section A-A Center Line

**1. If the weir is suppressed: Q = 3.33LH^3/2 2. If a 90r V-notch weir Q = 2.54LH5/2
**

Where: Q = discharge, cfs 3.33, 2.54 = constant of for US Customary system h = head on weir crest, ft L= Weir length, ft

PUMPS

Function Provide sufficient pressure to move the water through system at the desire flow rate. Pump stations are normally required to remove wastes from areas which cannot be served hydraulically by gravity sewers. In certain situations however, a gravity sewer system can be utilized, but only at the expense of deep trench excavation, or construction of long sewer runs to avoid high terrain. The selection of wheather pumping system or gravity flow system must be based on economic evaluation of both options and pump station is only justified when cost of pump station is less than or equal to 90% of a gravity system.

Wastewater Pumping Station

Wastewater pumping stations are used to lift or elevate the liquid from a lower elevation to an adequate height at which it can flow by graviy. There are many pumping applications at wastewater treatment facility. These applications include pumping of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Raw or treated wastewater Grit Grease and flowting solids Dilute or well thickened raw sludge, or digested sludge Sludge or supernatant return

Types of Pumping Stations

Wet Well The pumping stations are classified as wet well and dry well. The wet well stations employ either suspended or submersible pumps. Suspended pumps have the motor mounted above the liquid level in the wet well while the pump remains submerged. Submersible pumps have integral motors with special seals suitable for operation below liquid level.

Types of Pumping Stations

Dry Well The dry-well stations employ either dry-well or self-priming centrifugal pumps. The dry-well centrifugal pumps operate within a dry well adjacent to the wet well. The volute of the pump is positioned below the low water level in the wet well to ensure a positive suction or prime as shown in next slides.

Types of Pumping Stations

Following are the major classifications of pumping stations in wastewater treatment plant.

Dry-wet Well Pump Station Submersible Pump Station Suction Lift Pump Station

Types of Pumping Stations

Pump Station Type

Schematic Presentation

Recommendation

Recommended for large constructions

**Dry-Wet Well Pump Station
**

Dry Well Wet Well

Pump

Types of Pumping Stations

Pump Station Type

Schematic Presentation

Recommendation

Submersible Pump Station

Wet Well Pump

Types of Pumping Stations

Pump Station Type

Schematic Presentation

Pump

Recommendation

Not recommended for wastewater applications, avoid as much as possible, hence not discussed in this section

Suction Lift Pump Station

Wet Well

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Pipes Avoid unnecessary fittings, be as simplistic as possible. One standard 90 degree bend can have much less head loss than two 45 degree bends:

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Pipe K values can be reported differently in a variety of sources, and the designer needs to take this into consideration. Minimum flow velocities of 2 feet per second (0.61 m/s) are usually desired to prevent solids from settling in the pipe. pipe. Run parallel pipes along as similar a path as possible. possible. Pipe systems that have pipes laid out with a high degree of variance may affect the upstream hydraulics and contribute to an unequal distribution of flows. flows.

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Understand that the hydraulic analysis of pipes is not an exact science. K values and roughness coefficients (relative roughness "e" value, Hazen-Williams "C" coefficient, etc) are empirical estimates. Pipe age can greatly increase friction losses, as well as the solids content of the flow. Be conservative, but don't "over design". Use good flow splitting techniques. If more than one pipe is used to convey flow to multiple units, equally divide the flow using a flow distribution structure or other technique. This is especially important for multiple pipes that do not have the same characteristics, i.e. length and/or fittings. Less flow will go through pipes with higher head losses. This may cause a significant variation in the amount of flow to each unit (see next slide).".

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

If possible, keep channel slopes to a minimum. Steeply sloped channels can create high flow velocities and create unwanted flow scenarios, such as hydraulic jumps. The hydraulics of these flow scenarios can be difficult to predict:

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Channel networks should distribute flow as equally as possible. This can be done by flow splitting techniques. Examine the channel network used to distribute flow to 9 final clarifiers shown next slide. Flow is distributed to each clarifier via channel ³reaches´, which branch off from the main distribution channel. Flow will always follow the path of least resistance or head loss. In the design below, more flow will go to clarifiers 1, 2, and 3, and the least amount of flow will go to clarifiers 7, 8, and 9. This is because the head loss from the main channel entrance to clarifiers 7, 8, and 9 will be greater than the head loss to clarifiers 1, 2, and 3. Depending on the design, this loss may be fairly insignificant and there may be virtually equal distribution. But on long channel runs or other factors such as differing geometry, this flow distribution anomaly can create hydraulic issues, especially under higher flows.

TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Thanks to ..

The Teacher «. For encouraging me preparing presentation on this topic. The Audience «. For being patient with me during presentation.

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