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Next Generation Networks

Existing Network Infrastructure

• Today’s network is divided into:
– The Public Switched Telephone Network,
– The Packet Switched Networks and
– The Mobile networks (PLMN).

• Convergence is the process of interconnection of

– traditional switched circuit networks (PSTN and
PLMN) and packet-switched networks based on the
Internet Protocol (IP) for routing.
Key Drivers for NGN Development
One network for everything
Concept of NGN
Y.2011 NGN General Reference Model
Scope of NGN
NGN Architecture
• The architecture basically comprises:
– Network elements needed for the provision of
traditional telephony services.

• NGN has a layered architecture

– Access layer
– Core layer
– Control layer and
– Service layer
NGN Architecture (cont.)
NGN Layers
• Access layer includes:
– Traditional networks
• Specialized packet networks

• Access layer elements include

– Different Media Gateways that support connection to and
from the access network with the core network

• Depending upon the type of access

– Protocol conversion and/or media conversion may be
required at the NGN Gateways
NGN Layers (cont.)
• Core layer of NGN is based on IP.
– It forms the core of the Network.
– It basically consists of Routers, which are
responsible for carrying traffic originated by
access layer.
– Traffic coming from gateways is properly routed by
these routers
– It should be able to make use of bandwidth
policies and QoS policies.
NGN Layers (cont.)
• Control layer comprises of the equipment that manages
– Signaling (SG) and
– Call handling (Media Gateway Controller)
• MGC is also called SoftSwitch or Call Server or Call Agent, which is the
primary part of this layer

• In general it provides capabilities of:

– Call routing
– Protocol handling
– Resource Distribution
– Network signaling and
– Other management issues (billing etc.)
NGN Layers (cont.)
• SoftSwitch (MGC) performs a number of call control functions that are
typically found in the call control portion of a legacy switch
– This includes determining and controlling signals used on specific circuits, such
as ringing and busy tones
– More flexible, economic and open in architecture than legacy switch

• Responsible for controlling all the MGs within its zone.

• Also determines the QoS required for any one connection at the MG.
– In short, the call handling is performed at the MGC, rather than at the MG
– This enables carriers to deploy less expensive equipment at the edge of their

• The main function of SoftSwitch is to create network interfaces between

SGs and MGs.
NGN Architecture using SoftSwitch
NGN Main Components and Protocols
NGN Main Components
SG and MGC
NGN Main Components (cont.)
Signaling Gateway (SG)
• It is a bridge to the PSTN

• It converts between SS7 addresses and IP


• SIGTRAN architecture is used between SG and

NGN Main Components (cont.)
• SIGTRAN supports transmission of SCN (Switched
Circuit Network) signaling via IP network
• It includes
– User adaptation layer protocols that are necessary for the
transport of SS7 messages over IP
– Transport layer (SCTP – Stream Control Transmission
– IP layer
Signaling and Media Protocols
• A phone call on an ordinary digital phone
network and on a VoIP network is made up of
media signals and control signals.
– The voice conversation is the media stream.
– Dial tones and ringing tones, for example, are an
indication that call control processes are occurring.

• The different VoIP protocols use very different

technologies, though they have the same aim.
Signaling and Media Protocols (cont.)
VoIP protocols can be categorized as:
• Call Control (signaling): SIP, H.323. Responsible for:
– setting up the call
– finding the peer
– negotiating coding protocols
– making the connection
– ending the call

• Gateway Control: MGCP, H.248/MEGAco. Responsible for control signals

between VoIP gateways, rather than between endpoint phones. These
gateways negotiate VoIP traffic on behalf of the phones.

• Media: The voice or video payload. VoIP networks and ordinary phone
networks use RTP/RTCP for the media. RTP carries the actual media and
RTCP carries status and control information
Signaling and Media Protocols (cont.)