A beginner's guide to Aptitude tests conducted in campus interviews by Indian IT companies.

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

A beginner's guide to Aptitude tests conducted in campus interviews by Indian IT companies.

© All Rights Reserved

- The Wedding Dance Summary and Analysis
- Family Code in the Philippines PDF
- Republic of the Philippines vs. Cesar Encelan - g.r. No. 170022 - January 9, 2013
- Sources of Conflict of Laws
- Laperal vs. Katigbak
- 2
- Cucumber Beetle Experiment at Beech Grove Farm
- Republic v CA and Molina
- 36.8 Dedel v CA (GR 151867)
- Republic v CA, Molina
- annotated bibliography
- ABD v ADC (HC, 2014)
- Decision Civill Case
- Legal-Research1.docx
- David Dedel vs Court of Appeals
- When God Sends Your White Daughter a Black Husband
- Civil Law Reviewer Cases II
- 564US.pdf
- 4 Marital Dissatisfaction Coping
- Regime

You are on page 1of 122

My brief introduction

• Eshwar Sundaresan

– B.E (Instrumentation), Bombay University,

1996

– 1 year experience in a RIL power plant

– 6 years experience in Infosys Tech. Ltd.

– Was a Project Manager at the time of quitting

– Have conducted campus interviews in

• MNREC, Allahabad

• Delhi College of Engineering

• NITTE

Enhancing Aptitude 2

What are we going to learn?

• Quantitative Analysis

• Analytical and Logical Reasoning

• Verbal Reasoning

• Psychometrics

Enhancing Aptitude 3

Some add-ons

– Accenture

– IBM

– Infosys

– TCS etc.

• What does the recruiter look for?

Enhancing Aptitude 4

A few requests

• Reveal your wisdom wisely

– Answer only when the class is ready

• Switch off your mobiles, laptops, palmtops

• Interrupt me when you are unable to:

– Hear

– Comprehend

• Helping the other person is ensuring his/her

stagnation. Don’t be your friend’s enemy!

• Let’s cover the ground first and explore other

problems/puzzles later

Enhancing Aptitude 5

Here’s an easy one

What is the value of:

√2 + √2 + √2 + √2 + …

&

Integration of abc…z

These are One Minute Problems

Hint: Appearances are almost always deceptive

Enhancing Aptitude 6

What did we learn?

• That approach is everything

• Having an open mind helps

Enhancing Aptitude 7

The science of Aptitude

Some definitions

capabilities that involve spatial reasoning,

manual dexterity, clerical perception, or other

capacities to learn certain behaviors.

Enhancing Aptitude 9

Some Prosaic Definitions

particular area or line of work

• A test designed to measure a person’s ability to

learn and the likelihood of success in future

school work or in a specific occupation.

Enhancing Aptitude 10

The science of aptitude

• In the words of Sherlock Holmes, the biggest

practitioner of aptitude:

“The trouble is, Watson, that you see, but you do not

observe.”

– To observe is to see keenly

– Without accurate observation, deductions will

be flawed.

Eg: Watson sends a telegram

Enhancing Aptitude 11

Poignant Quotes

• “What I hear I forget. What I see I

remember. What I do I understand.”

- Confucius

attitude first.”

- Anonymous

Enhancing Aptitude 12

A sample approach

• Collate stated inputs

– Write them down

• Interpret them

– Is there irrelevant data?

• Look for hidden inputs

• Decide on an approach

– The beginning

– The build-up

– The conclusion

• Work it out

• Eliminate the impossible

• Work it out some more

• Voila!

Enhancing Aptitude 13

So Let’s Sherlock it!

Quantitative Analysis

Numbers

Complete the series

Enhancing Aptitude 17

Solution

• 1st element = 5

• 2nd element = 20 = 5*4

• 3rd element = 24 = 20+4

• 4th element = 6 = 24/4

• 5th element = 2 = 6-4=2

• 6th element = 8 = 2*4

• Therefore, 7th element = 8+4

• So answer is 12

Enhancing Aptitude 18

Complete the series

Enhancing Aptitude 19

Solution

• There are two series’.

– Series I: 8, 11, 14, 17, …

– Series II: 7, 12, 17, 22

• Therefore, the answer is 20

Enhancing Aptitude 20

Find the wrong one

Enhancing Aptitude 21

Solution

• Approach 1:

– Series is (n cubed +1)

– So the sixth element should be 217!

• Approach 2:

– Series is (n+1)* (another series), which is (1,

3, 7, 13, 21, 31, 43)

– But 7*31 is 217!

Enhancing Aptitude 22

Find the wrong one

Enhancing Aptitude 23

Solution

between the most significant and least

significant digit is the middle digit!

Enhancing Aptitude 24

The right number

Replace the letters with numbers and solve the

equation 4(ABCDE) = EDCBA. Options:

(A)87978

(B)98765

(C)56789

(D)87912

(E)None of these

IBM Paper

Enhancing Aptitude 25

Solution

mathematical logic.

• A & E can only be one of the following

combinations (in any order):

3 and 2, 4 & 6, 1 & 4, 2 & 8, 7 & 8, 9 & 6

• The number, therefore, presents itself and the

answer is (D)

Enhancing Aptitude 26

Arithmetic Progression

Q. In an arithmetic sequence, t (2) = 3.t (3). The sum of n

terms, starting from t (1), is 0. Calculate n.

Enhancing Aptitude 27

Solution

• An AP is a, a+d, a+2d, ... (an = a+ (n-1)d)

• Therefore, a + d = 3.(a + 2d) <=> 2a + 5d = 0

• or 2a = -5d

• The sum of the first n terms is:

• (a + a + (n-1)d)*n/2 which is given as zero

• So (2a + (n-1)d)=0

• So, -5d + (n-1)d = 0 and since d is not 0, we

have n = 6.

Enhancing Aptitude 28

A burglar’s numerical

Q. A thief wants to break a safe that has a 5 digit number

as the key. He knows that:

• The 4th digit is 4 greater than second digit,

while 3rd digit is 3 less than 2nd digit.

• The 1st digit is thrice the last digit.

• 3 pairs give a sum of 11

Find the combination and help the thief!

Enhancing Aptitude 29

Solution

• Let the digits be D1, D2, D3, D4, D5

• D1 = 3*D5; D3 = D2-3; D4= D2+4

• The hidden clue: All digits are less than 9!

• Conclusions: D1 has to be 3, 6 or 9

• Similarly D5 <=3; D3<=2; D4>=7

• But D5 also has to be <=3.

• So number ranges are:

• D1: 3, 6, 9; D2: 3, 4, 5; D3: 0, 1, 2; D4: 7, 8, 9;

D5: 1, 2, 3

Enhancing Aptitude 30

Solution (continued)

• Out of all combinations of digits that can add up

to 11, the following combinations offer hope:

• D1&D2 = 6&5; D1&D4 = 3&8; D2&D4 = 4&7 or

3&8; D2&D5 = 2&9; D4&D5=8&3 or 9&2

• Eliminate all combinations that don’t work. It

works when D1&D2=6&5, and also when D4 &

D5 = 9&2.

• The solutions in either case is the same.

65292

Enhancing Aptitude 31

Fractions

Ratio Proportions et al

Work & Time

Q. A can do a work in 80 days. He works at it for 10

days and leaves. B takes over and finishes the work

in 42 days. The two together could finish the work in

how many days?

Enhancing Aptitude 33

Solution

• Work done by A in 1 day = (1/80)

• Work done by A in 10 days = (1/8)

• Remaining 7/8 work is done by B in 42 days, so

whole work will be done by B in (42 X 8/7) = 48

days

• B’s one day work is 1/48

• (A+B)’s one day work is 1/80+ 1/48 = 8/ 240 =

1/30

• So both will finish the work = 30 DAYS

Enhancing Aptitude 34

Work & Time

Q. A can complete a work in 8 days, for which B takes

7 days, and C takes 6 days. A works on the first day,

B works on the second day and C on the third day

respectively and repeat the pattern. On which day

will they finish the work?

CTS - 2004

Enhancing Aptitude 35

Solution

• Trail and error, slog technique and a little

bit of common sense.

• Eg: x/6+x/6 = 1/3

• x/7 and x/8 might be somewhere close in

value, but lower. So at least 6 days have

to pass.

• So start with the 7th day, if it doesn’t add

up to 1, try the eighth day, which is the

right answer.

Enhancing Aptitude 36

Distance

Q. A ship begins on a voyage from a shore.

After it had traveled 180 miles, a plane starts from

the same shore with 10 times the speed of the

ship. Find the distance when they meet from

starting point.

TCS, 2004

Enhancing Aptitude 37

Solution

•Distance traveled by plane =

(1/10th the distance traveled by ship + 180

miles)

•Total distance Traveled by ship= total distance

traveled by plane= x

•X= 1/10 X +180

•X = 200 miles

Enhancing Aptitude 38

Pipes & Cisterns

Q. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 min. and 45

min. respectively. A pipe C can empty the tank in 30

min. First A and B are opened, after 7 minutes, C is

opened. In how much time will the tank be

completely filled?

Enhancing Aptitude 39

Solution

• A & B can fill (1/36)th and (1/45)th of the tank in

1 min respectively.

• Both fill 1/20th together in 1 min.

• After 7 min, (13/20)th of the tank is still unfilled.

• With all three pipes in operation, the net inflow

per minute = (1/20)-(1/30)=(1/60).

• To fill (13/20)th of the tank will take 39 min.

• Total time taken is 46 min.

Enhancing Aptitude 40

Boats and Streams

Q. A boat travels 20 kms upstream in 6 hrs and 18 kms

downstream in 4 hrs. Find the speed of the boat in

still water and the speed of the water current?

Enhancing Aptitude 41

Solution

• When u is the speed of a boat in still water, and

v, the speed of the stream, then:

– Speed downstream is (u+v)

– Speed upstream is (u-v)

• If speed of an object downstream is ‘a’ and the

speed upstream is ‘b’, then:

– Speed in still water = 0.5*(a+b)

– Rate of the stream = 0.5*(a-b)

• So answer is (47/12) and (7/12) km/hr

respectively.

Enhancing Aptitude 42

Rower and Stream

Q. A man can row 40 km upstream and 55 km

downstream in 13 hours. Also, he can row 30 km

upstream and 44 km downstream in 10 hours. Find

the speed of the man in still water and the speed of

the current.

Enhancing Aptitude 43

Solution

• Let the speed upstream and downstream be x

and y km/hr respectively.

• So using time = (distance/speed),

– (40/x) + (55/y) = 13 &

– (30/x) + (44/y) = 10

• Tip here: Let (1/x)=A and (1/y)=B

• Solving, x=5 and y=11

• Rate in still water = 8

• Rate of current = 3

Enhancing Aptitude 44

Mixtures

Q. 3 glasses containing mixture of water and alcohol in

ratio 2:3 , 3:4 , 5:9. When all 3 are mixed what is the

new ratio??

Enhancing Aptitude 45

Solution

• Answer is 5/8

• For 16 parts of alcohol, the mixture has 10

parts of water.

Enhancing Aptitude 46

Mixture

The formula involving the “rate of alligation” is

applicable when two ingredients are mixed. It says:

– (Mean price)]/ [(mean price) – (C.P of

cheaper)]

Enhancing Aptitude 47

Mixture

Q. How many kgs of rice costing Rs. 8 per kg must be

mixed to 36 kg of rice costing Rs. 5.40 per kg so

that a 20% gain may be obtained by selling the

mixture at Rs. 7.20 per kg?

Enhancing Aptitude 48

Solution

7.20.

• So cost price of 1 kg of mixture is Rs. 6.

• If ‘x’ be the quantity of the dearer rice, by rule of

alligation,

• 36/x = 2/0.6

• x= 10.8 kgs

Enhancing Aptitude 49

Miscellaneous examples

Time difference

Q. A plane moves from 9degN 40degE to 9degN

40degW. If the plane starts at 10 am and takes 8

hours to reach the destination, find the local

arrival time.

Enhancing Aptitude 51

Solution

• There are 360 longitudes, covering 24 hours of

the planetary time.

• Per longitude, the time difference is 4 min.

• 80 deg (40E to 40 W) is 320 minutes

• Since person is traveling west, he gains time

• So local time on departure is 4:40 am

• Arrival time is: 12:40 pm

Enhancing Aptitude 52

Area

Q. A cow is tied to one corner of a square plot of side

12m by a rope 7m long. Find the area it can graze.

Enhancing Aptitude 53

Solution

circle of radius 7

• ((22/7)*7*7)/4 = 38.5

Enhancing Aptitude 54

Averages

• Home assignment

– This segment has been sacrificed due to its

simplicity, and lack of time.

Enhancing Aptitude 55

Probability

Home-work

Enhancing Aptitude 56

Venn Diagram

Q. Out of 76 people, 53 read the Hindu, 46 read the

Times, while 39 read the Deccan. 15 read all three.

If 22 read the Hindu and Deccan and 23 read the

Deccan and the Times, then what is the number of

people who read both the Times and the Hindu?

Enhancing Aptitude 57

Solution

• (T-TDH-TH-TD)+(H-TDH-HD-TH)+ (D-TDH-TD-

HD) +(TDH+TH+HD+TD) = 76

• Simplify:

T+H+D-2TDH-TH-TD-HD = 76

• Only TH is unknown

• Answer is 17

Enhancing Aptitude 58

Important Formulae

• AP: an = a + (n-1)d; sn = (n/2)[first + nth term]

• Gain % = Gain*100/Cost Price

• v = s/t

• Boats and streams => 0.5 *(a+b) etc.

• Alligation: Qc/Qd = ((CPd – CPm)/(CPm-CPc)

• Simple Interest: P*N*R/100

• Compound Interest: P((1+R/100)n)

• Area of a triangle: 0.5*b*h and (s*(s-a)(s-b)(s-

c))0.5 where s= 0.5(a+b+c)

Enhancing Aptitude 59

Logical and Analytical

Reasoning

The striking clock

Q. A clock showing 6 o'clock takes 30 secs to strike

6 times. How long will it take to strike 12 at

midnight?

Enhancing Aptitude 61

Solution

rest of the five strikes happen in 30 seconds.

• Time taken per strike is 6 seconds.

• Similarly, for midnight, time taken is 66 seconds,

for the eleven strikes that follow the stroke of

midnight.

Enhancing Aptitude 62

The expanding railroad

Q. Every station in a railroad can issue a ticket to

every other station. After adding new stations,

the railroad had to issue 46 more tickets than

before. Calculate the number of stations added

and the number of stations to begin with.

Enhancing Aptitude 63

Solution

• Let ‘N’ be initial # of stations, and let ‘x’ stations

be added.

• Each station issues N-1 tickets initially and there

are N stations.

• N(N-1) = t (say)

• (N+x)(N+x-1) = t +46

• Solves to x(x+2N-1) = 46

• Only two possibilities:

– X=1 and N = 23

– X=2 and N= 11

• If question mentions plural, then x=2

Enhancing Aptitude 64

The Hockey Tournament

Q. The Angoras, the Bobcats and the Cougars are

hockey teams. In three games played, all teams

play each other.

– The final scores of the games consisted of

numbers 1 to 6

– The difference between the Angoras’ higher score

and the Bobcats’ higher score was one more than

the difference between the Bobcats’ lower score

and the Cougars’ lower score.

– The highest total of a team’s two scores was

achieved by the team that lost the greatest

number of games.

Produce the scorecard for all the games.

Enhancing Aptitude 65

Solution

• Team scoring the highest goals did not score 6 in any match. They

did not score 5 and 4 either.

• The team that scored 6 would have scored at least 1 in the other

match. The lowest possible total for that team is, hence, 7.

• So the total of the team losing both games has to be 8, one more.

• This is possible only in one manner: 5 & 3.

• So one match has the scoreline 6-5.

• By corollary, another match must have the scoreline 4-3 and the

third, 2-1.

• So Team 1 scores 6 &1

• Team 2 scores 5 & 3

• Team 3 scores 4 & 2

• Team 1 vs Team 2 will have the scoreline 6-5

• Team 2 vs Team 3 will have the scoreline 3-4

• Team 1 vs Team 3 will have the scoreline 1-2

Enhancing Aptitude 66

Solution (continued)

• What remains is mapping the scores to the proper

teams.

• We also know that:

• | Angoras (Higher) – Bobcats (Higher) | = 1+ |

Bobcats(Lower)-Cougar(Lower) |

• The largest difference from the scoreline (considering

highest scores) is 2 and the lowest is 1.

• So:

– Team 1 is Angoras

– Team 3 is Bobcats &

– Team 2 is Cougars, the top-scorers and losers!

Enhancing Aptitude 67

Misplaced label

Q. Three boxes have 2 balls each. One box has 2

white balls, the second has 2 blue balls and third

has 1 white ball and 1 blue ball. The labels,

indicating the contents of the boxes, are misplaced

in all 3 boxes. Pick one ball from any one box and

label the boxes correctly.

Enhancing Aptitude 68

Solution

• If the ball retrieved is White, then the box

contains 2 White balls.

• For the other two labels also to be wrong, the

box labeled B&B has to contain one White and

one Blue ball. And the box labeled W&W has to

contain 2 Blue balls.

Enhancing Aptitude 69

Sand clocks

Q. Given that an egg takes 15 minutes to boil,

accomplish the task using a 7-minute sand-clock

and a 11-minute sand-clock.

Enhancing Aptitude 70

Solution

– 11+4 = 15 & 11-7 = 4

• Start both sand-clocks at the same time.

• When the 7-minute clock runs out, invert it.

• When the 11-minute clock runs out, invert the 7-

minute clock again.

• The egg is done when the clock runs out again.

Enhancing Aptitude 71

Burning rope

Q. Two identical ropes burn in 1 hour each. But the

ropes have uneven thickness throughout its length.

The thinner half of each rope burns much faster

than the thick end of the rope. It is guessed that the

thin half of the rope might take 15 minutes to burn,

but since there is no scale around, this hasn’t been

verified.

Using the ropes, measure 45 minutes. You are free

to use just one of them.

Enhancing Aptitude 72

Solution

• Burn the first rope at both ends and the

second one at one end simultaneously.

• When the first one burns out, burn the

second one at the unlit end.

• When the second rope is fully burnt, it is

exactly 45 minutes since you began.

Enhancing Aptitude 73

Cards

Q. 9 cards to be arranged in a 3*3 matrix.

Cards are of 4 colours – red, yellow, blue, green.

One red card must be in first or second row. Two

green cards should be in the 3rd column. Yellow

cards must be in 3 corners only.

Two blue cards must be in the 2nd row.

At least one green card should be present in each

row.

Arrange the matrix.

Infosys

Enhancing Aptitude 74

Solution

by a green card.

• Blue will occupy (2,1) and (2,2) as green will definitely

take (2,3)

• (1,1) and (3,1) will definitely by yellow

• The second row is occupied, so red card has no slot but

(1,2)

• (1,3) will be green since green occupies each row.

• So (3,3) will be yellow.

• So (3,2), again, has to be green.

Enhancing Aptitude 75

Bridging the gap

A. Four people need to cross a bridge. But they have

just one torch light, that throws sufficient light to

safely herd just two people at a time. Out of the

four:

– Person A can cross in 1 min

– Person B can cross in 2 min

– Person C can cross in 5 min

– Person D can cross in 10 min

What is the minimum time in which the four can

cross? If the torch battery lasts just 18 minutes, will

they make it?

Infosys Paper

Enhancing Aptitude 76

Solution

It takes 17 minutes for all four to cross.

• Step 1: A & B cross (2 minutes)

• Step 2: A comes back (1 minute)

• Step 3: C & D cross (10 minutes)

• Step 4: B comes back (2 minutes)

• Step 5: A & B cross again (2 minutes)

Enhancing Aptitude 77

Pure numericals?

they become problems of logic.

Enhancing Aptitude 78

Best out of waste

Q. In a soap company, a soap is manufactured with 11

parts. In making one soap, 1 part is left behind as

scrap. At the end of the day using 251 such scraps,

how many soaps can be manufactured?

Infosys

Enhancing Aptitude 79

Solution

• 22+2+1 = 25

Enhancing Aptitude 80

Escalator

Q. Going down an escalator, I find that I take thirty

seconds to reach the bottom when I walk twenty-six

steps. However, if I step down thirty-four steps, I

take eighteen seconds to reach the bottom.

What’s the height of the stairway in steps?

Enhancing Aptitude 81

Solution

• Let the escalator by itself take ‘x’ steps/sec.

• In that case,

30x+26 = h & 18x+34 = h

• X=2/3 (speed of the elevator in steps/sec)

• So height of the elevator is 46 steps.

the slope of the elevator?

Enhancing Aptitude 82

Multiple questions

Same situation

Of lineage and marriages

Q. In a certain society, there are two marriage groups,

Red and Brown. No marriage is permitted within a

group. On marriage, males become part of their

wife's group: women remain in their own group.

Children belong to the same group as their parents.

Widowers and divorced males revert to the group of

their birth. Marriage to more than one person at the

same time and marriage to a direct descendant are

forbidden.

Satyam Paper

Enhancing Aptitude 84

Qs – Of lineages and Marriages

Q.1 A Brown female could have had

I. a grandfather born Red

II. a grandmother born Red

III. two grandfathers born Brown

(a) I only

(b) II only

(c) I and II only

(d) II and III only

(e) I,II and III

(a) an uncle in either group

(b) a Brown daughter

(c) a Brown son

(d) a son-in-law born into the Red group

(e) a daughter-in-law in the Red group

Enhancing Aptitude 85

Qs – Of lineages and Marriages

Q.3 Which of the following is not permitted under the rules stated?

(a) A Brown male marrying his father's sister

(b) A Red female marrying her mother's brother

(c) A man born Red, who is now a widower, marrying his brother's widow

(d) A widower marrying his wife's sister

(e) A widow marrying her divorced daughter's ex-husband

Q. 4 If widowers and divorced males retained the group they had upon

marrying, which of the following would have been permissible? (Assume no

previous marriages occurred)

(a) A woman marrying her dead sister's husband

(b) A woman marrying her divorced daughter's ex-husband.

(c) A widower marrying his brother's daughter

(d) A woman marrying her mother's brother, who is a widower

(e) A divorced male marrying his ex-wife's divorced sister

Enhancing Aptitude 86

Answers

• 1–c

• 2–a

• 3–b

• 4–d

Enhancing Aptitude 87

Geography

Q. Ashland is north of East Liverpool and west of

Coshocton. Bowling Green is north of Ashland and

west of Fredericktown. Dover is south and east of

Ashland. East Liverpool is north of Fredricktown and

east of Dover. Fredricktown is north of Dover and west

of Ashland. Coshocton is south of Fredricktown and

west of Dover.

Satyam Paper

Enhancing Aptitude 88

Questions - Geography

Q. 1 Which of the towns mentioned is furthest to the northwest ?

(a) Ashland

(b) Bowling Green

(c) Coshocton

(d) East Liverpool

(e) Fredericktown

Fredricktown?

(I) Ashland

(II) Coshocton

(III) East Liverpool

(a) I only

(b) II only

(c) III only

(d) I and II

(e) I and III

Enhancing Aptitude 89

Questions - Geography

Q. 3 Which of the following towns must be situated both south and west

of at least one other town?

(a) Ashland only

(b) Ashland and Fredricktown

(c) Dover and Fredricktown

(d) Dover, Coshocton and Fredricktown

(e) Dover, Coshocton and East Liverpool

information in the numbered statements more specific?

(a) Coshocton is north of Dover

(b) East Liverpool is north of Dover

(c) Ashland is east of Bowling Green

(d) Coshocton is east of Fredericktown

(e) Bowling Green is north of Fredericktown

Enhancing Aptitude 90

Answers

• Answers:

– 1–b

– 2–e

– 3–d

– 4–a

• Approach:

• Draw a N-S scale and a E-W scale.

• N-S scale looks like this:

– BG, A, EL, F, (C), D

• E-W scale looks like this:

– EL, D, C, A, F, BG

• Jot down the certainties as they keep piling up. In a line below each

scale, jot down the partial certainties. In the above list, (C) is the

uncertainty.

• In Q4, the uncertainly that remains is the answer.

Enhancing Aptitude 91

Verbal Reasoning

What is it?

• The ability to make quantitative, qualitative

and logical sense of a string of words.

– Remember: Words are also symbolic

numbers; they add up!

– Verbal reasoning is important because

• We use language for communicating any idea

• People communicate in cryptic, varied and

subjective terms

• Communication, not space, is the final frontier

Enhancing Aptitude 93

Critical Reasoning

• Segment tests ability to evaluate the

structure and details of text and to select

the correct answers.

– Comprehension passages

• Topics may be sports, movies, culture, professional

life, statistical studies, literature etc.

– A few companies may also have deductive

questions

Enhancing Aptitude 94

Complex relations in the

Struggle for Existence

Nearly all our orchidaceous plants absolutely require the visits of insects to remove their

pollen masses and thus fertilise them. I find from experience that humble-bees are almost

indispensable to the fertilisation of the heartsease (Viola tricolour), for other bees do not

visit this flower. I have also found that the visits of bees are necessary for the fertilisation of

some kinds of clover; for instance, 20 heads of Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) yielded

2290 seeds, but 20 other heads protected from bees produced not one. Again, 100 heads

of red clover (T. pratense) produced 2700 seeds, but the same number of protected heads

produced not a single seed. Humble-bees alone visit red clover, as other bees cannot

reach the nectar. It has been suggested that moths may fertilise the clovers; but I doubt

whether they can do so in the case of the red clover, from their weight not being sufficient

to depress the wing petals. Hence we may infer as highly probable that, if the whole genus

of humble-bees became extinct or very rare in England, the heartsease and red clover

would become very rare, or wholly disappear.

The number of humble-bees in any district depends in a great measure on the number of

field-mice, which destroy their combs and nests; and Col. Newman, who has long attended

to the habits of humble-bees, believes that “more than two-thirds of them are thus

destroyed all over England.” Now the number of mice is largely dependent, as every one

knows, on the number of cats; and Col. Newman says, “Near villages and small towns, I

have found the nests of humble-bees more numerous than elsewhere, which I attribute to

the number of cats that destroy the mice.” Hence it is quite credible that the presence of a

feline animal in large numbers in a district might determine, through the intervention first of

mice and then of bees, the frequency of certain flowers in that district!

Enhancing Aptitude 95

Questions

Questions

Select the correct answer from a), b), c) or d) for each of the questions below.

1) From the narrative, it can be concluded that:

a) Moths are lighter in weight than humble-bees

b) Humble-bees are lighter in weight than moths

c) The red clover’s nectar is not palatable to any insect other than the humble-bee

d) Moths keep away from the aggressive humble-bees

2) The nature of relationship between the humble-bee and the red clover is:

a) Symbiotic – both gain from the interaction

b) Parasitic – the bumble-bee never gets nectar from the red clover

c) Similar to that between predator and prey

d) None of the above

3) In the example given by the author, which organic being reigns on top of the food-chain?

a) The Red Clover

b) The Bumble-bee

c) The Mouse

d) The Cat

4) The message the author is trying to get across in the narrative is that:

i) Flowers cannot spread their pollen without insects

ii) All flowers are dependent upon cats for survival

iii) Organic beings are bound together by complex dependencies

iv) The population and survival of each species is controlled by natural checks

a) All of the above

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) i, ii and iii

5) A comparison between the Dutch clover and the red clover shows that:

a) A red clover produces far more seeds than Dutch clover

b) A Dutch clover produces far more seeds than red clover

c) Only the humble-bee can visit both the Dutch clover and the red clover

d) Both the Dutch clover and the red clover need protection from the humble-bee

Enhancing Aptitude 96

Answers

Q. No Correct option(s)

1 a

2 a

3 d

4 c

5 b

Enhancing Aptitude 97

Deduction

Q.

i) Some cats are dogs

ii) No dog is lion

Possible conclusions:

1) some dogs are lion

2) some dogs are cats

Options:

a) Only 1) follows

b) Only 2) follows

c) None follows

Accenture paper.

Enhancing Aptitude 98

Analogies

• Segment designed to test the:

– range of vocabulary

– understanding of relationships between words

– Examples:

• Synonyms

– alienate (choices: fictional, foreigner, estrange, banish)

– momentary (choices: fleeting, sapient, transient, huge)

• Antonyms

– fortunate (choices: beggar, miser, luckless, loser)

– spirited (unenthusiastic, limited, bubbly, waning)

• Pair selection

– Cats: Dogs (Choose the relationship from below with the

strongest similarity)

» Crocodiles: Dolphins; goldfishes: lizards; zebras: tigers

Enhancing Aptitude 99

Sentence completion

• Segment tests the student's ability to choose the omitted words that

best fit and form a complete, meaningful sentence.

• Omitted word might be:

– A preposition (on, in, at, until etc.)

– Articles (a, the, an)

– A verb/noun that requires correct usage of tense

• Rare tests might have identification of idioms, Indianisms etc.

• Examples:

– The cat jumped _____ the chair and walked out.

– The team and the coach _____ with the public mandate. (to agree)

– It’s time to hit _____ road.

sentences

Psychometrics

What is it?

• Used to profile your personality

– By employers to see how well you fit

– Can be used by individuals to make career choices

• The good news – there are no wrong answers!!!

• A paper might have various segments and question

types:

– Segment types

• Select your reaction to a situation

• Select the statement you most identify with

– Question types

• Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree types

• In Yes/No questions, a third option “Don’t know/Can’t say” might be

given

• Tests designed to spot fibbers

Sample questions

1. 'I have always been a quick thinker.'

2. 'I like to take risks.'

3. 'I am not a very determined person.'

4. 'My friends say I'm a good listener.’

5. 'I find it easy to trust most of my workmates.'

6. Do you like things:

A. Settled and decided?

B. Unsettled and undecided?

D – Disagree; E - Strongly Disagree

The sceptics

• Arguments against psychometric tests

– Psychological rubbish

– Responses depend upon your mood on the

given day

use them, says a study.

What does it do?

• Gauges

– Your reasoning abilities

– Your response to different situations

• Leadership skills, crisis management, camaraderie

– Your deep-rooted prejudices and rigidity

• Gender bias, group-ism, world-view

– Mood swings, depression, aloofness

– Introvertedness or extrovertedness

For the Pragmatists

Paper formats

• Accenture

• CTS

• HCL

• IBM

• Infosys

• MindTree

• Satyam

• Siemens

• TCS

• Wipro

Accenture

• English is given importance.

– Comprehension passages, synonyms,

corrections of grammatical errors and verbal

reasoning.

• In quantitative analysis, ratio and

proportion is given a lot of importance.

CTS

• Simple numericals

• Stress on averages, profit and loss, ratio

and proportion

• There seems to be a separate paper for

Logical Reasoning

HCL

• Quantitative and logical reasoning given

equal importance.

• Technical questions make be asked

towards the end. C programming skills

figure popularly in tests.

IBM

• Aptitude round:

– Part 1 : letter series

– Part 2 : figures (Spatial Reasoning)

– Part 3 : quantities (Algebraic problems)

• Technical round:

– Unix and C, databases, numbering systems

• HR round apparently had a question:

– Why does 2+2 equal 4 and not 5?

– Answer given was: If you assumed it to be five and distributed 4

units of a commodity to others, you’ll have nothing left.

– Remind me of my favorite answer

Infosys

• Quantitative has a slant of logical

reasoning

• Sometimes, there is a preliminary paper

with simple numericals

• Paper is logic-intensive

• Emphasis on quality, so time is not a

constraint

MindTree

• Two rounds possible

• First round is quantitative analysis, having

very simple questions

• Second round has GD and Logical

Reasoning

Satyam

• Periodic usage of a logical situation with

multiple questions

• Some papers have verbal reasoning

• Quantitative is either left out, or has very

little weightage

• General IT awareness questions may be

asked:

– Which is Intel’s first microprocessor?

Enhancing Aptitude 114

Siemens

• Pure technical paper

• Topics can include C/Unix, database, x-

windows, C++/motif, MS-Windows

TCS

• Verbal section (synonyms, antonyms)

• Quantitative section

• Critical Reasoning section (passages,

some long and some of just 2-3 sentences

that has twists to invoke improper

interpretation

• Psychometric test

• Alternately, some papers may comprise of

quantitative problems only

Enhancing Aptitude 116

Wipro

• Verbal reasoning has analogies and

sentence completion.

• Emphasis on quantitative analysis. Both

quantitative and analytical reasoning are

easy.

• Reasoning questions have Venn diagram

and data interpretation.

Tips

• Before

– Familiarise yourself with the patterns

• Books, websites

– Practice and polish your technique

– Memorise formulae – a formula is a good tool to have handy

– Avoid alcohol the night before; sleep well without it!!

• During

– Read instructions carefully

– Start with your strength

• Decide beforehand which segment of the paper you will attack first

– Choose battles and questions with care (even more so when negative marking is employed)

– Guess well when the need arises

– Be prepared – rough sheets, pens

– In psychometric tests, be honest

– No negative thoughts

• If paper is tough, remember: it’s all about percentiles, not percentages

– BE COOL!!!!

– Disregard all instructions above that don’t work for you.

Recommended reading

• Books:

– Brain Teasers By Ravi Nirula

– Puzzles to Puzzle u By Shankuntala Devi:

– Mind Teasers George Summers

– More Puzzles By Shakunthala Devi

– Quantitative Analysis By .R.S Agarwal

• Websites:

– Freshersworld.com

– Google out some more

Enhancing Aptitude 119

Interview strategies

• Technical

– Do not commit to a topic unless you know it thoroughly

– Know your final year project topic

– Prepare to stand by your resume

• Personal

– Can you introduce yourself well?

– Be clear about your own vision

• 5-year framework etc.

– Shy away from self-piteous tales

– Visit the company website the day before

– Invest in a pink newsprint

– Back yourself

Questions?

Thank You

- The Wedding Dance Summary and AnalysisUploaded byPega Suze
- Family Code in the Philippines PDFUploaded byJoshua
- Republic of the Philippines vs. Cesar Encelan - g.r. No. 170022 - January 9, 2013Uploaded byKaye Mendoza
- Sources of Conflict of LawsUploaded bylex libertadore
- Laperal vs. KatigbakUploaded byEdison Flores
- 2Uploaded byG Carlo Tapalla
- Cucumber Beetle Experiment at Beech Grove FarmUploaded byPennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture
- Republic v CA and MolinaUploaded bygelatin528
- 36.8 Dedel v CA (GR 151867)Uploaded byJamey Simpson
- Republic v CA, MolinaUploaded byJennilyn Tugelida
- annotated bibliographyUploaded byapi-267877878
- ABD v ADC (HC, 2014)Uploaded byHarpott Ghanta
- Decision Civill CaseUploaded byLhine Kiwalan
- Legal-Research1.docxUploaded byColee Stifler
- David Dedel vs Court of AppealsUploaded byKimberlyn Karagdag
- When God Sends Your White Daughter a Black HusbandUploaded byAnonymous G5nNGh
- Civil Law Reviewer Cases IIUploaded byCrnc Navidad
- 564US.pdfUploaded byJasonKimes
- 4 Marital Dissatisfaction CopingUploaded byPatricia Strat
- RegimeUploaded byCamille Sapnu
- ArtUploaded byJunpyo Arkin
- Chi Ming Tsoi v. CA and Gina Lao-Tsoi (Case Digest).docxUploaded byYuri Sison
- Aff Loss AsiloUploaded byMikko Acuba
- Petition for Declaration of Nullity of Marriage - Santiago - FINALUploaded byAnonymous JfgyvtWwks
- Unilateral Divorce in Muslim Personal LawUploaded byUsha
- Cy RalphUploaded byralph lim
- Civil Law Speech DebateUploaded byKarl Daniel Abenes
- Conflict of Laws in Marriage and DivorceUploaded byCJ
- Case-Digests-for-Finals.docUploaded byGlenda Mae Gemal
- ANNULMENT vs Void Ab Initio MarriagesUploaded byReyar Seno

- MortScript-Manual.pdfUploaded by12
- Visual MethodologiesUploaded bydesencajada
- The Eight Basic Parts of Speech AreUploaded bybon321
- Sap Em GuideUploaded byjuni0001
- Trial Test 019Uploaded byHà Quang Nam
- Hastings-The construction of nationhood_ ethnicity, religion, and nationalism.epubUploaded bydd
- MatUploaded byRekha Bhutkar
- evidencialidad W BermúdezUploaded bymcarrocio
- Act No.18 Finance Amendment) EnglishUploaded bywebmaster@sltda
- MAYBURY-LEWIS, David. Lévi-Strauss and the search for structure.Uploaded byLuísa Girardi
- The Survey of Cornwall, By Richard CarewUploaded byCat Cambridge
- IDL Integrating ENVI with ArcToolbox and ModelBuilder.pdfUploaded byAshoka Vanjare
- Primary Year 2 SK Scheme of WorkUploaded byNoor Athirah Qurratu' Aini
- Introduction to LabVIEW 8 in 6 HoursUploaded byjustinvil1103
- Data Analytics Syllabus Download SyllabusUploaded byshubham phulari
- conceit lesson planUploaded byapi-345974252
- 1962-Dell HymesThe Ethnography of SpeakingUploaded byAndrés Cárdenas Santamaría
- 390 33 Powerpoint Slides 7 Basics Phonetics Chapter 7Uploaded byAtif Imam
- Nam June Paik and BoredomUploaded byeugene_kwon_8
- 137078551 the Secret Art of ArtaudUploaded byLamár Erzsébet
- The Emergence of Second Language SyntaxUploaded bykak_e
- Brilliance College - University Assistant PSC _ Kerala PSC University Assistant Exam Syllabus NewwwwUploaded bySai Mithran
- Yale Law Library biennial report 2007-2009Uploaded byYale Law Library
- The World’s True Welfare: The Lovada SangaravaUploaded byBuddhist Publication Society
- cs229-notes1Uploaded byfatihy73
- maths plannerUploaded byapi-299101048
- Business Communication - EnG301 Power Point Slides Lecture 01Uploaded byzafar
- 90057 resource bk clr 2010Uploaded byapi-246595728
- MDADesignerLight Tutorial EnUploaded bytest358
- Test 1 ReasoningUploaded byAswin Kumar Tiriya