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eluiteatrr

literature
written work of a specific culture
~
srepo
prose
~written or spoken language in its ordinary form,
without metrical structure.
roptye
poetry
~ it has some sort of meter or rhythm
raadm
drama

~ any text meant to be performed rather than


read
Shakespeare
aeeeashSrkp

~ the bard of avon; greatest dramatist


novels
volsne

~ usually divided into chapters


short
trosh stories
tsierso

~ has fully developed theme and less elaborate than


a novel
plays
lsayp

~ usually performed on a stage


lnsgede
legends
~ a traditional story sometimes popularly regarded
as historical but unauthenticated
fables
absfel

~sometimes have animals as the main characters


anecdotes
ndacsoete

~its aim is to bring out a lesson to readers


essays
yasess

~a piece of writing that gives the author's own


argument
biography
hoayrpgib

~portrays the experiences of all these events


occurring in the life of a person
ewsn
news

~current events
otirona
oration
~a formal speech, especially one given on a
ceremonial occasion
oahuyogabtirp
autobiography

~a self-written account of the life of oneself


L I 📖 TUR
T ERA E
L IT REA TU R E
 Latinword“litera”=letters
 written work of a specific culture, sub-
culture, religion, philosophy or the study of such written work
whichmayappearinpoetryorinprose
- The first author of literature in the world,
known by name, was the high-priestess
of Ur, Enheduanna (2285-2250 BCE) who
wrote hymns in praise of the Sumerian
goddess Inanna.
Three Classic Forms
P of
r oLit
s e
P o e t r y
D r a m a
D R A M A

- Any text meant to be performed rather than read can


be considered drama (plays)
Shakespeare’s plays:

Hamlet, Taming of the Shrew, and Romeo and Juliet,


among others
P O E TR Y

- it has some sort of meter or rhythm, and it focuses on the


way the syllables, words, and phrases sound when put
together.
P O E TR Y

- Poems are heavy in imagery and metaphor and are often


made up of fragments and phrases rather than complete,
grammatically correct sentences.
P O E TR Y

- poetry is nearly always written in stanzas and lines, creating


a unique look on the page.
The Beautiful and Strange (Dear Universe)
This goes out to the girls
Who are
Vulnerable
And brave
And magical
And strange
Who wear their hearts
On their sleeves
And have expandable pockets
To carry both
Love
And pain
(milk and honey)

i didn’t leave because


i stopped loving you
i left because the longer
i stayed the less
i loved myself
(milk and honey)

when you are broken


and he has left you
do not question
whether you were enough
the problem was
you were so enough
he was not able to carry it
P R O S E
- Written or spoken language in its ordinary writing form without
metrical structure

- Made up of sentences and paragraphs, without any or rhyming


structure.
PROSE
• Novels • Essays
• Short Stories • Biography
• Play • Autobiography
• Legends • News
• Fables • Oration
• Anecdotes
PROSE
POETRY
Prose Poetry
- the prose poem maintains a poetic quality, often
utilizing techniques common to poetry, such as
fragmentation, compression, repetition, and rhyme.
Prose Poetry
The prose poem can range in length from a few
lines to several pages long, and it may explore a
limitless array of styles and subjects.
Opposites
Attract
Hot and Cold Hard and Soft
Wet and Dry Huge and Tiny
Bitter and Sweet End and Begin
Deep and Shallow Find and Lose
OBJECTIVITY
Academic writing requires
a special knowledge and
use of more complex
language and objectivity.
It can be achieved by:
1.Avoiding the use of personal pronouns
such as you, I, and we.
2.Avoiding rhetorical questions as it
marks “closeness” with the reader, and
constantly seeks his/her attention.
3.Avoiding emotive language that shows
biases and lessens objectivity.
EXPLICITNES
S
This reflects your
dignified stance in your
writing as a member of
the academic community.
In 1989,
Romania's declaration of
independence from
communism resulted in
increased freedoms for the
population.
Scientists discovered
how to fuse atoms.
This led to the
development of the
atomic bomb.
The discovery of
atomic fusion led to
the development of
the atomic bomb.
I think euthanasia is
important. Its
importance is
its concern with
human rights.
The importance of
euthanasia is
its concern with
human rights.
CAUTION
Is needed to avoid
sweeping generalizations.
MODAL VERBS
certain, probable or possible
ability, permission, requests and advic
modals + have
can, could and could have
may, might, may have and might have
can or could
will or would
will have or would have
ADVERB
An adverb is a word that
modifies (describes) a verb
(he sings loudly), an
adjective (very tall), another
adverb (ended too quickly), or
even a whole sentence
(Fortunately, I had brought an
umbrella). Adverbs often end
in -ly, but some (such as
fast) look exactly the same as
STRUCTURE
A level of complexity
that reflects the
sophistication of an
academic writer.
ACTIVITY
How can dialogues
help you understand
the plot?
INNER
This type of dialogue

“ is sometimes said out


loud, some it takes
place in a character’s
mind.
Examples:
• In first person
“I cannot believe I hurt my brother.
Will he ever forgive me?”
• In third person
“I cannot believe I hurt my brother.
Will he ever forgive me?” James wondered.

• “I am a lioness. I will not cringe for


them.” [Cersei reminded herself]
“ “Robbie,she asked
me, ‘would you like
to come along?’”
Quotation
Marks
Quotation marks are placed around the

“ words that come out of a character’s


mouth. If a character is quoting another
character, you should use a single
quotation inside the double quotation
marks.
 “Mine are more understanding,” Paul
says.

 Then another voice cuts through the


din, hushing us at one, “Everyone,
be silent.”

Period and Comma
If the quote is at the end of
the sentence, a period should be
placed inside the quotation
marks.
 A comma is inside the quotation
marks if the quote is not the
end of a sentence.
Cally said, “Have a nice day.”
“Have a nice day,” Cally said.
TIPS/CONSIDERATIONS in
WRITING A DIALOGUE

Punctuation
Capitalization
Information you’ll give
RECAP!
ACTIVITY
Directions: Read each line carefully. If the dialogue or line is correct,
draw a check (/) mark on the blank before the number. Otherwise,
punctuate or capitalize the line correctly. Write your correction
beside or below the line/dialogue.

___________1. Having a last meal, Potter?” When are you getting


on the train back to the Muggles?” Malfoy asked.

___________2. Tyrion asked, “Can a man still be brave if he’s


afraid”?
___________3. “Helga screamed OMG when she received her
admission letter.”
___________4. “You’re a lot braver now that you’re back on the
ground and you’ve got your little friends with you,” said Harry
coolly.

___________5. Emily said, “I’m just one stomach flu away from
my goal weight”.
ASSIGNMENT
A. Watch a movie and take note of the lines
or dialogue that appealed to you. Explain
why these lines appealed to you. Write on a
one sheet of paper.

B. Research on Monologue and Soliloquy.


Answer the following questions.
1. What is a monologue and soliloquy?
2. Differentiate monologue and soliloquy.