What Is Culture ?

Culture as ´ways of livingµ Culture is learned, not innate

Never underestimate the importance of local knowledge

MEXICO - Wards off hunger INDIA - Wards off evil

Dimensions of Culture
Hofstedes culture Dimensions

Power Distance
‡ The degree of inequality that exists ² and is accepted by the people with or without the power.

Characteristics of PD


‡ Centralized ‡ Large Gap in Compensation and authority


‡ Flatter Organisation ‡ Supervisors and Employees are almost equal

‡ Refers to the Strength of the ties people have to others within the community.

Characteristics of Individualism
‡ Respect For Privacy ‡ An Enjoyment of Challenges, and an expectation of rewards for hardwork



‡ Emphasis on uilding skills and ecoming masters of something ‡ ork for Intrinsic rewards

Masculinity Vs Femininity
‡ Refers how the society sticks with and values, traditional male and female roles ‡ A masculine culture emphasizes status derived from wages and positions. ‡ A Feminine culture emphasizes on human relations and quality of life.

Uncertainty Avoidance
‡Relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertain and unknown situations.

Characteristics Of Uncertainty Avoidance
‡ Very formal Business conduct with lots of rules and regulations ‡ Need and expect structure ‡ Difference are avoided



‡ Informal Business Attitude ‡ More concern with the long term strategy ‡ Accepting of change and risk

Long term Orientation
‡ Refers to how much society values long standing ² as opposed to short term ² traditional values

Characteristics Of Long Term Orientation
‡ Strong work ethic ‡ High value placed on education and training ‡ Hesitant to introduce changes



‡ High Creativity and mind set to introduce change

Culture & Management Styles in Selected Countries

Culture of Japan

Cultural Pattern Of Japan
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Japanese are a Homogeneous People Reject Foreign Influences Principles of Wa Masculine Culture Uncertainty avoidance

Largest country located in central Europe


Cultural Pattern Of Germany
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Planning & Orderliness Long term thinking Low Power Distance High Quality High Technical Knowledge

World·s largest Communist Country


Cultural Patterns of CHINA

‡ Investments in work organizations, both in human and monetary terms are regarded as long term. ‡ Four Cultural Characteristics
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Persistence Respect for relationship Thrift Sense of Shame

Culture of Mexico

Cultural Pattern Of Mexico
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Collectivism Higher Power Distance Higher uncertainty Avoidance No Value for time More Formalities Importance towards family Negotiation is a long process

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