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BASIC WORKING OF A

GENERATOR
• As the conducting coils move through the
magnetic fields, the electrons in the wires
move, creating an electric current.
• Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction
which says the current is induced in the
conductor inside a magnetic field when there
is a relative motion between that conductor
and the magnetic field.
TYPES OF GENERATORS
• DC GENERATOR
&
• AC GENERATOR
DC GENERATOR
• In DC generator, field coils produce an
electromagnetic field and the armature
conductors are rotated into the field. Thus, an
electromagnetically induced emf is generated
in the armature conductors.
TYPES OF DC GENERATOR
• DC generators can be classified in two main
categories
(i)self excited
(ii)Separately excited.
• (i) Separately excited:
In this type, field coils are energized from an independent
external DC source.
• (ii) Self excited:
In this type, field coils are energized from the current
produced by the generator itself. Initial emf generation is due to
residual magnetism in field poles. The generated emf causes a part
of current to flow in the field coils, thus strengthening the field flux
and thereby increasing emf generation. Self excited dc generators
can further be divided into three types -
(a) Series wound - field winding in series with armature winding
(b) Shunt wound - field winding in parallel with armature winding
(c) Compound wound - combination of series and shunt winding
• (ii) Selfexcited: In this type, field coils are energized from
the current produced by the generator itself. Initial emf
generation is due to residual magnetism in field poles. The
generated emf causes a part of current to flow in the field
coils, thus strengthening the field flux and thereby
increasing emf generation. Self excited dc generators can
further be divided into three types -
• (a) Series wound - field winding in series with armature
winding
• (b) Shunt wound - field winding in parallel with armature
winding
• (c) Compound wound - combination of series and shunt
winding
AC GENERATOR

• An alternator is defined as a machine which


converts mechanical energy to electrical
energy in the form of alternating current (at a
specific voltage and frequency). Alternators
are also known as synchronous generators.
WORKING OF AN AC GENERATOR /
ALTERNATOR
The rotor of an alternator or a synchronous generator is
mechanically coupled to the shaft or the turbine blades,
which being made to rotate at synchronous speed Ns under
some mechanical force results in magnetic flux cutting of the
stationary armature conductors housed on the stator. As a
direct consequence of this flux cutting an induced emf and
current starts to flow through the armature conductors which
first flow in one direction for the first half cycle and then in
the other direction for the second half cycle for each winding
with a definite time lag of 120o due to the space displaced
arrangement of 120o between them. This particular
phenomenon results in three phase power flow out of the
alternator which is then transmitted to the distribution
stations for domestic and industrial uses.
TYPES OF ALTERNATORS
(i) Brushed Alternator
(ii) Brushless Alternator
CONSTRUCTION OF BRUSHED AC
GENERATOR / ALTERNATOR
• An Alternator is made up of two main parts: a
rotor and a stator. The rotor rotates in the
stator, and the field poles get projected onto
the rotor body of the alternator. The armature
conductors are housed on the stator. An
alternating three-phase voltage represented
by aa’, bb’, cc’ is induced in the armature
conductors thus resulting in the generation of
three-phase electrical power
TYPES OF ROTOR USED IN BRUSHED
AC GENERATOR / ALTERNATOR
(i) Salient pole type.
(ii) Cylindrical rotor type.
SALIENT POLE TYPE
The term salient means protruding or projecting.
The salient pole type of rotor is generally used for
slow speed machines having large diameters and
relatively small axial lengths. The poles, in this
case, are made of thick laminated steel sections
riveted together and attached to a rotor with the
help of joint.
CYLINDRICAL ROTOR TYPE
The cylindrical rotor type machine has a
uniform length in all directions, giving a
cylindrical shape to the rotor thus providing
uniform flux cutting in all directions. The rotor,
in this case, consists of a smooth solid steel
cylinder, having a number of slots along its
outer periphery for hosting the field coils.
CONSTRUCTION OF BRUSHLESS
GENARATOR / ALTERNATOR
The brushless generator is actually composed
of two generators, one as an exciter, one as
the main generator, and a rotating rectifier
composed of diodes (or thyristors). The
excitation winding of the main generator is in
the rotor and the armature winding is in the
stator (which will issue the electrical output).
The armature winding of the exciter is in the
rotor and the excitation winding is in the
stator.
WORKING OF BRUSHLESS AC
GENERATOR / ALTERNATOR
Brushless alternator has two parts
(i) Excitation alternator part
(ii) Main alternator part
EXCITATION ALTERNATOR
Here the armature is rotor and exciter field
winding is stator. Exciter field produces
magnetic field with the help of AVR or residual
magnetism. When it starts rotating voltage is
generated in the exciter armature which gives
current to the main field to produce magnetic
field in main alternator
MAIN ALTERNATOR
• Here the main field is rotor and the armature
is stator. Voltage produced in the exciter
armature pass through the diode mounting
plate ( Rectifier ) and goes to the main field
which produce magnetic field. When this
magnetic field cuts the main armature a
potential difference is produced. We can take
supply directly, no brushes are required. Here
the voltage produced can be regulated by
exciter field current.
AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR
(AVR)
An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is a
electronic device for automatically
maintaining generator output terminal voltage
at a set value under varying load and
operating temperature. It controls output by
sensing the voltage Vout at a power-generating
coil and comparing it to a stable reference.
The error signal is then used to adjust an
average value of the field current.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AVR
Rectifier RB1 with capacitor C1 produces DC level
close to the peak of Vout. A small resistor R1 limits
C1 charge current and prevents sinewave
"clipping". In theory it may be omitted. If the
divider R2-R3-R4 is properly set, when Vout is
below its required value, Q1 will be OFF, Q2 will
be forward biased via R6, and Darlington pair Q2,
Q3 will energize the field winding. Conversely,
when Vout raises and voltage at the cathode of D1
exceeds approximately Vz+0.7 volt, Q1 opens and
shuts down both Q2 and Q3.