Operating Systems

Prof. Navneet Goyal Department of Computer Science & Information Systems BITS, Pilani

Topics for Today
‡ Memory Management

‡ Partitioning
Fixed Variable Dynamic

‡ Paging ‡ Segmentation

Memory Management
‡ Objective ± to keep several processes in memory ‡ Why we may want to do this?
Increase CPU utilization Improve response times

‡ Many memory-management algorithms ‡ Selection of algorithm/scheme depends on many factors (specially HW) ‡ Each algorithm requires its own HW support

Memory Management ‡ Subdividing memory to accommodate multiple processes ‡ Memory needs to be allocated efficiently so as to pack as many processes into memory as possible .

Memory Management ‡ ‡ ‡ Basic Requirements Memory Partitioning Used only in Kernel Memory Management Building blocks of Memory Management Paging Segmentation .

Virtual Memory ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Universal approach to Memory Management Based on Paging or Combination of Paging & Segmentation Processes µget¶ unlimited MM Virtual address space on disk Hardware support for Paging & Segmentation .

What Is Memory Management? ‡ Uni-programming System 2 partitions of Main Memory x For OS x For user program in execution ‡ Multiprogramming environment Many user processes Limited Main Memory User part of MM is partitioned by OS .

Memory Management Requirements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Relocation Protection Sharing Logical Organization Physical Organization .

it may be swapped to disk and returned to main memory at a different location (relocated) ‡ Memory references must be translated in the code to actual physical memory address .Relocation ‡ Programmer does not know where the program will be placed in memory when it is executed ‡ While the program is executing.

Protection ‡ Protecting OS from user processes ‡ Protecting User processes from one another ‡ Satisfying Relocation requirement increases the difficulty of satisfying Protection requirement ‡ Location of program in MM is unpredictable .

Protection ‡ Dynamic calculation of addresses at run-time ‡ Memory references generated by process must be checked at run time ‡ Operating system cannot anticipate all of the memory references a program will make ‡ Protection is provided by Processor and not by OS .


Protection .

Sharing ‡ Allow several processes to access the same portion of memory ‡ Better to allow each process (person) access to the same copy of the program rather than have their own separate copy .

execute-only) ‡ Share modules .Logical Organization ‡ Programs are written in modules ‡ Modules can be written and compiled independently ‡ Different degrees of protection given to modules (read-only.

Physical Organization ‡ 2-level organization of memory ‡ Flow of information between main & secondary memory is a major concern ‡ Should programmers be burdened? ‡ Programmer does not know (at the time of coding) how much space will be available and where it will be .

Memory Partitioning ‡ Fixed partitioning Equal size Unequal size ‡ Dynamic Partitioning .

The programmer must design the program with overlays* * Find out what is overlaying . the operating system can swap a process out of a partition a program may not fit in a partition.Fixed Partitioning ‡ Equal-size partitions any process whose size is less than or equal to the partition size can be loaded into an available partition if all partitions are full.

Fixed Partitioning ‡ Main memory use is inefficient ‡ Any program. occupies an entire partition ‡ This is called internal fragmentation . no matter how small.


Placement Algorithm with Partitions ‡ Equal-size partitions Placement is trivial because all partitions are of equal size. it does not matter which partition is used ‡ Unequal-size partitions can assign each process to the smallest partition within which it will fit queue for each partition processes are assigned in such a way as to minimize wasted memory within a partition .

IBM Mainframe OS ± OS/MFT .

Dynamic Partitioning ‡ Partitions are of variable length and number ‡ Process is allocated exactly as much memory as required ‡ Starts off well! ‡ Eventually leads to lot of holes in the memory ‡ External fragmentation ‡ Must use compaction to shift processes so they are contiguous and all free memory is in one block .


IBM Mainframe OS ± OS/MVT .

Dynamic Partitioning Placement Algorithm ‡ Since compaction is expensive. OS must judiciously decide how to assign processes to memory ‡ Operating system must decide which free block to allocate to a process Best-fit algorithm First-fit algorithm Next-fit algorithm Worst-fit algorithm .

the smallest fragment is left Memory compaction must be done more often .Dynamic Partitioning Placement Algorithm ‡ Best-fit algorithm Chooses the block that is closest in size to the request Worst performer overall Since smallest block is found for process.

Dynamic Partitioning Placement Algorithm ‡ First-fit algorithm Fastest May have many process loaded in the front end of memory that must be searched over when trying to find a free block .

Dynamic Partitioning Placement Algorithm ‡ Next-fit Begins to scan the memory from the location of the last placement & chooses the next available block that is large enough More often leads to allocation of a block at the end of the memory Results in quick fragmentation of the largest block of free memory which usually appears at the end of the memory Compaction is required to obtain a large block at the end of memory .

Dynamic Partitioning Placement Algorithm ‡ Worst-fit Scans the whole memory to find the biggest block Holes are of substantial size Makes sense? Compare with Best-fit! .

Worst-fit .

but usually the best and the fastest as well ‡ Next-fit produces slightly worse results than First-fit ‡ Best-fit is usually the worst performer .Comparison of Placement Algorithms ‡ First-fit is not only the simplest.

Replacement Algorithms ‡ Which process to SWAP out? FIFO Optimal pare replacement LRU Counting based page replacement x LFU x MFU .

entire block is allocated Otherwise block is split into two equal buddies Process continues until smallest block greater than or equal to s is generated .Buddy System ‡ Entire space available is treated as a single block of 2U ‡ If a request of size s such that 2U-1 < s <= 2U.

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