PRESENTED BY BRAJA GOPAL PATRA M.TECH COMPUTER SC. & ENGG.

NIT,AGARTALA

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Introduction What is Multi-Robot Motion Planning Problem Constrains to be satisfied for the problem Comparison between Centralized & Distributed multi-robot path-planning Detection of Next position Formulation of the objective function Representing the first constraint as a penalty Possible Approaches Differential Evolution Algorithm Pseudo code Some of experimental results by researchers Application Conclusion Bibliography

. The path planning problem attempts to determine a trajectory of motion for the robots from a predefined starting point to a given goal point without colliding with any obstacle as well as the other robots in the map. Path planning is regarded as a fundamental problem in mobile robotics.` ` The late 1990s have seen a significant progress in mobile robotics.

. subject to the constraint that the robots do not hit each other or the static obstacles.` ` The path-planning problem in the given context attempts to minimize the total distance traveled by the robots in the given workspace.complete problem. as no polynomial time algorithm to solve the problem is known at this time. The multi-robot path planning is an NP.

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Colli ion Colli ion Collision between two robots Collision with obstacle .

. Consequently. each robot attempts to construct its path almost independently. in distributed planning. avoiding collision with static obstacles or teammates engaged in path planning. where as the distributed approach divides the complexity of centralized path planning into problems of small complexity to be shared by the robots.` ` In the centralized approach the objective functions and the constraints for path/motion planning of all the robots are considered together.

yig) Next Position (xi¶.Goal (xig. yi) Velocity (Vi) U   Steering Angle . yi¶) U Initial Position (xi.

yi) f = Distance (current-next) + Distance (next-Goal) . yig) Optimum Path Next Position (xid . yid) (xi . (xig .‡ Objective Function (F) is the total path length traversed by the robot to reach its goal position.

yi) yi Current Position Ui Next Position (xid .Evaluation of the next position of the robot from its current position so that the total path should be minimum. y yid Vi (xi . yid) x i = xi + vi cos Ui ( t y i = yi + vi sin Ui ( t x xi xid .

Representing the first constraint as a penalty Robot 1 r Robot 2 r d=2r > When (d = 2r) collision occurs Penalty Function = .

one for each robot plane the onon-line trajectories for robots. 2. Distributed Planning: n manager.1. . onCentralized Planning: A manager globally planes the on-line trajectories for robots.

Each vector forms a candidate solution to the multi-dimensional optimization problem. differential mutation and recombination to generate trial vectors for the next iteration. It begins with a randomly initialized population of D-dimensional real-valued parameter vectors. Position of all robots and obstacle . Storn and Price proposed an alternative form of EA that includes selection.` ` ` In 1995.

1) is a uniformly distributed random number lying between 0 and 1. Now mutant vector . Where and are the lower and upper bound respectively.` ` ` Where rand (0.

5x(1+rand(0.` Trial vector is ` ` (CR=0.1)) DE uses the Darwinian principle of ³survival of the fittest´ in its selection process which may be expressed as .

Input: Initial position . pos-vector) ` // pos-vector denotes current position of all robots and obstacle// ` .goal position and velocity Vi for n robots where 1 ” i ” n and a threshold value . ` Output: Trajectory of motion Pi for each robot Ri from to Begin ` Set for all robot i ` and ` For robot i = 1to n ` Repeat ` Call DE ( .

End. . For Iter = 1 to Max iter do Begin Create trial vector using equation. pos-vector) Begin Initialize population. Until // curr _ i =( ).` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Move-to( ). Procedure DE ( . Gi = // End for.

End If. Return. . If the trial vector is better than its target vector Then replace the target by trial in the next generation. . Update: . End. End for.` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Evaluate fitness.

In case of centralized approach converges very poorly. .Fig: Comparison of training in Distributed and centralized approach ‡ Researchers have seen that Distributed approach converges faster than the centralised approach.

` ` Use of a team of robots can help in monitoring. Material handling and bomb detections are several other such aspects where multiple robots can coordinate among themselves to achieve required goal. light. or other. A simple example is exploration and search of an earthquake-hit building where each robot has a sensor(s) that can detect heat. and communicate wirelessly with other robots. sound. thus removing the need for human intervention in dangerous areas. . and search and rescue operations. surveillance.

the run time required for the proposed distributed realization is small in comparison with other classical algorithms.` ` ` In this topic I have covered the issue of multi-robot motion planning by DE. . Since n parallel DEs have been employed to handle the distributed motion-planning problem of n robots. and solved the problem by both centralized and distributed approaches. The distributed DE-based algorithm was also found to be comparable to or better than PSO-based path planning.

Chakraborty and L. 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2009) [2] Yuan-qing qin. 2010 3rd international Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (iCACTE) . Jain ³Distr ibuted Cooperative Multi±Robot Path Planning Using Differential Evolution´. Amit Konar. LIU Ming-guang.´ The Summary of Differential Evolution Algorithm and its Improvements´. Ning li.C.´Path planning for mobile robot using the Particle swarm optimization with Mutation operator´ Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybemeacs.[1] Jayasree Chakraborty. De-Bao Sun. Yi-Gang Cen. 26-29 August 2009 [3] LI Gao-yang. Uday K. Shanghai.

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