Job Analysis, Job Description

& Job Design
Presented by-
Col P S Jaggi
Gaurav Khokhani
Namita Rajani
NTRODUCTON
Job Analysis is a detailed description of the
physical and other demands of a job or job
goal based on direct observation of the job.
Among other things, it describes what the
worker does in terms of activities and
functions, and the worker characteristics
(skills, knowledge, abilities, and adaptabilities)
needed to accomplish the tasks involved.
NTRODUCTON
Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine
in detail the particular job duties and
requirements and the relative importance of
these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a
process where judgments are made about data
collected on a job.
Job Analysis data may be collected from the
injured worker, other workers and the employer
through interviews or questionnaires, the product
of the analysis is a description or specifications
of the job, not a description of the person.
Job Analysis and Evaluation
Do it or else.
hat is Job Analysis?
t is the systematic process of
determining the tasks, duties,
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other
requirements (KSAOs) necessary for
performing jobs in an organization.
Job Analysis Defined
Process of defining a job in terms of its
component tasks or duties and the
knowledge or skills required to perform
them
Job Analysis
The identification of criteria necessary
for successful performance in a given
job
dentifies KSAs
Job tasks to perform
Skills required
Abilities needed
Definitions
Job - Consists of a group of tasks that
must be performed for an organization
to achieve its goals
Position - Collection of tasks and
responsibilities performed by one
person; there is a position for every
individual in an organization
Definitions (Continued)
Job anaIysis - Systematic process of
determining the skills, duties, and
knowledge required for performing jobs in
an organization
Job description ÷ document providing
information regarding tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of job
Job specification ÷ minimum qualifications
to perform a particular job
Purpose of a Job Analysis
Necessary to success of human resource
functions and provides a legal foothold for
organizations to defend themselves against
employment-related litigation
Reasons For Conducting
Job Analysis
$taffing ÷ would be haphazard if recruiter did
not know qualifications needed for job
Training and DeveIopment ÷ if specification
lists a particular knowledge, skill, or ability,
and the person filling the position does not
possess all the necessary qualifications,
training and/or development is needed
Compensation and Benefits ÷ value of job
must be known before dollar value can be
placed on it
Reasons For Conducting
Job Analysis...
$afety and HeaIth ÷ helps identify safety and
health considerations
EmpIoyee and Labor ReIations ÷ lead to more
objective human resource decisions
LegaI Considerations ÷ having done job
analysis important for supporting legality of
employment practices
Job AnaIysis for Teams ÷ today, individuals
do what has to be done to complete the task
Types Of Job Analysis nformation
Considerable information is needed, such
as:
Worker-oriented activities
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
used
Job-related tangibles and intangibles
Work performance
Job content
Personal requirements for the job
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job
Analysis
ork Activities ÷ work activities and processes; activity records (in
film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility
orker-oriented activities ÷ human behaviors, such as physical
actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for
methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy
expenditure
Machines, tooIs, equipment, and work aids used
Job-reIated tangibIes and intangibIes ÷ knowledge dealt with or
applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or
services performed
ork performance ÷ error analysis; work standards; work
measurements, such as time taken for a task
Job context ÷ work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives;
physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts
PersonaI requirements for the job ÷ personal attributes such as
personality and interests; education and training required; work
experience
hy Bother??
The Job Analysis provides the foundation for
almost everything HR is involved in.
Job Descriptions
Employee Selection
Training
Performance Appraisals
Job Classification
Job Evaluation
Job Design
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool
Tasks Responsibilities Duties
Job
Analysis
Job
Descriptions
Job
Specifications
Knowledge Skills Abilities
Human Resource
Planning
Recruitment
Selection
Training and
Development
Performance Appraisal
Compensation and
Benefits
Safety and Health
Employee and Labor
Relations
Legal Considerations
Job Analysis for Teams
Jobs and Job Analysis
1he Uses of 1ob Analvsis
Legal Compliance
Recruitment
Selection
PerIormance Appraisal
Compensation
Training and Career Development
ndividual ork and
Organizational Performance
" How exactIy does individuaI work
contribute to organizationaI
performance?
Or How do organizationaI goaIs
transIate into hiring requirements?
The Changing Nature of ork
Various types of jobs:
Traditional
Evolving
Flexible
diosyncratic
Team-based
Telework
Jobs and Job Analysis
1echniques of 1ob
Analvsis
MEANNG AND DEFNTON
Process of obtaining all pertinent job facts.
]ob Analysis
]ob Description includes:·
O]ob title
OLocation
O]ob Summary
ODuties
ONachines, tools S equipment
ONaterials S forms used
OSupervision given or received
OWorking conditions
OHazards
]ob Specification includes:·
Oducation
Operience
OTraining
O]udgement
O!nitiative
OPhysical ffort
OPhysical skills
OResponsibilities
OCommunication skills
Omotional characteristics
OUnusual sensory demands, eg:
sight, smell, hearing.
Two Primary Outcomes or
Aspects of Job Analysis
A. Job Description:
a written statement about the tasks, duties,
activities and results associated with a given
job.
B. Job Specification:
a description of the knowledge, skills,
abilities, and other attributes (KSAOs) which
an individual needs to satisfactorily perform a
job.
Three Types of Job Analysis
Job
Requirements
Competency-
Based
Job
Rewards
Focus on
specific tasks
and KSAOs.
Focus on
general
KSAOs.
Focus on both
intrinsic and
extrinsic
rewards.
Looks at
context for a
specific job.
Looks at the
use of KSAOs
across jobs.
Used for
specific jobs.
hy Should Organizations Do
Job Analysis?
1. Assist with legal compliance
2. Recruitment
3. Selection
4. Performance appraisal
5. Training & development
6. Compensation
7. Employee/Labor relations
The Process of Job Analysis
Strategic Choices
Cather !nformation
Process !nformation
]ob Description
Uses of ]ob Description and ]ob
Specification
OPersonnel planning
OPerformance appraisal
OHiring
OTraining S development
O]ob evaluation S compensation
OHealth S safety
Omployee discipline
OWork Scheduling
OCareer planning
]ob Specification
Ihe Þrocett
of
Iob Anulytit
in
0etuil..
Strategic Choices
· Employee involvement
· Level of details
· Time and frequency of analysis
· Past-oriented v/s future-oriented
· Sources of job data
Sources of Job Data
Non-human sources Human sources
Existing job descriptions and
specifications
Job analysts
Equipment maintenance records Job incumbents
Equipment design blueprints Supervisors
Architectural blueprints of work area Job Experts
Films of employees working
Training manuals and other job
materials
Literature like magazines &
newspapers
nformation Gathering
hat type of data is to be collected?
+ ork activities
+ Machines, tools, equipment & work aids
used
+ Job context
+ Personal requirements
hat methods are to be employed for data collection?
+ Observation
+ nterview
+ Questionnaires
+ Checklists
+ Technical conference
+ Diary methods
ho should collect the data?
+ Trained job analysts
+ Supervisors
+ Job incumbents
nformation Processing
Processed information is used in areas like:-
Personnel planning
Performance appraisal
Training & development
Employee discipline
Career planning
Definitions (Continued)
Job anaIysis - Systematic process of
determining the skills, duties, and
knowledge required for performing jobs in
an organization
Job description ÷ document providing
information regarding tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of job
Job specification ÷ minimum qualifications
to perform a particular job
Job Analysis Methods
Questionnaires
Observation
nterviews
Employee recording
Combination of
methods
Conducting Job Analysis
The people who participate in job
analysis should include, at a
minimum:
The employee
The employee's immediate
supervisor
Standard Methods for
Conducting Job Analysis
Standard methods generally take one of
two forms:
Job-Oriented -Focus on describing
various tasks that are performed on the
job Very specific task description
orker-Oriented - Examine broad
human behaviors involved in work
activities
Description of general facets of the job
How is Job Analysis
Conducted? (1)
1. Sources of job analysis information:
a. Job analyst
b. Job incumbent
c. Supervisor
d. Other "SMEs¨
How is Job Analysis
Conducted? (2)
2. General approaches:
a. prior information
b. observation
c. interviews
d. questionnaires
e. diaries/logs
How is Job Analysis
Conducted? (3)
3. Some specific approaches:
A. Functional Job Analysis
Uses the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Breaks jobs down in terms of "data, people, and
things¨
B. Structured Job Analysis nterviews
One of the best ways to get information on both
tasks and KSAOs
C. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
orker-oriented
Good for comparing jobs
How is Job Analysis
Conducted? (3 cont.)
D. Management Position Description
Questionnaire (MPDQ)
A generic approach to analyzing managerial
jobs
E. Task nventories
'ery specific analysis of particular jobs
F. Combination Approaches
e.g., "C-JAM¨
A:\C-JAM.rtf
Competency-Based Job
Analysis
A competency is:
sn't this the same thing as a KSAO?
hat conclusions can we draw about
this approach to job analysis?
Job Rewards Job Analysis
Examples of extrinsic rewards:
Examples of intrinsic rewards:
Two useful tools:
Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ)
Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS)
The "employee value proposition¨ (EVP)
hat conclusions can we draw about this
approach to job analysis?
Legal ssues and Job Analysis
Emphasized heavily in the &niform
Guidelines for validation efforts.
Critical issue in the lbemarle v. Moody
(1975) Supreme Court decision.
Can be very valuable in determining
"essential job functions¨
Job Analysis Summary:
t is necessary for most HRM practices
(including staffing). However.
1. t is often done poorly
No one wants to "take ownership¨ of it.
t is hard to keep up-to-date.
2. How do you do job analysis in a
dynamic environment, where jobs (and
organizations) are changing rapidly?
Job Analysis Summary (cont.):
3. hat would "strategic job analysis¨
look like?
Job Analysis
The identification of criteria necessary
for successful performance in a given
job
dentifies KSAs
Job tasks to perform
Skills required
Abilities needed
Steps in Job Analysis
· Collecting and recording job
information.
· Checking the job information for
accuracy.
· riting job descriptions based on the
information.
· Determining skills, abilities and
knowledge required from the
information.
· Regular updating of information.
Timeliness of Job Analysis
Rapid pace of
technological
change makes
need for accurate
job analysis even
more important
now and in the
future.
An ExampIe of Job AnaIysis ..
CIient Need
A medium sized health care
organisation was seeking to clarify
the competencies required for
success in targeted professional
roles as a means of improving
selection and performance
management practices.
An ExampIe of Job AnaIysis.
ConsuItant $oIution
After an initiaI project pIanning session to agree on the
process for consuItation, project success factors and
timeIines, the ConsuItant reviewed existing documentation
that provided insight into the roIes and how they may deveIop
in the future. This provided the pIatform for constructing
questions for interviews and focus groups. $everaI
incumbents participated in the focus groups that
concentrated on time appIications in the roIe and roIe
chaIIenges. Managers of incumbents were aIso interviewed to
identify severaI criticaI incidents capturing highIy effective or
ineffective performance.
The resuItant data were anaIysed by the ConsuItant to draft a
provisionaI set of competencies for the target roIes. These
profiIes were embedded into a vaIidation questionnaire that
provided an opportunity for a wide cross-section of roIe
stakehoIders to provide feedback against the provisionaI
profiIes in terms of accuracy and comprehensiveness.
An ExampIe of Job AnaIysis..
Outcome
CHANGE$ finaIised the competency
profiIes, demonstrating both the accuracy
and buy-in to the finaI profiIes. ith some
guidance from ConsuItant, the
competencies were integrateed with
seIection and performance management
systems, and now form the bedrock for
seIection data gathering and performance
feedback.
Purpose oI Job AnuIvsIs
&
MeLIods oI DuLu CoIIecLIon
Purpose of Job Analysis
ob Analysis
ob
SpeciIication
ob
Description
HRP
T&D
Recruitment
&Selection
Remuneration
ob
Evaluation
SaIety
& health
PerIormance
Appraisal
Human Resource Planning
t is the process oI Iorecasting an
organisation`s Iuture demand Ior, and
supply iI, the right type oI people in the
right number
The number and type oI personnel are
determined by the iobs which need to be
staIIed
ob related inIormation is thereIore important
Ior Hrp
Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is process oI Iinding and
attracting capable applicants Ior
employment
ob analysis helps Hr manager to locate places
to locate places to obtain employees Ior
openings anticipated in Iuture
$election is process oI diIIerentiating between
applicants in order to identiIy those with a
greater likelihood oI success in a iob
Precise knowledge oI iob helps Hr manager to
eIIectively select someone to do the iob
Training and Development
%raining and Development is any attempt to
improve current or Iuture employee
perIormance by increasing an employee`s
ability to perIorm through learning
ob analysis helps HRD manager to know
what a given iob demands in terms oI
knowledge and skills
Training and development programmes can
be designed depending on the iob
requirement
Job Evaluation
ob Evaluation is process oI analysing and
assessing the various iobs systematically to
ascertain their relative worth in an
organisation
Relative worth is determined mainly on the
basis oI iob description and iob
speciIication
Remuneration
Remuneration is the compensation an
employee receives in return Ior his or her
contribution to the organisation
Remuneration must be based on relative worth
oI each iob
Performance Appraisal
!erformance Appraisal is an obiective
assessment oI an individual`s perIormance
against well deIined well deIined
benchmarks
ob analysis helps Iix standards Ior
perIormance in relation to which actual
perIormance oI an employee is compared
and assessed
Safety And Health
$afetv reIers to protection oI workers Irom the
danger oI accidents
The process oI a detailed iob analysis
provides an excellent opportunity to
uncover and identiIy hazardous conditions
,so that corrective measures can be taken to
minimise and avoid the possibility oI
human iniury
ob analysis can also:
Help the company remain proIitable and
competitive
Help the company keep up with technology
Prevent employees Irom being overworked
Help the company stay
in compliance with
government regulations
ethods oI Data Collection
1ob
Data
Checklists
Diary
Technical
Conference
Questionnaire Interviews Observation
ethods oI Data Collection
Observation ethod
Analyst observes ob Holder
Directly
Videotape
UseIul when iob is Iairly routine
Simple method and gives accurate result
Time consuming
Analyst need to be trained
ethods oI Data Collection
nterview Method
ndividual
Several workers are interviewed individually
The answers are consolidated into a single
iob analysis
Group
Employees are interviewed simultaneously
Group conIlict may cause this method to be
ineIIective
Methods of Job Analysis
"uestionnaires
Employees answer questions about the
iob`s tasks and responsibilities
Each question is answered using a scale
that rates the importance oI each task
Methods of Job Analysis
"uestionnaires (ctnd.)
Position Analysis "uestionnaire (PA")
A structured, behavioral questionnaire
194 items in 6 categories
nIormation input
ental processes
Work output
Relationships
ob context
Other characteristics
Methods of Job Analysis
Diary ethod
Employees record inIormation into
diaries oI their daily tasks
Record the time it takes to complete
tasks
ust be over a period oI several weeks or
months
Methods of Job Analysis
Technical ConIerence ethod
Uses experts to gather inIormation about
iob characteristics
Problem with Job Analysis
W Support Irom top anagement
W Single eans and Source
W o Training or otivation
W Activities may be Distorted
JOB DESGN
Definition
Job design involves conscious efforts to organize
tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of
work to achieve certain objectives.
t integrates work content (tasks, functions,
relationships), the rewards (extrinsic and
intrinsic), and the qualifications reqd. (skills,
knowledge, abilities) for each job in a way that
meets the needs of employees and the
organization.
Steps nvolved in Job Design
· Specification of individual tasks
· Specification of the method(s) of
performing each task
· Combination of tasks into specific jobs to
be assigned to individuals
Factors affecting Job Design
Organization
aI Factors
Environment
aI Factors
BehaviouraI
Factors
Job
Design
Feedback
Productive &
$atisfying Job
Organizational Factors
· Characteristics of Task
· ork Flow
· Ergonomics
· ork Practices
Environmental Factors
· Employee Abilities & Availability
· Social & Cultural Expectations
Behavioural Elements
· Feedback
· Autonomy
· Use of Abilities
· Variety
Job Design Approaches
Medium Low High
Low
Medium
High
CompIexity
Impact
Job Rotation
Job Engineering
Job EnIargement
Job Enrichment
$ocio-technicaI $ystems
Job Rotation
t involves moving employees from job to job
to add variety and reduce boredom by
allowing them to perform a variety of tasks.
Drawbacks:
· ncreased training costs
· Disrupted work
· Demotivate intelligent & ambitious trainees
Job Engineering
Job Engineering focuses on the tasks to
be performed, methods to be used,
workflows among employees, layout of
the workplace, performance standards
and interdependencies among people
and machines
Golden rules for Job Engineering
· Clearly defined end product/output
· Clearly defined steps/tasks
· Employees know their responsibility
· Readily available information, tools &
facilities
· Employees involvement in the work
design process
Job Enlargement
· Task Variety
· Meaningful ork Modules
· Ability Utilization
· orker-paced Control
· Performance Feedback
Job Enrichment
Enriched
Job
Direct
Feedback
Unique
Experience
$cheduIing
of own
ork
New
Leaning
ControI Over
Resources
Direct
Communication
Authority
PersonaI
AccountabiIity
CIient
ReIationship
Job Enrichment and its
Outcomes
Feedback
Autonomy
$ignificance, Identity,
$kiII, Variety
KnowIedge of ResuIts
$ense of ResponsibiIity,
$eIf-controI, $eIf-esteem
MeaningfuIness,
Achievement, Variety
Motivation,
Performance,
$atisfaction
with Job,
Low
Absenteeism,
Job
InvoIvement
Job Characteristics PsychoIogicaI Needs
Outcomes
Some Cautions about Job
Enrichment
· Not a Substitute for Good Management
· 'Enriched' is a Relative Term
· Enriching Jobs may create a 'Snow Ball' Effect
· Assumes that workers want more responsibility
· May have negative Short-run Effects
· May become Static
· Participation can affect the Enrichment Process
· Change is difficult to mplement
Socio-technical Systems
The Socio-technical Systems approach
focuses on organizations as being
made up of people with various
competencies (social systems) who use
tools, machines and techniques
(technical system) to create goods or
services valued by customers and other
stakeholders.
Contemporary ssues n
Job Design
· Telecommuting
· Alternative ork Pattern
· Techno-stress
· Task Revision
· Skill Development
THANK YOU

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