# VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS

:
STATICS
Seventh Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. RusseII Johnston, Jr.
Lecture Notes:
J. WaIt OIer
Texas Tech University
!%#
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Method of Virtual Work
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10 - 2
ontents
Introduction
Work oI a Force
Work oI a Couple
Principle oI Virtual Work
Applications oI the Principle oI Virtual Work
Real Machines. Mechanical EIIiciency
Sample Problem 10.1
Sample Problem 10.2
Sample Problem 10.3
Work oI a Force During a Finite Displacement
Potential Energy
Potential Energy and Equilibrium
Stability and Equilibrium
Sample Problems 10.4
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10 - 3
ntroduction
· Principle of virtual work - iI a particle, rigid body, or system oI
rigid bodies which is in equilibrium under various Iorces is given
an arbitrary virtual displacement, the net work done by the external
Iorces during that displacement is zero.
· The principle oI virtual work is particularly useIul when applied
to the solution oI problems involving the equilibrium oI machines
or mechanisms consisting oI several connected members.
· II a particle, rigid body, or system oI rigid bodies is in equilibrium,
then the derivative oI its potential energy with respect to a variable
deIining its position is zero.
· The stability oI an equilibrium position can be determined Irom the
second derivative oI the potential energy with respect to the position
variable.
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10 - 4
Work of a Force
r d F dU
6
6
c work oI the Iorce corresponding to
the displacement
F
6
r d
6
- cos ds F dU
ds F dU , 0 - 0 ,
2
dU
6
- ds F dU , 6 -
dv dU
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Work of a Force
Forces which do no work:
· reaction at a Irictionless pin due to rotation oI a body
around the pin
· reaction at a Irictionless surIace due to motion oI a
body along the surIace
· weight oI a body with cg moving horizontally
· Iriction Iorce on a wheel moving without slipping
Sum oI work done by several Iorces may be zero:
· bodies connected by a Irictionless pin
· bodies connected by an inextensible cord
· internal Iorces holding together parts oI a rigid body
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Work of a ouple

7
7
d M
rd F ds F r d F
r d r d F r d F

c
c c
2 2
2 1 1
6
6
6 6
6
6
6
Small displacement oI a rigid body:
· translation to
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!rinciple of Virtual Work
· magine the small virtual displacement oI particle which
is acted upon by several Iorces.
· The corresponding virtual work,

r R
r F F F r F r F r F U
6
6
6
6 6 6
6
6
6
6
6
6
0
0 0 0 0 0
c
c c c c
3 2 1 3 2 1
Principle of Jirtual ork:
· II a particle is in equilibrium, the total virtual work oI Iorces
acting on the particle is zero Ior any virtual displacement.
· II a rigid body is in equilibrium, the total virtual work
oI external Iorces acting on the body is zero Ior any
virtual displacement oI the body.
· II a system oI connected rigid bodies remains connected
during the virtual displacement, only the work oI the
external Iorces need be considered.
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10 - 8
pplications of the !rinciple of Virtual Work
· Wish to determine the Iorce oI the vice on the
block Ior a given Iorce P.
· Consider the work done by the external Iorces
Ior a virtual displacement 07. Only the Iorces P
and Q produce nonzero work.
C P Q
v P x Q U U U 0 0 0 0 0 0
07 7 0
7
cos 2
sin 2
l x
l x

07 7 0
7
sin
cos
l v
l v
C
C

7
07 7 07 7
tan
sin cos 2 0
2
1
P Q
Pl Ql

· II the virtual displacement is consistent with the
constraints imposed by supports and connections,
only the work oI loads, applied Iorces, and
Iriction Iorces need be considered.
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#eal Machines. Mechanical fficiency
7 3
707
707

cot 1
sin
cos 2
input work
k output wor

Pl
Ql
3 7
707 3 707 707
0 0 0 0

tan
cos sin cos 2 0
0
2
1
P Q
Pl Pl Ql
x F v P x Q U
C
· When the eIIect oI Iriction is
considered, the output work is reduced.
machine ideal oI k output wor
machine actual oI k output wor
eIIiciency mechanical

· For an ideal machine without Iriction, the
output work is equal to the input work.
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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.1
Determine the magnitude oI the couple M required to
maintain the equilibrium oI the mechanism.
SOLUTION:
· Apply the principle oI virtual work
D
P M
x P M
U U U
0 07
0 0 0

0
0
707 0
7
sin 3
cos 3
l x
l x
D
D

707 07 sin 3 0 l P M
7 sin 3Pl M
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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.2
Determine the expressions Ior 7 and Ior the tension in the
spring which correspond to the equilibrium position oI the
spring. The unstretched length oI the spring is and the
constant oI the spring is k. Neglect the weight oI the
mechanism.
SOLUTION:
· Apply the principle oI virtual work
C
F
v F v P
U U U
0 0
0 0 0

0
0
707 0
7
cos
sin
l v
l v

707 0
7
cos 2
sin 2
l v
l v
C
C

l k
v k
ks F
C

7 sin 2
707 7 707 cos 2 sin 2 cos 0 l l k l P
P F
kl
k P
2
1
4
2
sin

7
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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.3
A hydraulic liIt table consisting oI two
is used to raise a 1000-kg crate. Members
D and CG are each oI length 2a and
member D is pinned to the midpoint oI
D.
Determine the Iorce exerted by each
cylinder in raising the crate Ior 7 60
o
, a
0.70 m, and L 3.20 m.
DH
F
Q Q U 0 0 0 0
· Apply the principle oI virtual work Ior a
virtual displacement 07 recognizing that only
the weight and hydraulic cylinder do work.
· Based on the geometry, substitute expressions
Ior the virtual displacements and solve Ior the
Iorce in the hydraulic cylinder.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the platIorm
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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.3
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the platIorm.
s F v
Q Q U
DH
F
DH
0 0
0 0 0

2
1
0
0
· Apply the principle oI virtual work Ior a virtual
displacement 07
· Based on the geometry, substitute expressions Ior the
virtual displacements and solve Ior the Iorce in the
hydraulic cylinder.
707 0
7
cos 2
sin 2
a v
a v

07
7
0
07 7 0
7
s
aL
s
aL s s
aL L a s
sin
sin 2 2
cos 2
2 2 2

7
07
7
707
cot
sin
cos 2 0
2
1
L
s
F
s
aL
F a
DH
DH

kN 15 . 5
DH
F
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Work of a Force During a Finite Displacement
· Work oI a Iorce corresponding to an
inIinitesimal displacement,
- cos ds F
r d F dU

c
6
6
· Work oI a Iorce corresponding to a Iinite
displacement,

F
2
1
cos
2 1
s
s
ds F U -
· Similarly, Ior the work oI a couple,

1 2 2 1
7 7
7

F
M U
Md dU
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10 -
Work of a Force During a Finite Displacement
Work oI a weight,
v
v v
dv U
dv dU
v
v

F
2 1
2 1
2
1
Work oI a spring,

2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
kx kx
dx kx U
dx kx Fdx dU
x
x

F
x F F U
2 1
2
1
2 1

F
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!otential nergy
· Work oI a weight
2 1 2 1
v v U
F
The work is independent oI path and depends only on
potential energv oI the body with
respect to the force of gravitv
6

g
J v

2 1
2 1 g g
J J U
F
· Work oI a spring,

F
e
e e
J
J J
kx kx U
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
potential energv oI the body with
respect to the elastic force F
6
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10 -
!otential nergy
· When the diIIerential work is a Iorce is given by an
exact diIIerential,
energv potential in cange of negative
J J U
dJ dU

F 2 1 2 1
· Forces Ior which the work can be calculated Irom a change
in potential energy are conservative forces.
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!otential nergy and 6uilibrium
· When the potential energy oI a system is known,
the principle oI virtual work becomes
7
07
7
0 0
d
dJ
d
dJ
J U

0
0
· For the structure shown,
7 7 cos sin 2
2
2
1
2
2
1
l l k
v kx J J J
C g e

· At the position oI equilibrium,
kl l
d
dJ
7 7
7
cos 4 sin 0
indicating two positions oI equilibrium.
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\$tability of 6uilibrium
0
2
2

7 d
J d
0
2
2

7 d
J d
0
7 d
dJ
Must examine higher
order derivatives.
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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.4
Knowing that the spring C is unstretched
when 7 0, determine the position or
positions oI equilibrium and state whether
the equilibrium is stable, unstable, or
neutral.
SOLUTION:
· Derive an expression Ior the total potential
energy oI the system.
g e
J J J
· Determine the positions oI equilibrium by
setting the derivative oI the potential energy
to zero.
0
7 d
dJ
· Evaluate the stability oI the equilibrium
positions by determining the sign oI the
second derivative oI the potential energy.
0
2
2

7 d
J d

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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.4
SOLUTION:
· Derive an expression Ior the total potential energy oI the
system.
7 7 cos
2
2
1
2
2
1
- mg a k
mgv ks
J J J
g e

· Determine the positions oI equilibrium by setting the
derivative oI the potential energy to zero.

7
7 7 7
7 7
7
8699 . 0
m 3 . 0 s m 81 . 9 kg 10
m 08 . 0 m kN 4
sin
sin 0
2
2 2
2

mg-
ka
mg- ka
d
dJ
H 7 . 51 rad 902 . 0 0 7 7
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10 -
\$ample !roblem 10.4
7 7 cos
2
2
1
- mg a k J
7 7
7
sin 0
2
mg- ka
d
dJ

H

7 . 51 rad 902 . 0
0
7
7
· Evaluate the stability oI the equilibrium positions by
determining the sign oI the second derivative oI the
potential energy.

7
7
7
7
cos 43 . 29 6 . 25
cos m 3 . 0 s m 81 . 9 kg 10 m 08 . 0 m kN 4
cos
2 2
2
2
2

mg- ka
d
J d
at 7 0: 0 83 . 3
2
2

7 d
J d
unstable
at 7 51.7
o
: 0 36 . 7
2
2

7 d
J d
stable