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**In this chapter you will learn about:
**

§ § § § § § Boolean algebra Fundamental concepts and basic laws of Boolean algebra Boolean function and minimization Logic gates Logic circuits and Boolean expressions Combinational circuits and design

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Boolean Algebra

§ § An algebra that deals with binary number system George Boole (1815-1864), an English mathematician, developed it for: § § § § § Simplifying representation Manipulation of propositional logic

In 1938, Claude E. Shannon proposed using Boolean algebra in design of relay switching circuits Provides economical and straightforward approach Used extensively in designing electronic circuits used in computers

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**Fundamental Concepts of Boolean Algebra
**

§ Use of Binary Digit § Boolean equations can have either of two possible values, 0 and 1 Logical Addition § Symbol µ+¶, also known as µOR¶ operator, used for logical addition. Follows law of binary addition Logical Multiplication § Symbol µ.¶, also known as µAND¶ operator, used for logical multiplication. Follows law of binary multiplication Complementation § Symbol µ-¶, also known as µNOT¶ operator, used for complementation. Follows law of binary compliment

§

§

§

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Operator Precedence § § § § § § § Each operator has a precedence level Higher the operator¶s precedence level. expressions enclosed within parentheses are evaluated Then. all complement (NOT) operations are performed Then. all µ¶ (OR) operations are performed (Continued on next slide) 62 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 5/78 . earlier it is evaluated Expression is scanned from left to right First.¶ (AND) operations are performed Finally. all µ.

) X Y Z 1st 2nd 3rd 62 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 6/78 ..Operator Precedence (Continued from previous slide.

A is not equal to 0 Postulate 2: Identity Law (a) x 0 = x (b) x 1 = x Postulate 3: Commutative Law (a) x y = y x (b) x y = y x (Continued on next slide) 62 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 7/78 . if and only if. if and only if. A is not equal to 1 (b) A = 1.Postulates of Boolean Algebra Postulate 1: (a) A = 0.

.Postulates of Boolean Algebra (Continued from previous slide.) Postulate 4: Associative Law (a) x (y z) = (x y) z (b) x (y z) = (x y) z Postulate 5: Distributive Law (a) x (y z) = (x y) (x z) (b) x (y z) = (x y) (x z) Postulate 6: Inverse Law (a) x x = 1 (b) x x = 0 62 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 8/78 .

in the table below. its dual theorem automatically holds and need not be proved separately 63 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 9/78 .The Principle of Duality There is a precise duality between the operators . the second row is obtained from the first row and vice versa simply by interchanging µ+¶ with µ.¶ and µ0¶ with µ1¶ Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 1 1=1 0 0=0 Column 2 1+0=0 1=1 0 1=1 0=0 Column 3 0 0=0 1 1=1 Therefore. if a particular theorem is proved. For example. and the digits 0 and 1. (AND) and + (OR).

Some Important Theorems of Boolean Algebra Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Theorems/ Identities x+x=x x+1=1 x + x y = x Dual Theorems/ Identities x x = x x 0 = 0 x x + y = x Name (if any) Idempotent Law Null Law Absorption Law Involution Law (x`)` =x x x + y = x y x y = x . y x + x y = x + y x y = x + y Distributive Law De Morgan¶s Law 63 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 10/78 .

S 2.H.S. are checked to yield identical results 3. By using postulates to show that L. By the Principle of Duality where the dual of an already proved theorem is derived from the proof of its corresponding pair 63 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 11/78 .Methods of Proving Theorems The theorems of Boolean algebra may be proved by using one of the following methods: 1.H. and R.S.H. = R. By Perfect Induction or Exhaustive Enumeration method where all possible combinations of variables involved in L.S.H.

= = = = = = = x x y x 1 x y x (1 y) x (y 1) x 1 x R.S.H.Proving a Theorem by Using Postulates (Example) Theorem: x+x·y=x Proof: L.S.H. by by by by by postulate 2(b) postulate 5(a) postulate 3(a) theorem 2(a) postulate 2(b) 64 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 12/78 .

Proving a Theorem by Perfect Induction (Example) Theorem: x + x ·y = x = x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 x y 0 0 0 1 x x y 0 0 1 1 64 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 13/78 .

H.H.S. =x x = (x x) 1 = (x x) (x +X) = x x X =x 0 =x = R. by by by by by postulate postulate postulate postulate postulate 2(b) 6(a) 5(b) 6(b) 2(a) (Continued on next slide) 63 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 14/78 .Proving a Theorem by the Principle of Duality (Example) Theorem: x+x=x Proof: L.S.

. by by by by by postulate postulate postulate postulate postulate 2(a) 6(b) 5(a) 6(a) 2(b) Notice that each step of the proof of the dual theorem is derived from the proof of its corresponding pair in the original theorem 63 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 15/78 .) Dual Theorem: x x=x Proof: L.H.S.H. =x x =x x 0 = x x x X = x (x + X ) =x 1 =x = R.Proving a Theorem by the Principle of Duality (Example) (Continued from previous slide.S.

Basic Identities of Boolean Algebra 62 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 7/78 .

Double Complement Law formalizes the idea of the double negative. 0 is the identity element for OR.Basic Identities of Boolean Algebra Identity Law states that any Boolean variable ANDed with 1 or ORed with 0 simply results in the original variable. Boolean variables can be reordered (commuted) and regrouped (associated) without affecting the final result. the expressions represent the same function and result in identical truth tables. and a variable ORed with 1 is always 1. Inverse Law states that ANDing or ORing a variable with its complement produces the identity for that given operation. (1 is the identity element for AND.) Null Law states that any Boolean variable ANDed with 0 is 0. but we can prove these identities by creating a truth table for the various expressions: If the right-hand side is equal to the left-hand side. Distributive Law shows how OR distributes over AND and vice versa. Idempotent Law states that ANDing or ORing a variable with itself produces the original variable. 62 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 7/78 . Absorption Law and DeMorgan¶s Law are not so obvious.

Boolean Functions § A Boolean function is an expression formed with: § § § § § Binary variables Operators (OR. or A truth table 67 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 16/78 . and equal sign The value of a Boolean function can be either 0 or 1 A Boolean function may be represented as: § § An algebraic expression. and NOT) Parentheses. AND.

there may be more than one algebraic expressions 67 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 17/78 .Representation as an Algebraic Expression W=X + Y· Z § § § § Variable W is a function of X. Z) The RHS of the equation is called an expression The symbols X. can also be written as W = f (X. Y. Y. Z are the literals of the function For a given Boolean function. and Z. Y.

Representation as a Truth Table X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 W 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 (Continued on next slide) 67 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 18/78 .

where n is the number of literals in the function The combinations of 0s and 1s for rows of this table are obtained from the binary numbers by counting from 0 to 2n ..1 67 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 19/78 .) § § The number of rows in the table is equal to 2n.Representation as a Truth Table (Continued from previous slide.

Minimization of Boolean Functions § Minimization of Boolean functions deals with § § § Reduction in number of literals Reduction in number of terms Minimization is achieved through manipulating expression to obtain equal and simpler expression(s) (having fewer literals and/or terms) (Continued on next slide) 68 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 20/78 .

. z) and 2 terms F2 can be realized with fewer electronic components.) F 1 = x y z + x y z + x y F1 has 3 literals (x. y.Minimization of Boolean Functions (Continued from previous slide. y. resulting in a cheaper circuit (Continued on next slide) 68 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 21/78 . z) and 3 terms F 2 = x y + x z F2 has 3 literals (x.

Minimization of Boolean Functions (Continued from previous slide.) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 F1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 F2 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Both F1 and F2 produce the same result 68 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 22/78 ..

Try out some Boolean Function Minimization (a ) x x y (b ) x x y .

(y + z) 69 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 23/78 . (c) x y z x y z x y (d ) x y x z y z (e) (x . y) . (x + z) .

A = A +A +A +....A A A A .Complement of a Boolean Function § The complement of a Boolean function is obtained by interchanging: § § § Operators OR and AND Complementing each literal This is based on De Morgan¶s theorems....+A 1 2 3 n 1 2 3 n 1 2 3 n 1 2 3 n 70 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 24/78 .+A = A A A .. whose general form is: A +A +A +..

we first interchange the OR and the AND operators giving .Complementing a Boolean Function (Example) F = xyz+ x y z 1 To obtain F1 .

x+y +z .

x+y + z Now we complement each literal giving 1 71 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 25/78 .

provide 2n possible combinations called minterms or standard products : n variables forming an OR term.Canonical Forms of Boolean Functions Minterms : n variables forming an AND term. with each variable being primed or unprimed. provide 2n possible combinations called maxterms or standard sums Maxterms 71 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 26/78 . with each variable being primed or unprimed.

Minterms and Maxterms for three Variables Variables x y 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Minterms Term Designation Maxterms Term Designation 0 x` y` z` x` y` z x` y z` x` y z x y` z` x y` z x y z` x y z m m m m m m m m 0 1 2 x y z M x y z` M x y` z M x y` z` M x` y z M x` y z` M x` y` z M x` y` z` M 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 Note that each minterm is the complement of its corresponding maxterm and vice-versa 71 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 27/78 .

Examples are: x x+ y z xy + x y x+ y x y+z x y+x y z` 72 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 28/78 .Sum-of-Products (SOP) Expression A sum-of-products (SOP) expression is a product term (minterm) or several product terms (minterms) logically added (ORed) together.

The desired expression is the sum (OR) of all the minterms obtained in Step 2 72 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 29/78 . which produces a 1 in the function 3. Form a minterm for each combination of the variables.Steps to Express a Boolean Function in its Sum-of-Products Form 1. Construct a truth table for the given Boolean function 2.

100.Expressing a Function in its Sum-of-Products Form (Example) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 F1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 The following 3 combinations of the variables produce a 1: 001. and 111 (Continued on next slide) 73 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 30/78 .

x y z. we get F1 =x yz+ xy z+ x y z=m1+m4 m7 F1 .) § Their corresponding minterms are: x y z..Expressing a Function in its Sum-of-Products Form (Example) (Continued from previous slide. and x y z § Taking the OR of these minterms.

x y z = .

7 72 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 31/78 .4.1.

Examples are: x x+ y .ProductProduct-of Sums (POS) Expression A product-of-sums (POS) expression is a sum term (maxterm) or several sum terms (maxterms) logically multiplied (ANDed) together.

x+ y z .

x+ y .

x+y .

x+ y .

x + y .

x+ y+z .

x+ y .

x+ y 74 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 32/78 .

Form a maxterm for each combination of the variables. Construct a truth table for the given Boolean function 2.Steps to Express a Boolean Function in its Product-of-Sums Form 1. which produces a 0 in the function 3. The desired expression is the product (AND) of all the maxterms obtained in Step 2 74 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 33/78 .

010. 011.Expressing a Function in its Product-of-Sums Form x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 § y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 F1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 The following 5 combinations of variables produce a 0: 000. and 110 (Continued on next slide) 73 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 34/78 . 101.

Expressing a Function in its Product-of-Sums Form (Continued from previous slide.) § Their corresponding maxterms are: ..

.x+y+ z .

x+ y+ z . .

x+ y+ z . .

x+y+ z and .

x+ y+ z § Taking the AND of these maxterms. we get: F1 =.

x+y+z .

x+ y+z .

x+y+z .

x+ y+z F1 74 .

x+ y+z =M M M M M .

x.y.5.2.6 ) 0 2 3 5 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits 6 Slide 35/78 .3.z = (0.

interchange the symbol and list those numbers missing from the original form. Example: .Conversion Between Canonical Forms (Sum-ofProducts and Product-of-Sums) To convert from one canonical form to another.

7 F.6.2.3.5) = (1.4. = (0.

x.3.y.7) = (0.z = (1.z 76 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 36/78 .y.2.6) F x.4.5.

NAND and NOR gates § § 77 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 37/78 . NOT. OR.Logic Gates § Logic gates are electronic circuits that operate on one or more input signals to produce standard output signal Are the building blocks of all the circuits in a computer Some of the most basic and useful logic gates are AND.

AND Gate

§ § Physical realization of logical multiplication (AND) operation Generates an output signal of 1 only if all input signals are also 1

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**AND Gate (Block Diagram Symbol and Truth Table)
**

A B Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C=A B 0 0 0 1 C= A B

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OR Gate

§ § Physical realization of logical addition (OR) operation Generates an output signal of 1 if at least one of the input signals is also 1

77

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OR Gate (Block Diagram Symbol and Truth Table) A B Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C=A +B 0 1 1 1 C=A+B 78 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 41/78 .

which is the reverse of the input signal 78 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 42/78 .NOT Gate § § Physical realization of complementation operation Generates an output signal.

NOT Gate (Block Diagram Symbol and Truth Table) A Input A 0 1 Output A A 1 0 79 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 43/78 .

NAND Gate § § Complemented AND gate Generates an output signal of: § § 1 if any one of the inputs is a 0 0 when all the inputs are 1 79 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 44/78 .

NAND Gate (Block Diagram Symbol and Truth Table) A B Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C= A B= A B=A +B Output C = A +B 1 1 1 0 79 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 45/78 .

NOR Gate § § Complemented OR gate Generates an output signal of: § § 1 only when all inputs are 0 0 if any one of inputs is a 1 79 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 46/78 .

NOR Gate (Block Diagram Symbol and Truth Table) A B Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C= A B=A B=A B Output C =A B 1 0 0 0 80 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 47/78 .

and NOT) are logically complete because any Boolean expression can be realized as a logic circuit using only these three gates § 80 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 48/78 .Logic Circuits § § When logic gates are interconnected to form a gating / logic network. OR. it is known as a combinational logic circuit The Boolean algebra expression for a given logic circuit can be derived by systematically progressing from input to output on the gates The three logic gates (AND.

Finding Boolean Expression of a Logic Circuit (Example 1) A NOT B C OR A D= A .

B + C B+C AND 80 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 49/78 .

Finding Boolean Expression of a Logic Circuit (Example 2) OR A B A B C=.

A +B .

A B A B AND NOT A B AND 81 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 50/78 .

Constructing a Logic Circuit from a Boolean Expression (Example 1) Boolean Expression = A B + C AND A B C OR A B A B + C 83 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 51/78 .

Constructing a Logic Circuit from a Boolean Expression (Example 2) Boolean Expression = A B + C D + E F AND A B AND A B NOT A B AND C D AND C D A B + C D + E F E F E F NOT E F 83 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 52/78 .

consider: § Basic logic gates (AND. OR. and NOT gates can be implemented with NAND gates 84 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 53/78 . OR.Universal NAND Gate § NAND gate is an universal gate. and NOT) are logically complete § Sufficient to show that AND. it is alone sufficient to implement any Boolean expression § To understand this.

A B A B A B !A B (b) AND gate implementation. (Continued on next slide) 85 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 54/78 . AND and OR Gates by NAND Gates A A A = A + A = A (a) NOT gate implementation.Implementation of NOT.

) A B A A = A A B !A + B !A B B B = B (c) OR gate implementation. AND and OR Gates by NAND Gates (Continued from previous slide.Implementation of NOT.. 85 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 55/78 .

and NOT gates.Method of Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NAND Gates Step 1: From the given algebraic expression. Assume that both the normal (A) and complement (A) inputs are available Step 2: Draw a second logic diagram with the equivalent NAND logic substituted for each AND. draw the logic diagram with AND. Also remove inverters connected to single external inputs and complement the corresponding input variable 85 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 56/78 . OR. OR. and NOT gate Step 3: Remove all pairs of cascaded inverters from the diagram as double inversion does not perform any logical function.

Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NAND Gates (Example) Boolean Expression = A B + C .

A + B D A B + C .

A + B D A B B D A C A B B D A +B D C.

A +B D (a) Step 1: AND/OR implementation (Continued on next slide) 87 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 57/78 .

) AND A B 1 A B 5 OR AND OR B D A 2 BD 3 A+BD A B + C..Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NAND Gates (Example) (Continued from previous slide.

A+BD AND 4 C C.

A+BD (b) Step 2: Substituting equivalent NAND functions (Continued on next slide) 87 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 58/78 .

.) A 1 5 B B D 2 3 4 A B + C.Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NAND Gates (Example) (Continued from previous slide.

87 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 59/78 .A +B D A C (c) Step 3: NAND implementation.

OR.Universal NOR Gate § § NOR gate is an universal gate. and NOT gates can be implemented with NOR gates 89 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 60/78 . OR. it is alone sufficient to implement any Boolean expression To understand this. and NOT) are logically complete Sufficient to show that AND. consider: § § Basic logic gates (AND.

Implementation of NOT. A B A B (b) OR gate implementation. A B !A B (Continued on next slide) 89 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 61/78 . OR and AND Gates by NOR Gates A A A = A A = A (a) NOT gate implementation.

) A A A=A A + B !A B !A B B B B =B (c) AND gate implementation.. 89 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 62/78 . OR and AND Gates by NOR Gates (Continued from previous slide.Implementation of NOT.

Assume that A inputs are available Step 2: Draw a second logic diagram with equivalent NOR logic substituted for each AND. draw the logic diagram with AND. OR. Also remove inverters connected to single external inputs and complement the corresponding input variable 89 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 63/78 . and NOT gate Step 3: Remove all parts of cascaded inverters from the diagram as double inversion does not perform any logical function. OR. and NOT gates.Method of Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NOR Gates Step 1: For the given algebraic expression.

Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NOR Gates (Examples) (Continued from previous slide..) A B B D A C Boolean Expression A B + C.

A +B D = A B A B + C.

A +B D B D A +B D C.

(Continued on next slide) 90 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 64/78 .A +B D (a) Step 1: AND/OR implementation.

) A 1 AN D A B OR 5 6 B AN D 2 A B + C ..Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NOR Gates (Examples) (Continued from previous slide.

A +B D B D A C B D OR 3 4 AN D C .

A +B D A +B D (b) Step 2: Substituting equivalent NOR functions. (Continued on next slide) 90 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 65/78 .

) A B B D A C 1 5 6 A B + C..Implementing a Boolean Expression with Only NOR Gates (Examples) (Continued from previous slide.

91 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 66/78 .A +B D 2 3 4 (c) Step 3: NOR implementation.

.Exclusive-OR Function A B =A B + A B A B A B C = A B = A B+ A B C = A B = A B+ A B Also.

A B C = A .

B C = A B C (Continued on next slide) 91 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 67/78 .

.Exclusive-OR Function (Truth Table) (Continued from previous slide.) Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C =A B 0 1 1 0 92 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 68/78 .

Equivalence Function with Block Diagram Symbol A A B B = A B+ A B C=A B = A B+ A B Also. (A B) =A (B C) = A B C (Continued on next slide) 91 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 69/78 .

Equivalence Function (Truth Table) Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C=A 1 0 0 1 B 92 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 70/78 .

Assign a letter symbol to each input and output variables 4. Interpret the problem and determine the available input variables and required output variables 3.Steps in Designing Combinational Circuits 1. State the given problem completely and exactly 2. Design the truth table that defines the required relations between inputs and outputs 5. Obtain the simplified Boolean function for each output 6. Draw the logic circuit diagram to implement the Boolean function 93 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 71/78 .

93 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 72/78 .Designing a Combinational Circuit Example 1 ± Half-Adder Design Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Outputs C 0 0 0 1 S 0 1 1 0 S = A B+ A B C = A B Boolean functions for the two outputs.

.) A A A B S = A B+ A B B B A B A B C = A B Logic circuit diagram to implement the Boolean functions 94 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 73/78 .Designing a Combinational Circuit Example 1 ± Half-Adder Design (Continued from previous slide.

Designing a Combinational Circuit Example 2 ± Full-Adder Design Inputs A B D Outputs C 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 S 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 (Continued on next slide) 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Truth table for a full adder 94 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 74/78 .

.Designing a Combinational Circuit Example 2 ± Full-Adder Design (Continued from previous slide.) Boolean functions for the two outputs: S = A B D+ A B D+ A B D+ A B D C = A B D+ A B D+ A B D+ A B D = A B+ A D+B D (when simplified) (Continued on next slide) 95 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 75/78 .

.) A B D A B D A B D A B D A B D A B D S A B D A B D (a) Logic circuit diagram for sums (Continued on next slide) 95 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 76/78 .Designing a Combinational Circuit Example 2 ± Full-Adder Design (Continued from previous slide.

) A B A B A D A D C B D B D (b) Logic circuit diagram for carry 95 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 77/78 ..Designing a Combinational Circuit Example 2 ± Full-Adder Design (Continued from previous slide.

Key Words/Phrases § § § § § § § § § § § § § § § Absorption law AND gate Associative law Boolean algebra Boolean expression Boolean functions Boolean identities Canonical forms for Boolean functions Combination logic circuits Cumulative law Complement of a function Complementation De Morgan¶s law Distributive law Dual identities § Equivalence function § Exclusive-OR function § Exhaustive enumeration method § Half-adder § Idempotent law § Involution law § Literal § Logic circuits § Logic gates § Logical addition § Logical multiplication § Maxterms § Minimization of Boolean functions § Minterms § NAND gate § § § § § § § § § § § § § NOT gate Operator precedence OR gate Parallel Binary Adder Perfect induction method Postulates of Boolean algebra Principle of duality Product-of-Sums expression Standard forms Sum-of Products expression Truth table Universal NAND gate Universal NOR gate 97 Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits Slide 78/78 .

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