`MOTIVATION

and light weight Challenge Better algorithms of Routing and Wavelength assignment Better optical burst switching Better optical packet switching ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` . security. low error rates.` ` ` ` Need+Promise=Challenge Need High Capacity Networks Mature switching and Routing techniques in optical networks Promise of Optical Technology ‡Ultra Low Transmission Losses ‡Ultra Wide Band ‡Very High Bitrates Advantages of optical fibers over copper transmission line include the ability to carry signals over long distances. immunity to electrical interference.

` INTRODUCTION .

processed and a routing decision is made based on the information provided in the header and the routing protocol. converted back into its optical form and transmitted towards its final destination . . the associated electronic processing hardware will typically not be able to keep up with such speeds. Although fibers can support very high data rates. Hence a packet that must be stored or processed at an intermediate node has to be converted to its electronic form and stored in an electronic buffer memory.` Fiber optics communication has provided us very high speed communications with enormous bandwidth potential. the network architecture must both reduce the number of times a message is processed by the intermediate nodes and must streamline the processing at each node. The packet is then queued at the output port. Further. To improve the throughput of the network and to minimize transmission delay. electronic processing is required because optical storage and processing technologies are not mature yet. Hence electronic handling of data network nodes basically limits the throughput of the network. The header is then extracted.

This name is used because each channel operates at a different frequency and at a different optical wavelength. . the bandwidth of the channel is divided into multiple channels. and each channel occupies a part of the larger frequency spectrum. With this technology. each channel is called Wavelength. In WDM network.Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is based on a well known concept called Frequency Division Multiplexing or FDM [1].

perhaps to the other fibers.The process of WDM can be easily explained by the Figure.4) are connected to the WDM multiplexer. It shows a simple example of a typical WDM link. . Four fibers having different wavelengths ( 1. The opposite operation occurs at the receiving demultiplexer. which separates the wavelength and sends them to an appropriate output port. through transmitters which combine or multiplex them onto the single fiber.

x Routing and Wavelength Assignment ` To design a lightpath topology that interconnects the IP routers and to realize this topology within the optical layer one should first meet the traffic requirement. Due to the limitation in the number of wavelengths available on each fiber link as well as the wavelength-continuity constraint (in the absence of wavelength conversion) [2]. ` The Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem is defined as: given a network topology. There are many problems which are faced in the development of lightpath. the Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem has been a crucial issue for achieving good network performance . and which wavelengths they should be assigned using the minimum possible number of wavelengths . determine how to route those requests. The first problem which is faced is lightpath design [3] (LTD) problem. a set of end-to-end lightpath requests.

In particular. Packet switching works well with variable-rate traffic. reservations techniques for efficient utilization of bandwidth as well as network resources. network architectures problems in terms of the burst handling.Optical Switching ` ` Circuit switching is advantageous when we have constant data rate traffic (fixed delays) in the network. burst dropping and contention resolution schemes supporting quality of service. or when circuits are idle. several issues need to be considered before optical burst switching can be deployed in working networks. Although optical burst switching appears to offer advantages over optical circuit switching and optical packet switching. these issues include. which need to be investigated in order to reduce congestion and packet/burst loss in the high speed networks. it is not suitable under bursty traffic conditions. like data traffic and can achieve higher utilization A possible near-term alternative to all-optical circuit switching and all-optical packet switching is optical burst switching. ` . like voice traffic. however.

` LITERATURE REVIEW .

The Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem is defined as.` The main attention of this thesis will be on Routing and Wavelength Algorithm problem. determine how to route those requests and which wavelengths they should be assigned using the minimum possible number of wavelengths [3]. . for a given network topology.

. where first the routes are fixed and then a feasible wavelength assignment is determined for the given routing. where both the route and wavelength is assigned at the same time or in two phases.` The RWA problem can be solved either in one phase.

the Integer Linear Program formulation. wavelength converter placement. ILP formulation for virtual topology. . dividing RWA problem into sub problems.` The RWA problems are divided into two categories. getting the Heuristic solutions. Static RWA problem (also called offline RWA) and Dynamic RWA problem (also called on-line RWA). Some of the steps for solving RWA problem are considering RWA problem as a whole.

using dedicated and shared protection Deal with the problem of Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) of static lightpath demands as a complete problem Efficient Routing Technique Communication Networks for Jaspal Kumar. converted back into its optical form and transmitted towards its final destination Adaptive Routing Considering the Number Younghwan Yoo. Proposed heuristic methods which were based on (decomposed to) shortest path searches using Dijkstra¶s algorithm. NUW_S. There algorithms considered the availability of wavelengths during the routing process. S-SP: Sequential Shortest Path Algorithm. of available wavelengths in WDM Networks Sang Kim NUW_U and Hop_NAW Algorithm. introduced a new integer linear program (ILP) formulation for dynamic wavelength allocation in survivable. Wavelength and Time-SlotAssignment Algorithms for WavelengthRouted Optical WDM/TDM Networks Bo Wen. Jaekel and T. Khan Routing and Wavelength Assignment in Optical Mesh Networks with Wavelength Conversion Static Routing and Wavelength Assignment Nina Skorin-Kapov and Mladen Kos in Wavelength Routed WDM Networks . P-SP: Parallelised Shortest Path Algorithm and ISP: Shortest Path Algorithm for improving the obtained results. These algorithms favor paths with nearmaximum number of available wavelengths between two nodes. resulting in improved load balancing Routing. Ramakrishna Shenai. Muralidhar Kulkarni and Daya Gupta A.Paper Title Optical Networks A Practical Perspective Findings Technology for packet to be queued at the output port. wavelength convertible WDM networks. Sanghyun Ahn and Chong Proposed four algorithms NAW. and Krishna Sivalingam Author Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N. Sivarajan They proposed three algorithms.

`GAPS .

The wavelength converter have not been exploited yet. Some ILP formulations have been studied in for the incremental network upgrade problem. Some of the gaps are left in the researches: None of these approaches has been studied the incremental network upgrade problem. The performance evaluation of the various routing algorithms for wavelength division multiplexed networks has not been covered so far. The switching technique in optical networks has not been matured yet.` ` Several methods have been proposed for joint working and spare capacity planning in survivable WDM networks. but the ILP techniques have limitations in its applicability in large networks with huge traffic demands. These methods consider a static traffic demand and optimize network cost assuming various cost models and survivability paradigms. ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` . Experimentation with the importance sampling with the first policy iteration approach and other means to reduce the running time of the algorithm has not been covered so far.

different distribution for the duration etc. or even better. This is especially important. the first fit would yield much better throughput at low blocking than random wavelength assignment. and any mixture of them. ` ` ` ` ` .` ` ` Robustness of the algorithms deserves further study. correct expressions for wavelength correlation between adjacent links which is insensitive to the direction in which we trace a route while calculating blocking probabilities. Another possible direction is to develop more accurate heuristics. since for large capacities. Techniques are required which can give accurate estimates for networks with first fit wavelength assignment when the number of wavelengths is large. Another interesting (and endless) branch of possible studies which has not been covered is the RWA problem with various priori information models about the traffic process such as known durations.

The linear programming method can be used in combination with heuristic and other methods. Networks with limited splitting capabilities also need to be studied. Improvement of the linear programming method by exploring more efficient ways to solve Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems. Development of heuristics for Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment with multiple QoS demands needs the further study. The additional numerical studies are needed to compare the linear programming solution with other methods that have been proposed for WDM rings ` ` ` ` .` ` Development of an on-line RWA algorithm for network topologies other than star and tree topology needs the further study.

` Performance Enhancement of Optical WDM Networks through Improved Routing and Switching Techniques The performance parameters are x Latency x Speed x Robustness ` ` new routing and wavelength assignment algorithms whose performance will be better than the existing algorithms Also new methods of devising control plane will be developed or existing methods will be modified which will increase the performance of optical burst networks .

`OBJECTIVES .

To investigate appropriate switching technique based on optical burst switching for Wavelength Division Multiplexed Networks.` ` ` ` ` ` OBJECTIVES To study and compare existing routing and wavelength assignment and switching techniques for Wavelength Division Multiplexed Networks in terms latency. robustness and speed To develop new algorithms of Routing and Wavelength assignment for better performance in Wavelength Division Multiplexed Networks. To investigate appropriate switching technique based on optical packet switching for Wavelength Division Multiplexed Networks .

`METHODOLOGY .

Mathematical analysis will be conducted to gain insights which may not be obvious in simulation experiments. The new improved algorithm will be now compared with the existing algorithm so as to evaluate the performance of newly developed algorithm ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` . C. Those parameters will be changed accordingly to get the best output of the routing algorithm and a new improved routing algorithm will be developed. Analysis of various routing and wavelength assignment algorithms depending on the various parameters. Some simulation tools such as MATLAB. There are a number of simulation tools present which can be used for the simulation of routing algorithms. While simulation.` ` ` ` ` ` METHODOLOGY Comprehensive literature survey of various existing routing and wavelength assignment algorithms for the wavelength division multiplexed networks. it is often not clear whether all the important parameter combinations have been covered or not. and often there are so many such combinations that simulating them all would be infeasible. Some parameters will be calculated which will be responsible for the improvement of routing algorithms. Performance of various RWA algorithms is then evaluated. Simulation will allow investigations of algorithms which are highly intractable from a mathematical point of view. C++ and VPI Transmission design suite will be used for simulation of the WDM network and for the simulation of routing algorithm. Comparison of various routing algorithm will lead to the performance evaluation.

`PHASING OF RESEARCH .

TIE Patiala. Guide Jan-June 2011 Development of new routing and wavelength Scholar.Duration Aug-Dec 2010 Details of Work Study of existing RWA algorithms and making a comparative evaluation Agency/Person Involved Scholar. Guide. Guide. Guide assignment algorithms whose performance will be better than the existing algorithms in terms of the blocking probability July-Dec 2011 Jan-June 2012 Testing and Improvements in the algorithms Scholar. TIE Patiala Study of existing Optical Burst Networks and Scholar. Guide. TIE Patiala. Guide. NITTTR Chandigarh and Punjab University . Jan-June 2013 Conclusion and Compilation of Thesis work and present before the Panel Scholar. NITTTR networks and develop the packet size which will cover all aspects of various layers adding Chandigarh header and footers and which will make the optical packet switching techniques to more close to reality. TIE Patiala develop new protocols and new methods of devising control plane Jul-Dec 2012 Study of existing Optical packet switched Scholar.

`EXPECTED OUTCOME .

For packet switched networks . Also new methods of devising control plane will be developed or existing methods will be modified which will increase the performance of optical burst networks and whose latency will be effective as compared to circuit switching techniques. .` ` ` ` Expected Outcome: The expected outcome will be in terms of the new routing and wavelength assignment algorithms whose performance will be better than the existing algorithms in terms of the blocking probability. The algorithms will take less time and will be enhancing the performance of optical networks. the packet size will be developed which will cover all aspects of various layers adding header and footers and which will make the optical packet switching techniques to more close to reality.