The eight-step approach to problem solving eightthat s covered in this program provides a simple, straightforward method of addressing problems or non-conformities. nonHowever, before you learn the individual steps, you need to understand some concepts and terms that are applicable to the full approach. 



Cont d

Learning Objectives: 

State a definition of PROBLEMS. 

Understand the importance of documentation to problem solving efforts. 

Recognize the benefits of a structured approach to problem solving.


regardless of the products it makes or services it provides. In this training program. 4 . downtime. you ll learn to use a practical. eight-step approach to problem eightsolving. it s important to have an effective way of addressing problems when they occur. So. customer dissatisfaction and other negative effects.Cont d OVERVIEW OF 8D PROBLEM SOLVING Problems and non-conformities are inevitable in nonany organization. They result in scrap.

to identify and solve problems.to effect problem solving. and .define and document the process. . . how to get  5 . Provides a step-by-step guide for step-bythere .to collect and analyze data.8-STEP METHODOLOGY  A broad path which many of the other tools of continuous improvement can be used to: .

Functions in any level or any area of the organization Used when a process was working. 6 . Used to identify the root causes and forever remove them.Cont d 8-STEP METHODOLOGY      Best applied to detailed activity or task related problems. but now has an error or defect. Used when a process goes out of control.

Many organizations quality management systems require thorough documentation 7  .provide reference to others  You should document your efforts throughout all eight steps of the problem solving approach.keep others informed .keep efforts on track . activities and results to: .DOCUMENTATION Record all decisions.

such audio or videotapes. computer files or tags and labels.Cont d DOCUMENTATION  Even if that s not the case in your organization. documentation can take many forms. 8 . the reasons listed above should make it clear that documentation serves several important functions.  In addition to written reports.

BENEFITS OF PROBLEM SOLVING Improved quality More satisfied customers Less crisis management More pro-active thinking proGreater applicability 9 .

It s worth nothing that there are no true disadvantages to a structured approach to problem solving. such solutions rarely address a problem s real cause. so you ll end up spending even more time trying to solve the same problem over and over. It may take more time to complete that applying a BandBand-Aid solution. 10 . and may have a few in mind that are not listed here. However.Cont d BENEFITS OF PROBLEM SOLVING You re probably already aware of some of the benefits of problem solving.

Produce normal.CAUSES OF VARIATION Common Causes: .Produce unusual.Must be identified and eliminated 11 . expected differences .Are not easily identified or eliminated Special Causes: . expected differences .

All processes contain at least some degree of variation. 12 . Knowing if a process contains only common causes of variation or also contains special causes may influence your problem solving efforts. such as tolerance limits. When only common causes are present.Cont d CAUSES OF VARIATION No processes operates in exactly the same way all the time. which produces variations among their products or services. That s why most specifications include a range of acceptable values. When special causes exist. you must focus on identifying and eliminating the unusual occurrences. you will probably need to take a broad view of the entire process or system to identify opportunities for positive changes.

This is a quantifiable measure that lets you know when you have succeeded. 13 .TARGET DEFINITION Describe your goal in numeric terms.

Implement And Validate The Corrective Action 2. Determine Ownership Select Likely Causes 6. Isolate And Contain The Symptoms Yes 8. Prevent Recurrence 3.THE 8-STEP METHODOLOGY 8Awareness Of Problem 4. Find The Root Cause 5. Choose A Corrective Action 1. Define The Problem No Is the Potential Cause a Root Cause? 7. Identify Possible Solutions Acknowledge The Improvement 14 .

8-STEP METHODOLOGY STEP 1 Determine Ownership 15 .

INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP Appropriate for relatively simple or limited problems. or require more knowledge of several operations or departments. 16 . it s generally not the best one. Although individual ownership of a problem solving is one option. Generally produces faster solutions. That s because most of the problems or nonconformities that warrant problem solving are more complex. than the scope of one person s abilities.

backgrounds and opinions. which means that the group s combined energy is greater than the sum of its individuals energies. 17 . when individuals work together. simply because members offer a variety of expertise.TEAM OWNERSHIP Considers all aspects of problems Leads to more innovative solutions Provides larger pool of skills Produces synergy Team ownership of a problem solving is always the better choice. they produce synergy. And.

Time and willingness to participate. It s not enough for team members to be knowledgeable.TEAM MEMBERS QUALIFICATIONS Ability to work in a team. Note that these qualifications span both technical and interpersonal skills. Knowledge of the problem. efficient team. They also must be able to work together in a constructive. effective manner. Technical ability. 18 . These qualifications should be quite obvious if you re trying to assemble a competent.

cutting and forming tools. Their products are used in aircraft. magnetic products and metal components. Telecommunications equipment and medical prosthesis products.EXAMPLES OF STEP 1: DETERMINE OWNERSHIP An example of how Step 1 was completed in an actual organization follow. automobile and turbine engines. They are registered to ISO 9001. Background SPS Technologies is a worldwide manufacturer of precision fasteners. These examples will be continued through all eight steps of problem solving. metal alloys and superalloys. 19 . particularly when a problem has been reported by a customer. 8Team problem solving is standard practice at SPS. as well as computers. as well as QS 9000 and are longlong-time practitioners of the 8-step problem solving method.

20 .Cont d EXAMPLE OF Step 1: DETERMINE OWNERSHIP Example 1: Mixed Batch Recently an automotive customer reported finding a different type of bolt mixed in with the batch of 100. The team was made of representatives from all the functional areas with a connection to the problem.000 flywheel bolts they had specified. Included were: *Shipping Manager *Auto*Auto-Inspection Operator *Manufacturing Manager *Quality Manager *Distributor The diversity of expertise they possessed would help ensure a thorough analysis of the problem and an appropriate response. SPS quickly assembled a team to investigate.


You must define what you know about the problem terms. in clear. 22 . The final outcome of this step is a problem statement. statement. In the last step we built the problem solving team and identified the problem.STEP 2: DEFINE THE PROBLEM      This step focuses on describing the problem in greater detail. This helps to ensure that everyone involved has a common understanding of the problem from the start of the problem solving effort. specific terms. The step is more than simply identifying that a problem exists.

Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM If you do not define the problem. you risk: -Correcting symptoms. . -Implementing temporary solutions. So. you re likely to waste time and effort without accomplishing your objective. -Unless you define the problem.Solving several possible causes. -Taking several courses of problem solving. 23 . you won t know how to direct your problem solving efforts.

you will: -Increase the likelihood of developing an effective solution. As you might expect. and do it in less time and with less effort. -Create a common understanding by all involved.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM If you define the problem. You re much more likely to accomplish your objective. 24 . the reverse is true when you do define a problem.

Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Characteristics of a good problem definition: Clear.How extensive? 25 .Where? .When? . concise and accurate Descriptive and traceable Answers the questions: .What? .

This should describe the problem in such sufficient detail so that someone who s not familiar with it could find it. Also note that since each problem is different. Note that a good definition should be traceable. 26 .Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM     Don t necessarily expect that you can write a good definition without doing some investigation of the problem. the questions you ll be able to answer in a definition also will be different.

at this step of the eight-step approach.Does not include causes or solutions Actionable A problem statement should simply describe what s wrong. It should not mention who or what may be at fault or how it might be solved.Does not place blame . you haven t eightdone the investigation and analysis required to identify a cause or a solution. Placing blame does little or nothing to solve a problem. 27 . And.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Characteristics of a good problem definition: Objective .

Better: Last month. Better: The setting on machine #9 varied by as much as 3° between 1st and 2nd shift on Monday. one out of ten customers noticed discoloration on the inside panel of part 515-R.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Problem Definition Examples #1 Poor: People complain about colors not being right. 515#2 Due to poor mold closure. #3 Poor: The previous shift changes the machine settings. why? 28 . 3°  Do these examples contain the characteristics of a good problem definition? If not. flash appeared on 45% of the injection molded parts from line #7 last week.

515-Goal statement: Corrective action will eliminate all discolorations on the inside panel of part 515-R. one out of ten customers noticed discoloration on the inside panel of part 515-R. 515- 29 .Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Goal Statements Identify what the problem solving will accomplish: -Problem definition: Last month.

. . 30 . They give the team and others a clear objective for their efforts.They are clear.They identify a measurable level of improvement. concise and specific. and minimize the risk of misunderstandings about the team s assignment. Good goal statements have the same characteristics as good problem definitions: .Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Goal Statements Cont d Goal statements can be useful for identifying the desired outcome of the problem solving.They describe changes in terms of the processes or systems that will be affected. not in terms of individuals responsibilities.

and not one of its symptoms. and to be sure that your problem solving efforts address the problem. Problem: Reason why symptoms appear. 31 . It s important not to confuse these terms. Problems Symptom: Detectable evidence that problem exists.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Symptoms vs.

32 .Problem definition . The more information you have. Include: .Team members and their roles . the more effective and efficient your efforts will be. and the easier it is to retrieve.All other data collected so far The need to document your problem solving efforts is important enough to reemphasize. All must be recorded using any appropriate method.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Problem Definition Data Begins to build the knowledge needed to understand and correct the problem.

SPS part number and description . 33 .Customer part number . number .D. At the top of the report is a section for recording basic information about the problem.Individual who registered the complaint .Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Examples of Step 2: Define the Problem Background (Applicable to both teams) SPS uses a standard format to document their problem solving.Customer complaint number .Date of complaint .Customer name and plant .Release and lot number. including .SPS supplier I.

the team defined the problem as simply. Example 1: Mixed Batch Under Step 2: Define the Problem. 34 . Additionally parts (Part No. they had enough to go on to contain the problem and then begin looking for its root cause.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM This is followed by a description of the actions taken for each of the eight steps in the problem solving process. XXXX) found mixed with batch. Together with the basic information listed above.

Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM FLOW CHART Prioritize Do You Have Enough Data Collect Data Write Problem Statement \ 35 .

Are there problems that need to be solved first? .Which problem is most important to the customer? .Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM PRIORITIZE  You will frequently have more than one problem you could solve so decide which one to solve first.What is the customer most concerned about? 36 . Ask yourself these questions: .

take the top 80% of the Pareto elements and run them back through the loop. You collect data. analyze and refine it. Keep doing this until you know enough about the problem to solve it.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM DATA COLLECTION      Data collection is a looping process. 37 . Then create check sheets that break out the top five problem areas the customer identified. Start by surveying the customers to see how they perceive the problem. and then collect more. Use the check sheets to survey more broadly and generate Pareto charts to display the results If you have not collected enough data yet.

Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM DATA COLLECTION Collect Data Variable Brainstorm Classify Data On to next step Attribute Create Pareto Yes Focus 80% Pareto Elements Have we collected enough data to solve the problem Survey Customers Create Check sheets No 38 .

  39 . Example: Increasing efficiency by solving a problem at one station on an assembly line will effect the timing of other stations.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM DATA COLLECTION   Cont d What do you know about the problem? What additional data do you need? What kind of effect will the solution have on the organization? What adjustments will have to be made? Will the solution have a positive impact on the customer (internal or external)? Your goal is to create a list of critical customer requirements.

Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Surveys  Surveys gather information on items you want to measure and compare. Designing an effective survey that does not prejudice your data requires rigorous attention. Collecting the data directly from the customer ensures you are addressing the right issues in the right ways.  40 . Remember your goal is to clarify the critical customer issues. Do not allow your preconceptions to color your results. They may be in written format or gathered verbally.

This will be much more helpful than brief multi-choice selections.Cont d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM SURVEYS Cont d Ask comparative questions. Don t ask if something is satisfactory. Instead ask to compare it to something else. Examine your questions to make certain that they are not biased. Use rating scales rather than yes/no or good/bad. 41 . Ask open-ended questions that can supply paragraphtype feedback.

The different types of data lend themselves to certain types of analysis. Example: Q: Is the light bulb working? A: Yes.Cont·d STEP 2:DEFINE THE PROBLEM Attribute vs Variable Data Attribute data is a yes/no or on/off result. Example: Q: How bright is the light bulb? A: 60 watts. 42 . Variable data is more specific and measured along a range.

if we analyze further. we discover customers are mainly upset because they are getting passed from one operator to another. we see the phone system is the major cause for complaints. so you analyze that further. we can¶t solve the ³phone system´ complaint. 43 . For example: you discover after investigating customer complaints that most occur on the ptiplex GX. However. ince we have been instructed that our solutions must not include capital expenditures. Next. once again by surveying. In the example shown.Cont¶ E 2: EFINE HE BLEM efining ata his graphic shows how charts and data collection increase your understanding of the problem. survey customers and record the number of complaints by creating complaint subjects and check sheets. We can solve this problem. creating check sheets and collecting data.

Cont¶d ST P :D I T PRO 44 .

Cont¶d ST P :D I T PRO Problem Size The problem should be small enough to pinpoint a distinct start and stop point and it must not be beyond the scope of the team to solve. The problem is too big when the level of expertise needed to solve it is not specific. The deliverable of Step Two is a completed Problem Statement. 45 .

information on similar problems (current and past) that we can learn from.observable  ack them up with: .Cont¶d ST P :D I T PRO Guidelines  Problem Statements should be: .reveal what the customer needs the solution to be. 46 .the problem¶s history .concise .  Critical Customer Requirements .specific .the conditions under which the problem occurs .how often the problem occurs .


identify its root cause. you can t just let the problem continue until then. You must find a way to contain it in the shortshortterm. to be sure that it doesn t reach your customers or cause any more disruption to your processes or operations.STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS It takes time to analyze a problem. 48 . develop appropriate solutions and evaluate their effectiveness. However.

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Purpose of Isolating and Containing the Symptoms To keep the problem in check so it doesn t reach customers. 49 . To minimize downtime.

50 . Notify or visit the supplier.Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Effective Short-Term Solutions Are Not: ShortIncrease operator awareness. Adjust the process. Wait to find the root cause.

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Effective Short-Term Solutions Are: ShortContained at the source and at points downstream in the process. 51 . Implemented immediately Proven by evidence.

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Examples of Step 3 Example 1: Mixed Batch      At SPS Technologies. They also ordered a 100% sort of their of current inventory more than 32. 52 . So when the customer reported receiving a mixed batch of bolts.000 pieces to determine the extent of the problem and ensure that it would not affect future shipments. The team then checked the inspection process. the goal is to contain a problem within 24 hours of its discovery. the corrective action team immediately retrieved the lot from the customer and did a 100% sort. They found no further evidence of mixing.

The operator checks the integrity of the machine every hour by purposely sending through a mixed batch. The team checked the p chart results and confirmed that the autoautoinspection machine was. called a patch to the threads. Following inspection.Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Examples of Step 3 Example 1: Mixed Batch Cont d All bolts are run through an auto-inspection machine that is designed to autodetect mixed bolts. the bolts are sent to a vendor who applies a narrow band of epoxy. \ 53 . in fact working properly. Results are recorded on a p chart.

By taking these precautions. the team was confident that no further mixing would take place and they could turn their attention to finding the root cause. The vendor s records indicated that the two types of bolts were not being processed at the same time. it secures the bolt in the assembly and prevents it from slipping out.Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Examples of Step 3 Example 1: Mixed Batch Cont d The patch serves as a locking feature. 54 . The team notified the patch vendor of the mixed batch and reviewed his process to ensure that the mix was not occurring there.

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Current Containment Plan No Invent A Containment Plan Yes Evaluate The Current Plan 55 .

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Invent a Containment Plan : Cont d Brainstorm Possible Containment Actions Test Possible Solutions For: Quick Cheap Simple Implementable Acceptable Evaluate No Yes Good Go to Next Step 56 .

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS The Containment Plan must include: Containment Action Plan. 57 . Responsibilities Cost Prediction List of People Effected Effect of the Corporation Effect on the Customer.

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Containment Plan Project Name:_______________ Project Owner (s):____________ Project Sponsor (s):___________ Containment Plan: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Action Responsibility _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 58 .

Cont d STEP 3: ISOLATE AND CONTAIN THE SYMPTOMS Containment Plan Cost Prediction:___________________________________ ________________________________________________ Effect on Customer:________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________ People Effected:___________________________________ ________________________________________________ Effect on Corporation:______________________________ ________________________________________________ 59 .


61 . But to solve the problem we must first find its cause.STEP 4: FIND THE ROOT CAUSE Now we have protected our customers and given ourselves a little breathing room to solve the problem.

62 .STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Unless you identify the single root cause of a problem. This session explains the importance of Step 4 to the entire corrective action approach and how to identify a root cause using a variety of tools and techniques. you cannot permanently or completely eliminate it.

63 .  And. the only way to completely and permanently solve a problem is to identify and eliminate its root cause.Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Root Cause  It s essential to understand that there is only one root cause of a problem.

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Occur Cause Path What went wrong? Identifies causes of product nonconformities or process failures. Escape Cause Path How did the problem escape? Identifies causes for problems being undetected through successive operations 64 .

again ask Why? Repeat until your only answer is I don t know. 65 .Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE The 5 Whys     A useful technique for identifying a root cause. Ask Why did the problem occur? To your answer.

Why? . The defects were observed after the prime coat spray operation. Why? Don t know. buildWhy? .Workers don t have time to do it more often. 66 .There s excess build-up on its wall. Why is the surface marred? .The prime coat spray is contaminated. crumbly paint falls off the booth. Why? . Why? .It s cleaned only once a week.Loose.Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE The 5 Whys Example Problem: Surface defects have been discovered on 25 of the car door panels produced during the last five weeks of production.

Inspection plan didn t contain instructions . Why? . 67 .Don t know.Significant characteristics not defined. Why? . Why? .Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE The 5 Whys Example Why did defects go undetected? .No communication between QA and Manufacturing.

Involves individuals who are familiar with the problem. 68 .Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Brainstorming A useful technique for gathering ideas and information.

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Brainstorming Prepare participants Conduct the session Analyze ideas Select and rank possible causes 69 .

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Cause-and-Effect Analysis Cause-andPeople Equipment Temperature Attitude Training Skills Power Speed Vibration Age Materials Qualit y Nonconforming Products Measuremen t Frequency Accuracy Oil Dirt Methods Environment 70 .

of Copies Time of Day Paper Loading Amount Paper Thickness Type Toner Dirt Humidity Time of Year Environment Weight Color Original Darkness Size Image Alignment Rejected Copy Operator Materials 71 .Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Cause-and-Effect Analysis Cause-andMachine Drum Worn Parts Maintenance Interval Maintenance Interval Weight Limitation Copy Glass Scratches Setup/Reset Previous Experience Size Control Intensity No.

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Check Sheet Department/ Shift: Customer Service Data Collector(s): Team 4 Prepared By: Bill W Data Source: Reason for Return Forms Sample Size/ Time Period: 180 returns 72 .

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Pareto Diagram 73 .

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Verifying the Root Cause Provides objective proof of effectiveness.  Proven by making the problem come and go .  74 .

How did the mixed batch occur? .Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Examples of Step 4: Determine the Root Cause Example 1: Mixed Batch  The fact that a customer was reporting the problem of the mixed batch meant that the corrective action team had two problems to solve: .How did it escape detection and reach the customer? 75 .

autoThey had already confirmed with the patch vendor that the two parts were not there at the same time and therefore could not have been mixed. auto- 76 . There were only two places where the mix could have occurred: at the auto-inspection machine or during the patch operation.Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Examples of Step 4: Determine the Root Cause Example 1: Mixed Batch Cont d The team began brainstorming the possible causes of the mixed batch. So they turned their attention back to the auto-inspection process.

However.Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Examples of Step 4: Determine the Root Cause Example 1: Mixed Batch Cont d As mentioned earlier. they found that this was indeed the case. When the team checked the production records. there was the possibility that the two parts had run through the machine in consecutive batches. the integrity of the auto-inspection machine is checked on an hourly basis by running through a purposely mixed batch. 77 . The team had already reviewed the p chart results and concluded that the machine was running properly.

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Examples of Step 4: Determine the Root Cause Example 1: Mixed Batch Cont d    They concluded that the mixing occurred within the conveyor system that transfers the parts between the auto-inspection automachine and the packaging tote shuttle . in other words. 78 . The parts from one run had not been purged completely from the conveyor system prior to running the next job. they were able to begin developing an appropriate problem solving. Now that the team had identified the root cause. after the final inspection.

Cont d STEP 4: DETERMINE THE ROOT CAUSE Examples of Step 4: Determine the Root Cause Example 2: Incorrect Helix Angle  The fact that a customer was reporting the problem meant that the team had two problems to solve: .How did the problem escape detection and reach the customer? 79 .What happened to cause the threads to be at the wrong angle? .

ROOT CAUSE STATEMENT Project Name: Root Cause: 80 .


82 . you ll find out how to verify the effectiveness of a solution before you implement it on a broad scale.STEP 5: CHOOSE A CORRECTIVE ACTION Now it is appropriate to start developing solutions to the problem. you ll learn about some of the factors to consider when determining possible solutions And. In this step.

83 . Consider other effects a solution may have. Come up with at least two potential solutions.Cont d STEP 5: CHOOSE A CORRECTIVE ACTION Guidelines for Developing Solutions Reconfirm the root cause.

Cont d


Criteria for Effective Solutions
Impact on the customer

Cost Time


Cont d


Criteria for Effective Solutions
Ease of Implementation

Scope of Authority

Ability to Mistake-proof


Cont d


Consensus Decision Making
Preferred method for choosing an action. A collective agreement, not a compromise. Generally produces the most effective long-term solutions.

Cont d STEP 5: CHOOSE A CORRECTIVE ACTION Verifying Corrective Actions Verify before implementing. . .Produces different before and after conditions. Effectiveness must be measurable .After condition does not create another problem. 87 .After condition completely eliminates the problem.

 They identified the root cause as a failure to purge the machine completely of the parts from one run before running the next job. 88 .Cont d STEP 5: CHOOSE A CORRECTIVE ACTION Examples of Step 5: Choose A Corrective Action Example 1: Mixed Batch  Earlier the team determined that the mixing of product had occurred within the conveyor system that transfers parts from the auto-inspection machine to the packaging autotote shuttle.

This will ensure that any part remaining in the transfer conveyor from the previous job will be rejected by the auto-inspection machine and won t be included in autothe current job. .Spot audits are to be conducted to be sure that p chart samples are being performed on an hourly basis. .In a change of procedure. 89 .Clean-out procedures are to be reviewed with all auto-inspection Cleanautopersonnel to be sure everyone understands the procedure and follows it consistently. the first tote of each job is to be rerun through the machine. as required.Cont d STEP 5: CHOOSE A CORRECTIVE ACTION Examples of Step 5: Choose A Corrective Action Example 1: Mixed Batch Cont d Three corrective actions were decided on: .


91 . so their implementation must be carefully planned to ensure their success. and make the changes a permanent part of the process or system. carry it out.STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Corrective actions always involve making changes. This session explains how to develop an implementation plan.

Can be started during Step 5. May vary according to extent of corrective action.Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Implementation Plan Helps to ensure that all aspect of implementation are considered. 92 .

Single.Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Implementation Plan Elements Scope of implementation .Staged roll-outs to multiple areas? 93 . comprehensive action? .

Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Implementation Plan Elements Methods of quantifying results .How long? .What evidence will indicate success? Validation period .How will effects be measured? .What periodic checks will be made? 94 .

Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Implementation Plan Elements Roles and responsibilities Communication plan .How and when will they be told? 95 .What will others be told? .

No other problems arise. 96 . Keep written records.It s effective .Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Executing the Plan Monitor results to ensure that: .

update procedures.Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Instituting Changes Discontinue temporary fixes Revise. Announce the changes. 97 .

So far these actions have proven effective.The practice of rerunning the first tote of product has been initiated to ensure there is no carry-over between jobs. . 98 . .Cont d STEP 6: IMPLEMENT AND VALIDATE THE CORRECTIVE ACTION Examples of Step 6: Implement and Validate the Corrective Action Example 1: Mixed Batch   The team implemented and validated the three proposed corrective actions: . There have been no more reports of mixed batches.All auto-inspection personnel underwent a review of machine clean-out procedures.Spot audits are being performed to verify that p chart samples are being used.


To produce the greatest gains. they should also explore the process or system in which the problem occurred. 100 . This session explains how to identify ways to prevent problems from recurring and to prevent other similar problems from occurring in the future.STEP 7: PREVENT RECURRENCE Corrective action efforts should focus on more than fixing an identified problem.

.Appoint a champion. .Cont d STEP 7:PREVENT RECURRENCE Analyze the System . . 101 . . process parameters.Look at the entire system or process.Identify critical product characteristics. .Revaluate team membership.Review error-prevention methods.Check quality system.Ensure that the corrective action is irreversible. error.

Cont d STEP 7:PREVENT RECURRENCE Improve the System . 102 . .Monitor results.Institute changes.Carry out plan.Create plan for implementing improvements. . .

Cont d STEP 7:PREVENT RECURRENCE Examples of Step 7: Prevent Recurrence Example 1: Mixed Batch After implementing the corrective actions. the team staged a Kaizen event in which they focused their attention on making whatever additional changes were needed to improve the process and material flow in the inspection and transport area. 103 .


STEP 8: ACKNOWLEDGE THE IMPROVEMENT During this last step of the eight-step eightapproach to corrective action. This session discusses various means by which team members may be acknowledged for their work. 105 . it is important to formally acknowledge the success of the effort.

Proves value of correct action approach.Provides recognition of team s contributions. . .Cont d STEP 8: ACKNOWLEDGE THE IMPROVEMENT Benefits of Acknowledgement .Demonstrates organization s commitment. 106 .

Cont d STEP 8: ACKNOWLEDGE THE IMPROVEMENT Forms of Acknowledgement .Recognition outside the team * Who should receive information? * How should it be announced? 107 .Recognition within the team .

108 . acronyms. straightforward language. Avoid technical terms. Mention those involved. jargon. Describe in business terms.Cont d STEP 8: ACKNOWLEDGE THE IMPROVEMENT Announcing the Improvement Use simple.

Cont d STEP 8: ACKNOWLEDGE THE IMPROVEMENT Acknowledge with Rewards Follow organization s policies. 109 . Be creative meaningful rewards don t need to be costly.

Their progress is reported on and discussed within the company.Cont d STEP 8: ACKNOWLEDGE THE IMPROVEMENT Examples of Step 8: Acknowledge the Improvement Background Long term continuous improvements efforts that require weeks or months of effort are sometimes treated differently. there may be a victory celebration 110 . Team members may be given special shirts to wear to signify their association with the project. at the project s conclusion. And.

PROJECT DEFINITION WORKSHEET Project Name:_______________________________________________ Project Owner(s):____________________________________________ Project Sponsor(s):___________________________________________ Stakeholders:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Critical Business Initiative or Metric:_____________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Improvement Target Definition:________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 111 .

PROJECT DEFINITION WORKSHEET Problem: (Cost each time it occurs) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Frequency of the Problem: (How often does it occur) __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Cost of the Problem Each Year: (Cost of the Problem multiplied by the occurrence per year) __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Expected Cost of the Solution: (What is the planned budget for this team?) __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Return on Investment: (Yearly cost of the problem minus the cost of the solution) __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 112 .

PROJECT DEFINITION WORKSHEET Has containment been started: (Y/N Describe current containment) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Will this problem go away by itself?: (Y/N and why?) __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ History of this (and similar) problems: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ What is the problem s future impact?: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 113 .


Document Your Solution

Sell Your Solution

Effect the Change

Monitor the Solution 114

A ROI calculation shows how much money was made (or saved) by a project divided by how much it cost.
RM 14,000 = 700% ROI RM 2,000

If a project saves RM 14,000 and cost RM 2,000, then it has a 700% Return on Investment.

The case study is simply a written story of what your team did and how they did it. It serves to give credit to team members for their contribution. It also lets other problem solving teams learn what you did. This includes your mistakes as well as your successes. Be candid and warn others of pitfalls along the way.

Cont d CASE STUDY Often times your solution will be translatable to other areas of the business. A good case study can save a lot of time and effort. But remember to send case studies you develop on later teams also. The case study you develop in class will automatically be added. 117 . Add the case study to your Resource Library.

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