Seminar on Android OS

Guided By: Prof. S. Y. Thakur

What is Android Operating System

‡ Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system. ‡ It is developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. ‡ It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code. ‡ An open platform for developers, users & industry. ‡ Android is open source/free software

History
‡ ‡ ‡ In July 2005, Google acquired Android, Inc. Android has been available under free software / open source license since 21 October 2008. Various Versions of Android are:1) 1.1 Released on 9 February 2009 2) 1.5 (Cupcake) released on 30 April 2009 3) 1.6 (Donut) released on 15 September 2009 4) 2.0/2.1 (Eclair) released on 26 October 2009 5) 2.2 (Froyo) released on 20 May 2010.

Architecture

Architecture of Android includes
‡ Linux Kernel:Android Architecture is based on Linux 2.6 kernel

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Libraries:In the next level there are a set of native libraries written in C/C++, which are responsible for stable performance of various components.

‡ Android Runtime:It was designed specifically for Android running in limited environment, where the limited battery, CPU, memory and data storage are the main issues.

‡ Application Framework:It is a toolkit that all applications use, ones which come with mobile device like Contacts or SMS box, or applications written by Google and any Android developer.

‡ Application Layer:At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications, which are used by the final user

Technology
‡ Application Building Blocks:Application Building Blocks includes:1) Activity 2) Intent Receiver 3) Service 4) Content Provider

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AndroidManifest.xml:A developer should predefine and list all components, which he wants to use in the specific AndroidManifest.xml file. Software Development Kit:It includes a comprehensive set of development tools. These include a debugger, libraries, a handset emulator (based on QEMU), documentation, sample code, and tutorials.

Features of Android OS
1. 2. Application Framework:It is used to write applications for Android.

Dalvik Virtual Machine:It is extremely low-memory based virtual machine, which was designed especially for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations.

3. Integrated Browser:It has an Web Kit as open source web browser.

4. Optimized Graphics:It has a great Graphical Interface. Etc

Applications of Android OS
1. Calendar:It stores various notes on the Calendar and Birth days of our Friends and Relatives and it also shows date to stores the Future activities.

2. Maps:Maps you can always find that hidden restaurant or bar that everyone¶s talking about.

3. Web Browser:It includes LibWebCore which is a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view.

4. Additional Hardware Support:It is fully capable of utilizing video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, compasses, accelerometers, and accelerated 3D graphics. Etc.

Advantages
1) Open:Android allows you to access core mobile device functionality through standard API calls.

2) All applications are equal:Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and thirdparty applications -- even the dialer or home screen can be replaced.

3) Breaking down boundaries:Combine information from the web with data on the phone -- such as contacts or geographic location -- to create new user experiences.

4) Fast and easy development:The SDK contains what you need to build and run Android applications, including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.

Disadvantages
1) Security:Making source code available to everyone inevitably invites the attention of black hat hackers.

2) Open Source:A disadvantage of open-source development is that anyone can scrutinize the source code to find vulnerabilities and write exploits.

3) Login:Platform doesn't run on an encrypted file system and has a vulnerable log-in.

4) Incompetence:The dependence on hardware and carrier partners puts the final product out of their control.

Conclusion
‡ Android is a disruptive technology, which was introduced initially on mobile handsets, but has much wider potential.

‡ Android is open to all: industry, developers and users. Participating in many of the successful open source projects.

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