Slide 1.

1

An Introduction to Operations Strategy

Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis, Operations Strategy, 2nd Edition, © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008

Slide 1.2

What is Operations Strategy

Operations + Strategy

Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis, Operations Strategy, 2nd Edition, © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008

Slide 1.3

What is operations?
According to the Input-TransformationalOutput model, Operations Management can be defined as “the activity of managing the resources and processes that produce and deliver goods and services.”

Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis, Operations Strategy, 2nd Edition, © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008

Slide 1.4

Operations management and strategy requires analysis at three levels
Flow between operations

Analysis at the level of the supply network
Flow between processes

Analysis at the level of the operation Analysis at the level of the process
Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis, Operations Strategy, 2nd Edition, © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008

Flow between resources

Slide 1.5

What is operations?
Operations Management relates to the management of the value addition of inputs to transform them into outputs. It does this so as to: • Reduce Costs • Increase Revenue • Reduce Investment • Increase Development

Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis, Operations Strategy, 2nd Edition, © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008

it is about the preparations made before battle. In part. Strategy is an abstraction. Strategy is ubiquitous. position. ploy and perspective. the first step in linking the means or resources at our disposal with the ends or results we hold in view." Strategy is a set of decisions made. It has no concrete form or substance. At one and the same time strategy says. governmental. It is everywhere. Strategy is a general plan of attack. Operations Strategy. military and organizational endeavor and in small. What business are we in? What products and services will we offer? To whom? At what prices? On what terms? Against which competitors? On what basis will we compete? Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. pattern. before the enemy is engaged. an approach to a problem. 2nd Edition. "We are headed there — by this path. Strategy is direction and destination.Slide 1. Strategy is the art of the general. It can be found at the highest levels of corporate. a construct. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . medium and large units.6 What is strategy? Strategy is many things: plan. But it is also about avoiding battle and making combat unnecessary.

and where the objective is to realize advantage over your competition. 2nd Edition. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .Slide 1.7 What is strategy? Strategy is involved in areas where the horizon is long term. where there is a competition for the use of resources. Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . The fact that the qualities required for involving one in strategic change are different from those required for operational control.8 Strategy and Operations There are basic differences in the nature of strategic management and operations management. Operations Strategy.Slide 1. Strategic Management Ambiguous Complex Organization wide Fundamental Long-term Implications Operational Management Routinized Operationally Specific Short-term Implications Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. 2nd Edition. has to be recognized.

9 How is operations strategy different from operations management? Operations management Short-term Timescale e. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . capacity decisions Demand Operations strategy Long-term Demand 1 – 12 months 1 – 10 years Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Operations Strategy.g. 2nd Edition.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy.Slide 1.10 How is operations strategy different from operations management? Operations management Micro Level of analysis Concerned with the macro operation (level of the firm) Operations strategy Macro Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. 2nd Edition.

Slide 1.11 How is operations strategy different from operations management? Operations management Detailed Operations strategy Aggregated Level of aggregation (Concerned with resources at an aggregated level) ‘Can we give tax services to the small business market in Antwerp?’ ‘What is overall business advice capability compared with other capabilities?’ Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition.

12 How is operations strategy different from operations management? Operations management Concrete Operations strategy Philosophical Level of abstraction (Concerned with the conceptual) ‘How do we improve our purchasing procedures?’ ‘Should we develop strategic alliances with suppliers?’ Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

… and their contribution to overall strategy… … through the on-going reconciliation of market requirements and operations resources … … so as to achieve a sustainable fit between the two … … whilst managing the risks of misalignment’. 2nd Edition..13 Operations strategy is … ‘… the total pattern of decisions … … that shape the long-term capabilities … … of any type of operation . Operations Strategy.. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1.

Slide 1. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .14 Operations management and strategy requires analysis at three levels Flow between operations Analysis at the level of the supply network Flow between processes Strategic analysis Analysis at the level of the operation Analysis at the level of the process Flow between resources Operational analysis Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. 2nd Edition.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition.Slide 1.15 Decomposing the ratio profit/total assets to derive the four strategic decision areas of operations strategy Profit Total assets = Output Total assets × Profit Output Profit Output Revenue Output Average revenue Output Output Fixed assets Capacity = × Total assets × Fixed assets Total assets Capacity Utilisation Working capital Productivity of fixed assets Supply network Process Development technology and organisation Cost Output Average cost = Operations strategy Capacity decision areas Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

Operations Strategy.Slide 1. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .16 What is operations strategy? • Four perspectives on operations strategy • The top-down perspective – operations strategy should interpret higher-level strategy • The bottom-up perspective – operations strategy should learn from day-to-day experience Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

Slide 1. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy. bottom-up. market requirements and operations resources Top-down Operations strategy should interpret higher level strategy Operations resources Operations strategy should build operations capabilities Market requirements Operations strategy should satisfy the organisation’s markets Operations strategy should learn from day-to-day experiences Bottom-up Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.17 The four perspectives on operations strategy – top-down.

2nd Edition. and operations resources Corporate strategy Business strategy Top-down Capacity Supply networks Operations Process technology resources Development and organisation Quality Speed Market Dependability requirements Flexibility Cost Bottom-up Emergent sense of what the strategy should be Operational experience Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.18 Operations strategy must reflect four perspectives – top-down. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . market requirements. bottom-up.Slide 1.

2nd Edition. influence Operations Strategy Top down Corporate strategy Business strategy Operations strategy Emergent sense of what the strategy should be Day-to-day experience of providing products and services to the market reveals problems and potential solutions which become formalised into Operations Strategy Operational experience Bottom up Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . in turn.19 Top-down and bottom-up perspectives of strategy for the Metrology Company Corporate objectives impact on business objectives which.

Slide 1. Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition. influence Operations Strategy Top down Group building corporate capability in high technology products and services Metrology division competes on ‘fast-tomarket’ innovations Operations must have fast and flexible technology.20 Top-down and bottom-up perspectives of strategy for the Metrology Company Corporate objectives impact on business objectives which. in turn. supply relationships. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . process and staff Modular strategy provides flexibility and innovation at relatively low cost Experiment with ‘modular’ design of key products and components Day-to-day experience of providing products and services to the market reveals problems and potential solutions which become formalised into Operations Strategy Customers confused by continual product innovation and costs are increasing Bottom up Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .21 Market and Resource perspective • The market requirements perspective – operations strategy should satisfy the organization's markets • The operations resource perspectives – operations strategy should build operations capabilities Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.Slide 1. 2nd Edition.

Operations Strategy.22 Market and Resource perspective Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .Slide 1. 2nd Edition.

Operations Strategy.23 Operations strategy reconciles the requirements of the market with the capabilities of operations resources Strategic reconciliation Operations resources OPERATIONS STRATEGY Market requirements Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .Slide 1. 2nd Edition.

Slide 1. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy.24 Operations strategy is the strategic reconciliation of market requirements with operations resources Tangible and intangible resources Operations capabilities Operations strategy decision areas Customer needs Performance objectives Market positioning Operations processes Competitors’ actions Required performance Quality Speed Dependability Flexibility Cost Understanding markets Understanding resources and processes Strategic decisions Capacity Supply networks Process technology Development and organisation Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. 2nd Edition.

25 Market requirements and Operations Resources Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition.

low margins) Exhibitions (slow growth. higher margins Market position Traditionally differentiated on high service level in theatre and exhibition markets.Slide 1. Operations Strategy.26 The ‘market requirements’ and ‘operations resource’ analysis of the lighting company Resources Equipment Staff Reputation Relationships (internal and external) Experience Capabilities Application of leading edge lighting and sound technology Articulation of client requirements Customers Professional theatres (static. (fast growth. innovation and service in conference market Competitors Big groups dominating professional theatres In-house operations growing in exhibitions market Conference market still fragmented Operations strategy decisions Location Virtual reality technology Supplier development Equipment racking system Organisational structure Staff meetings Performance objectives Aesthetically innovative designs Presentation advice High customisation of lighting solutions Fast and dependable supply Processes Integration of equipment supply and client requirements Design process Supplier liaison process Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition. low margins) Conferences etc.

Operations Strategy.27 The market perspective analysis of the garment company CUSTOMERS Segmentation on: Age – youth Purpose – general PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Dependability Speed of delivery Product mix flexibility Speed to market MARKET POSITION Differentiation on: Innovative products Time to market Product range Coordinated launches COMPETITORS Traditionally weak in: promotion design innovation Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .Slide 1. Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition.28 Resources Tangible: Equipment Staff Intangible: Reputation Relationships (internal and external) Experience Capabilities Application of leadingedge lighting and sound technology Articulation of client requirements Processes Integration of equipment supply and client requirements Design process Supplier liaison process The operations resource perspective analysis of the lighting company Operations strategy decisions Location Virtual reality technology Supplier development Equipment tracking systems Organisational structure Staff meetings Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition.Slide 1.29 Operations resources Market requirements What you HAVE in terms of operations capabilities What you DO to maintain your capabilities and satisfy markets What you WANT from your operations to help you ‘compete’ What you NEED to ‘compete’ in the market Strategic reconciliation Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition. ‘… the decisions which shape the long-term capabilities of the company’s operations and their contribution to overall strategy through the on-going reconciliation of market requirements and operations resources …’ Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Operations Strategy.30 Operations strategy is …..

31 The sectoral scope of operations strategy Products or services? Manufacturing or non-manufacturing? For profit or not-for-profit? What is operations strategy about? Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition. Operations Strategy.Slide 1.

32 Product life cycle Decline Stage 1: Production Introduction stage Stage 2: Growth Stage Stage 3: Maturity Stage Stage 4: Decline or Extinction Stage Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition.Slide 1. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

Slide 1. 2nd Edition. Operations Strategy.33 The effects of the product/service life cycle on operations performance objectives Sales volume Growth in market acceptance Introduction into market Innovators Early adopters Increasing numbers Availability Price Range Speed Dependability Quality Bulk of market Stable numbers Low price Dependable supply Range Quality Cost Dependability Maturity of market. sales level off Decline as market become saturated Customers Laggard Declining numbers Low price Competitors Few /none Likely order Product/service winners specification Likely order Quality qualifiers Range Dominant operations performance objectives Flexibility Quality Dependable supply Cost Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition. performance or novelty Quality Range Flexibility Quality Growth Availability of quality products/services Maturity Low price Dependable supply Quality Range Cost Dependability Decline Low price Likely qualifiers Price Range Dependable supply Cost Dominant operations performance objectives Speed Dependability Quality Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1.34 The effects of the product/service life cycle on the organisation Sales volume Introduction Likely order winners Product/service characteristics. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

2nd Edition.35 Technology Life Cycle • • • • • Phase I – Technology Development Phase II – Application Launch Phase III– Application Growth Phase IV– Mature Technology Phase V – Technology Substitution Product Process Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy.

Slide 1.36 Order Qualifiers & Winners Qualifiers are the ‘givens’ of doing business KEEPING THE CUSTOMER SATISFIED •DESIGN •QUALITY •RELIABILITY •DELIVERY •SERVICE •CUSTOMISATION •ETC. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Order Winners gain more business the better you are Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 The Kano Model .37 Quality Function Development Quality Function Deployment is an approach to understanding the customer’s requirements and incorporating it in the design specifications of the product. Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. 2nd Edition. To determine customer needs. QFD uses the Kano Model. Operations Strategy.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .38 Qualifiers are the ‘givens’ of doing business Order Winners gain more business the better you are Adding Delights Delights become Order winners and Order winners become Qualifiers Positive Delights Competitive benefit Order winners Neutral Qualifiers e Tim Negative Low Achieved performance High Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition.

Slide 1. Operations Strategy. Order Winners and Delights ? … and in the future ? What is the operation doing today to develop the capabilities which will provide the ‘Delights’ of the future ? Today Delights Tomorrow ??? Order winners Qualifiers Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition.39 What performance objectives are Qualifiers.

Slide 1.40 The operations strategy matrix • The internal and external effects of the performance objectives • The relative priority of performance objectives • Decision areas • Structural and infrastructural decisions Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition.

2nd Edition. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .41 Decision Areas Operations strategy Capacity decision areas Supply network Process Development technology and organisation Structural Issues primarily influence the physical arrangement and configuration of operational resources. Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1. Infrastructural issues influence the activities that take place within the operations structure.

Slide 1.42 Operations strategy decision areas are partly structural and partly infrastructural Capacity Supply network Process technology Development and organisation Structural issues Infrastructural issues Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. 2nd Edition. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .Slide 1.43 Requirements • Market Requirements – – – – – – – – – Quality Speed Dependability Flexibility Cost • Operations Requirements Capacity Supply network Process technology Development and organisation Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

44 The operations strategy matrix Resource usage Performance objectives Speed Dependability Flexibility Cost Capacity Supply network Process technology Development and organisation Operations strategy Decision areas Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 Market competitiveness Quality .Slide 1. 2nd Edition. Operations Strategy.

Operations Strategy.Slide 1. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .45 Polar diagram for Newspaper Collection (NC) and General Recycling (GR) services Newspaper collection service Cost General recycling service Speed Dependability Quality Flexibility Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

X as much per store as nearest rival History of cautious expansion and technical and service innovation ‘Field Counsellors’ spread operations knowledge (also distance training) Expansion by territory to reduce distribution costs Early use of TIS (Total Information System) TIS controls stock replenishment by twice a day delivery (sales analysed twice a day) New systems not Internet-based New service includes: Bank terminals Downloading games Downloading music to MD Internet ordering and collection Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . Operations Strategy.46 7-Eleven Japan Largest retailer in Japan Sells 15.Slide 1.

Slide 1. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 Market Competitiveness Speed and dependability combined to indicate AVAILABILITY .47 RESOURCE DEPLOYMENT QUALITY of products and services Distribution centre grouping by temperature  Distribution centres and inventory management systems give fast stock replenishment  TIS allows trends to be forecast and supply adjustments made  COST in terms of minimising… •operating cost •capital cost •working capital Area dominance reduces distribution and advertising costs  Common distribution centers give small frequent deliveries from fewer sources  TIS gives comprehensive and sophisticated analysis of sales & supply patterns daily  Field counsellors with sales data help stores to minimise waste and increase sales  Information sharing and parenting system spreads service ideas  FLEXIBILITY of response to sales and customer trends •Location of stores •Size of stores •Number and type of distribution centres •Order and stock replenishment •The Total •Franchisee •New 7-11 JAPAN    Pivotal Critical Secondary CAPACITY Information System (TIS) relationships product/service development •Approach to operations improvement DEVELOPMENT AND ORGANISATION SUPPLY NETWORKS PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy. 2nd Edition.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 Competitiveness Speed . 2nd Edition.Slide 1.48 The operations function can provide a competitive advantage through its performance at the five competitive objectives Quality Being RIGHT Being FAST Dependability Being ON TIME Flexibility Being ABLE TO CHANGE Cost Being PRODUCTIVE Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.

vacation takers. pick-up service Economy class Economy cabin Customers Wealthy people.49 First/Business class Services First/Business-class cabin. convenience Price. Flexibility. comfort features. cost-sensitive business travel Standardised cabin Relatively low Relatively high volume Low to medium Service range Rate of service innovation Volume of activity Profit margins Main competitive factors Customisation. business people. airport lounges. acceptable service Performance objectives Quality (specification and conformance). extra service. Speed Cost. may need to be customised Relatively high Relatively low volume Medium to high Travellers (friends and family). Quality (conformance) Different product groups require different performance objectives Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy. VIPs Wide range. 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .Slide 1.

Slide 1.50 Hospital Presentation of symptoms Visit to doctor for advice and tests Enquiry time Test information confirms diagnosis Decide on surgery Waiting time Enter hospital for surgery Procedure successfully completed Installation time Patient fully recovered Milestone Awareness of need Software producer Customer decides new software is needed Enquiry decision time Asks for specification and estimates Receives proposal Customer decision time Request for information Receipt of information Request for product/service Places order Start of design and coding Core processing time Software ‘completed’ Software fully debugged and working Start of core processing End of core processing ‘Installed’ product/service fully operational Significant ‘milestone’ times for the delivery of two products/services Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition.

51 The VW Group operates 45 production plants in eleven European countries and a further seven countries in the Americas.000 employees produce over 21. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition. Around the world. more than 336. Asia and Africa. Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.Slide 1.500 vehicles or are involved in vehicle-related services on every working day. Operations Strategy.

2nd Edition. service standards 1949–1958 Intended strategy realised Car ideal for post-war conditions Rapid expansion in volume No new models (work on new model halted in 1954) Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. technical.‘People’s Car’ 1920s Government support 1934 – plant on stream • • • • • • • • • • 1939 1939 War – plant turned to production of war vehicles 1948 Nordhoff put in charge 1948 Nordhoff takes half a strategy – people’s car Adds emphasis on quality. Operations Strategy. export.Slide 1. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .52 Operations strategy of volkswagenwerk 1920–2004 Before 1939 Ferdinand Porshe .

front wheeled drive.increased advertising . 2nd Edition. reliability and service 1976–1989 Golf established as market leader Continued emphasis on technical excellence Old designs periodically fashionable Main European competitor seen as Fiat Some pressure from Japanese manufacturing Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. watercooled Other lines dropped Production rationalised on world basis Marketing emphasised performance. stylish.design started for 1500 Original strategy unchanged in essentials 1960–1964 1500 model introduced Sales increased but profits squeezed • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1965–1975 Pressures of competition become severe New strategy from audi .Slide 1. Operations Strategy.53 1959–1964 Increased competition and changes in tastes Response . © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .54 1990–1996 Increasing pressure on costs from Japanese manufacturers German labour costs and exchange rate are disadvantageous Latterly European recession increases pressure Cost cutting measures – East European plant – aggressive purchasing • • • • 1997–2000 Developing separate branding strategies to occupy different market segments Develop separate products from common platforms to reduce cost Continue aggressive cost reduction and process improvement • • • 2001 Modify common platform policy to ease brand erosion • • • 2002/5 Renewed cost pressures focus attention on input costs also hit by scandals!! 2006 Sales recovering. speculation over Russian plant Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.Slide 1.

Operations Strategy. simple robust vehicle 1959–1964 Minor Minor change and reconfiguration for new model continuity New 1500 model Maturing. any working vehicle 1952–1958 Continuity of strategy Systemisation of resources and process Standardised design Maturing.55 Market requirements.Slide 1. 2nd Edition. operations resources and strategic reconciliation at VW over 70 years Operations resources 1946–1951 Implementing strategy Building up capacity and capability Strategic reconciliation Simple design Market requirements Emerging. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . sophisticated performance. quality Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis.

style and variety Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition. quality and variety 1976–1979 Continuing with minor changes Accommodate new models and acquisitions Product development paths Segmentation around performance.56 Market requirements.Slide 1. operations resources and strategic reconciliation at VW over 70 years Operations resources Fragmented acquisition of new resources 1965–1970 Search for viable strategy Strategic reconciliation Multiple new designs Market requirements Uncertain rejection of VW traditional products 1971–1975 Emergent strategy Adapt best practices from enlarged group Defined range Clarifying around style.

© Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 . 2nd Edition. operations resources and strategic reconciliation at VW over 70 years Operations resources 1990–1996 Major change (internal) Drastic reconfiguration to increase efficiency.57 Market requirements. quality. and style 2001–2007 Implementing strategy Lean process improvement and more low-cost locations Modular design Increasingly competitive around price and innovation Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. reduce costs Strategic reconciliation Design for low.Slide 1.cost manufacture Market requirements Increasingly competitive around price 1997–2000 Implementing strategy Continuous process improvement and cost reduction Common product platforms Branding with price. Operations Strategy.

Slide 1. Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis. Operations Strategy.58 Click to edit company slogan . 2nd Edition. © Nigel Slack and Michael Lewis 2008 .

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