ABOUT THE AUTHOR

‡ I have experience in CAD/CAM/CAE for about 2 years. ‡ I have good learning experience in GD&T. ‡ I hope this PPT will be useful to all of you.
» Presented by K. P. RAJA RATHINAM » Contact id: rajafrds@gmail.com

What is GD&T?
‡Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T) is a symbolic language for researching, re¿ning, and encoding the function of each feature of a part. ‡Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is an important design tool that has gained worldwide acceptance for its ability to accurately control tolerances while allowing maximum manufacturing flexibility to control costs. ‡In addition to enabling unambigu-ous decoding to communicate design intent to manufacturing and quality assurance, GD&T enables scienti¿c tolerance stack-up analysis, and is therefore in a position to absolutely guarantee the assemblability of in-tolerance mating parts. ‡ It consists of concepts, tools, rules, and processes, which are described in various military, national and ISO standards,and are set forth in this document in abbreviated form.

GD&T STANDARDS
‡ ANSI Y14.5 ‡ The ANSI standard was revised in 1982. ‡ In 1994, the standard was moved form ANSI to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the name changed to ASME Y14.5. ‡ The standard was also revised into its current form of ASME Y14.5-1994. ‡ Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

‡GD&T uses symbols to communicate the information to those involved in making the part to eliminate any misunderstanding.
DESIGN

COMPLETION DRAWING

ASSEMBLING

MACHINING

GD&T Introduction
Drawing quality is an important issue for manufacturing:‡ Flawed drawings can cause mistakes in the product. ‡ Poor drawings can easily double manufacturing costs and delivery time. ‡ Most manufacturing and quality engineers agree that 50% of the drawing they see are flawed and Require 5 to 10 engineering changes before they define a manufacturable part. ‡ Common problems include: 1. Undefined reference frames. 2. Inadequate or overly restrictive tolerances.
3. Frequently, manufacturing makes assumptions about the intent of the design engineer and problems ensue.

Geometric Tolerance ‡ Definition: Allowance for specific variation in
the size and geometry of a part

1. Why is tolerancing necessary?
‡ It is impossible to manufacture a part to an exact size or geometry ‡ Since variation from the drawing is inevitable the acceptable degree of variation must be specified ‡ Large variation may affect the functionality of the part ‡ Small variation will effect the cost of the part 1. requires precise manufacturing 2. requires inspection and the rejection of parts

Functionality
‡ Assemblies: Parts will often not fit together if their
dimensions do not fall within a certain range of values

‡ Interchangeability: If a replacement part is used
it must be a duplicate of the original part within certain limits of deviation ‡ The relationship between functionality and size or shape of an object varies from part to part ± the usefulness of eyeglasses is extremely sensitive to size and shape ± the usefulness of glass marbles are not very sensitive to size and shape

How Is Tolerance Specified?
‡ Size
± Limits specifying the allowed variation in each dimension (length, width, height, diameter, etc.) are given on the drawing

‡ Geometry
± Geometric Tolerancing ‡ Allows for specification of tolerance for the geometry of a part separate from its size ‡ GDT (Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing) uses special symbols to control different geometric features of a part

General Tolerances
‡ A note may be placed on the drawing which specifies the tolerance for all dimensions except where individually specified ‡ ALL DECIMAL DIMENSIONS TO BE HELD TO 0.020 ‡ Several tolerances may be specified for dimensions with a different number of decimal places or for a different type of dimension such as angles ‡ Specific tolerances given to a dimension on a drawing always supersede general tolerances

Specific Tolerances
1. The tolerance for a single dimension may be specified with the dimension 2. The tolerance is total variation between the upper and Ø 0.25 + 0.03 lower limits (tolerance = .020)
-0.01

1.01 0.50 +0.020.99
-0.00

1.50±0.01 3.01 2.99

WAY OF EXPRESSING TOLERANCE
U n ila te ra l to le ra n c e B ila te ra l to le ra n c e 1 .0 0 0 .0 5 1 .0 0 + .0 5 -.0 2 1 .0 0 + .0 5 -.0 0 1 .0 0 + .0 0 -.0 2

U n ila te ra l p lu s to le ra n c e U n ila te ra l m in u s to le ra n c e P lu s lim its ,2 lin e s M in u s lim its ,2 lin e s P lu s lim its ,1 lin e s M in u s lim its ,1 lin e s

1 .0 5 .9 8 .9 8 1 .0 5 1 .0 5 , -.9 8 .9 8 , -1 .0 5

Specifying the tolerance for the assembly
‡ Fit between two matting components Tolerance on the shaft (external) & hole (internal) are derived using two approaches 1.Interchangability approach 2.Statistical approach

Definitions
‡ Nominal Size - The approximate size of a part. ‡ Actual Size - The measured size of a finished part. ‡ Basic Size - The exact theoretical size for a part, used to calculate the acceptable limits. ‡ Hole Basis - A system of fits based on the minimum hole size as the basic diameter

Tolerance - The total amount that features of the
part are permitted to vary from the specified dimension.

Least Material Condition - The condition in
which a feature of size contains the least amount of material everywhere within the stated limits of size.

Maximum Material Condition - The condition in
which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of material everywhere within the stated limits of size.

Limit Tolerance - When a dimension has its
high and low limits stated. In a limit tolerance, the high value is placed on top, and the low value is placed on the bottom.

Flatness in one plane.

is the condition of a surface having all elements

Straightness -

a condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line.

Cylindricity - describes a condition of a surface of revolution
in which all points of a surface are equidistant from a common axis.

Perpendicularity - is the condition of a surface, axis,
or line, which is 90 deg. From a datum plane or a datum axis.

Parallelism - is the condition of a surface, line, or axis,
which is equidistant at all points from a datum plane or axis.

Angularity - is the condition of a surface, axis, or
centerplane, which is at a specified angle from a datum plane or axis.

Position Tolerance - defines a zone within which the
axis or center plane of a feature is permitted to vary from true (theoretically exact) position

Concentricity - describes a condition in which two or
more features , in any combination, have a common axis.

Symmetry - is a condition in which a feature (or
features) is symmetrically disposed about the center plane of a datum feature.

Total Runout -

the simultaneous composite control of all elements of a surface at all circular and profile measuring positions as the part is rotated through 360.

TO LERANCE TYPE

C H A C T E R IS T IC

SYM BOL

FOR IN D IV ID U A L FEATURES

FLATNESS

FORM

S T R A IG H T N E S S C Y L IN D R IC IT Y C IR C U L A R IT Y P R O F IL E O F A S U R F A C E

P R O F IL E FOR IN D IV ID U A L OR O R IE N T A T IO N RELATED FEATURES L O C A T IO N FOR RELATED FEATURES

P R O F IL E O F A L IN E P E R P E N D IC U L A R IT Y P A R A L L E L IS M A N G U L A R IT Y P O S IT IO N C O N C E N T R IC IT Y SYM M ETRY

RUN OUT

TOTAL RUNOUT C IR C U L A R R U N O U T

Maximum Material Condition (MMC)- is that
condition of a part feature wherein it contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size. That is: minimum hole size and maximum shaft size.

Least Material Condition (LMC) - implies that
condition of a part feature of size wherein it contains the least (minimum) amount of material, examples, largest hole size and smallest shaft size. It is opposite to maximum material condition. Projected Tolerance Zone - applies to a hole in which a pin, stud, screw, etc., is to be inserted. It controls the perpendicularity of the hole to the extent of the projection from the hole and as it relates to the mating part clearance. The projected tolerance zone extends above the surface of the part to the functional length of the pin, stud, and screw relative to its assembly with the mating part.

Free State Variations - is a term used to describe
distortion of a part after removal of forces applied during manufacture. Tangent Plane - indicating a tangent plane is shown. The symbol is placed in the feature control frame following the stated tolerance

Diameter - indicates a circular feature when used on
the field of a drawing or indicates that the tolerance is diametrical when used in a feature control frame.

Spherical Diameter - shall precede the tolerance
value where the specified tolerance value represents spherical zone. Also, a positional tolerance may be used to control the location of a spherical feature relative to other features of a part. The symbol for spherical diameter precedes the size dimension of the feature and the positional tolerance value, to indicate a spherical tolerance zone.

Radius - creates a zone defined by two arcs (the minimum
and maximum radii). The part surface must lie within this zone.

Spherical Radius - precedes the value of a dimension
or tolerance

Reference Dimension - a dimension usually without
tolerance, used for information purposes only. It does not govern production or inspection operations. (Auxiliary dimension in ISO)

Arc Length - indicating that a dimension is an arc length
measured on a curved outline. The symbol is placed above the dimension.

Statistical Tolerance - is the assigning of tolerances
to related components of an assembly on the basis of sound statistics (such as the assembly tolerance is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerances). By applying statistical tolerancing, tolerances of individual components may be increased or clearances between mating parts may be reduced. The increased tolerance or improved fit may reduce manufacturing cost or improve the product's performance, but shall only be employed where the appropriate statistical process control will be used.

Between - to indicate that a profile tolerance applies to
several contiguous features, letters may designate where the profile tolerance begins and ends. These letters are referenced using the between symbol (since 1994) or the word between on drawings made to earlier versions of the Standard.

Projected Tolerance Zone - applies to a hole in
which a pin, stud, screw, etc., is to be inserted. It controls the perpendicularity of the hole to the extent of the projection from the hole and as it relates to the mating part clearance. The projected tolerance zone extends above the surface of the part to the functional length of the pin, stud and screw relative to its assembly with the mating part

Ø 0.25 M P 10
Ø 0.25

Free State Variations - is a term used to
describe distortion of a part after removal of forces applied during manufacture.

EXAMPLE :Plastic Sheet metal Other flexible parts

Tolerancing Terms Nominal or Basic Size
The exact (ideal) size from which the limits are figured

-0.001 Ø2.000

Actual Size
The measured size of the finished parts
+0.004 -0.001

Ø1.000

Tolerancing Terms Limits
The Max and Min permissible sizes. 2.5070 & 2.5000 for the hole 2.4865 & 2.4910 for the shaft

Allowances
The Tightest fit between 2 mating parts. Smallest hole ± Largest shaft 2.5000 ± 2.4910

Fits
The degree of tightness or looseness between 2 assembled parts.

Basic Hole/Shaft System
System in which tolerances are based on a zero line on the hole or shaft.

Basic Hole/Shaft System
‡ Basic hole system ± uses the smallest hole size as the basic diameter. Best when machining tools are used. ‡ Basic shaft system ± uses the largest diameter as the basic diameter.

Fit Types Running and Sliding Fits (RC)
All fits in this class are intended to operate under running performance conditions.

Force and Shrink Fits (FN)
FN1 through FN5 produce a series of force or shrink fits. Used to transmit motion.

Fit Types
Location Fits (L -) Used for stationary assemblies.

Three types:
‡ Clearance (LC) ‡ Transition (LT) ‡ Interference (LN)

Clearance Fit (LC)

‡ Always results in a clearance allowance between the two parts. ‡ Used for stationary assemblies which can be freely assembled or disassembled.

Transition Fit (LT)

‡Produces either light clearance or light interference between the two mating parts. ‡Used when greater accuracy in assembly is needed.

Interference Fit (LN)

‡Always produces an interference between two mating parts. ‡Has a higher accuracy than LT fits.

Example:
‡Determine the dimensions of both the shaft and the hole. ‡Select the tolerance and do an allowance analysis. ‡Assume an RC5 fit for a basic diameter of 2.0000´

Control Radius
A Radius creates a tolerance zone defined by two arcs that are tangent to adjacent surface.

Minimum radius 2.1 Part contour

Maximum radius 2.7

STATISTICAL TOLERANCE
‡ Is tolerance designed to related constant of an assembly on the basis of sound statistical. ‡ Such as the assembly tolerance is equal to square roots of sum of square of the individual tolerance.

Ø10.14 ± 0.05

ST

PARTS OF FEATURE CONTROL FRAME
aterial condition modifier rimary datum

Size of tolerance zone shape of tolerance zone

Secondary datum

Teritary datum

Ø.007
Geometric Characteristic

A BC

RULE # 1
Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of size of an individual feature prescribe the extent to which variations in its form--as well as in its size--are allowed

RULE #2
RFS applies, with respect to the individual tolerance, datum reference, or both, where no modifying symbol is specified.

Virtual condition
‡Create a Virtual condition gauge While in position on the dental surveyor the location is referenced to the ±B- and ±A- datum. This constitutes a virtual condition gauge. ‡It is only when the cast is fixtured that the virtual condition is bound to the reality of the interposed rod embedded into the cast with resin.

FOR EXTERNAL FEATURE V =MM EOMETRIC TOLERANCE

F O R IN T E R N A L FEATURE VC C -G E O M E T R IC T O L E R A N C E

Resultant condition
A variable "worst case" boundary opposite the virtual condition that equals the feature's actual mating envelope and its location tolerance

Rc

C+Stated Geometric tolerance + any bonus

Datum Reference Frame
Three imaginary planes perpendicular to one another that are mapped onto the part and provide an anchor for relating part features to each other .

‡For the mating surface are fixing the datum

‡Degree of freedom can fix

Datum selection

Assembly

Contacting surface only give Datum

Parts with inclined feature

O.2 A B

Datum target
‡ A GD&T symbol in a print indicating the size, shape, and location for a matching gaging point, line, or surface that is used to position the part in the datum reference frame. Datum targets are most often used with rough or irregular parts

A

B

C

Datum reference frame

Form controls
‡Form controls is just like its sound, they control the acceptable variance in the shape of a feature. ‡Form is a characteristic that limits the shape the error of a part surface

There are 4 kinds Form control
Straightness 2D control Flatness 3D control Roundness 2D control Cylindricity 3D control Like Line Like Plane Like Circle Vary along Cylindrically

Straightness
‡ A two-dimensional geometric tolerance that controls how much a feature can deviate from a straight line.

Dial indicator 0 to 0.02

Surface cannot depend material condition

MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION

EAST MATERIAL CONDITION

CIRCULARITY
Describes a condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of a surface are equidistant from a common axis.
0.3

Tolerance Zone
‡This tolerance may be used for Cylindrical feature. ‡Such as corners or cylinders that require radial control around the feature.

0.3

CIRCULARITY FLOW CHART
1. Is the Datum reference specified

2. Any modifier applied

3.Control apply to circular element 4.Is the tolerance value less than diameter tolerance 5.Is the tolerance value refinement Of other geometric tolerance

Cylindricity
‡ describes a condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of a surface are equidistant from a common axis. 0.2
20.2 10.6 10.2 Ø 20.0

ANGULARITY
Is the condition of a surface, axis, or center plane, which is at a specified angle from a datum plane or axis.

0.09 A

30±0.2

PARALLELISM
Is the condition of a surface, line, or axis, which is equidistant at all points from a datum plane or axis.

LOCATION OF TOLERANCE
‡The section establish the principles of tolerance of location ‡Location tolerance defines maximum permissible deviation from this nominal

From deviation

Nom inal O rientation position deviation DATUM

Location deviation

CONCENTRICITY
Is the condition where the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of Auto cad cylinder are congruent with the axis of datum feature.
A

10.6 Ø 10.0

24.6 Ø 24.2
Ø0.2 A

CONCENTRICITY FLOW CHART
1. IS the feature control frame applied to Auto cad surface of revolution co-axial to the datum axis 2.Is the Datum reference specified
‡Single diameter sufficient length ‡Two diameter a part 3.Symbol feature control frame
ILLEGAL SPECIFICATION OF CONCENTRICITY

4.Any modifier applied
THIS IS LEGAL SPECI ICATION OF CONCENTRICITY

 

Position Tolerance
Defines a zone within which the axis or center plane of a feature is permitted to vary from true (theoretically exact) position.
Ø 1 0 0 .1 1 .5 0 0 .0 1

Ø 0 .1 M A B C

0 .5 0

0 .1

B C A

Circular Run out
Surface of revolution is cylindrical or Conical relative to a common axis or spherical relative to a common datum point, a run out tolerance is recommended. AB

A

B

Profile of a Surface
‡ Is the condition permitting a uniform amount of profile variation, ether unilaterally or bilaterally, on a surface.

0.4

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