Exploring Communication

Part 2 Models & Properties

Defining Models

What is a model?

?

Modeling Communication
• A model is simply an abstract representation • Used for:
• 1 - Explanation • 2 - Prediction • 3 - Control

Benefits of Models
• Models allow scholars to:
– Describe the overall process of comm – Explore a particular aspect of comm in detail – Illustrate a concept or theoretical framework – More effectively represent relationships

Limitations of Models
– Can lack the big picture – Often context specific - may need to be reacessed outside of the original context – May require supplemental info to understand

General Models of Communication
We’ll examine 3 general models:

Linear Model of Communication
Message Channel

Sender

Receiver

• Many early perspectives were linear. Comm described as:
• One Way - from sender to receiver • Something you do ‘to’ someone

Transactional Model of Communication
Environment Communicator Communication Communicator

– Simultaneous Exchange – Message/Feedback integrated into Communication – Mutual Influence – integrated into Communication – Environment added - both positive and negative impact

Specific Models of Communication
[ You don’t need to write this ] As we review these models keep the following in mind:
– Each of the following models illustrates specific aspects of comm, but may not describe the whole process – Ch. 3 “Comm & the Diffusion of Information” by Barnett discusses each model – You don’t need to copy the diagrams—posted on UB learns in a separate power point, included in lecture outline, and can be found in Ch. 2 & 3 – Exam Qs will cover the concepts associated w/ each model, not the diagram

Lasswell’s Model (1948)
Who? Says what? In which channel? To whom? and With what effect?

• One of the earliest models of comm. simple , organizational model
– Lacks several elements

Shannon-Weaver Model (1949)
Message Signal

Source

Transmitter

Noise Source

Received Signal

Receiver

Received Message

Destination

Describes mediated comm — comm via device
– Distinction b/w message & signal – Introduces physical noise & its impact – Linear

Gerbner’s Model (1956)
Person 1 M Event as perceived
Perceptual Dimension

E1
ce

Reflection, Context, Availability

E

Channels, Media, Control

So

Event

ur

Me ss a

Means & Control Dimension

ge Me ss a ge De

sti na

tio

n

Statement about event SE (Message)

SE1

SE
Form Content

Statement as perceived Person 2 M2

Gerbner’s Model
Two noteworthy foci:
2. Role of ______________ in comm. 2 instances of ______________ :
• ______________(SE) describing ______________ (E) based on ______________ (M) ______________ of it (E1) ______________ understanding of ______________ based on their ______________ (SE1) of ______________

Gerbner’s Model
1. Influence of ______________ . Besides ______________ , message ______________ influenced by:
• ____________________________ available & the particular one ______________ . The specific ______________ of that ______________ The ______________ using that ______________

• •

Berlo’s SMCR Model (1960)
S
Source Comm. Skills Attitude Knowledge Treatment Soc. System Culture Content Code Smelling Soc. System Culture Elements Structure

M
Message

C
Channel Seeing Hearing Touching

R
Receiver Comm. Skills Attitude Knowledge

Tasting

Explores how each ______________ in 4 basic comm ______________ (source, message, channel, & receiver) can affect ______________

Berlo’s SMCR Model
______________ & somewhat ______________ , but a serviceable:

– 3 important concepts:
• ______________— Each element is represented as a :

Berlo’s SMCR Model
• ______________— differences in ______________ & ______________ (e.g. ____________________________ ) can inhibit comm
– ______________, not directly ______________

Human comm as ______________ — via ______________ & ______________ of messages by ______________

Westley-MacLean Model (1957)
fBA x1 x1 x2 x3 x2 fCA
A = a reporter (observer) C = represents an editor (gatekeeper) B = represents the public (audience) f = feedback xi = information

A
x3 x4

x1

C

x11 fBC

B

x3

x1 = message x11 = modified message

x4

Westley-MacLean Model
– Examines ______________ – Describes how ______________ can be ______________ by ______________ agents before reaching their ______________ – Introduced the concept of a ______________

Westley-MacLean Model

• ______________—an ______________ w/ control over ______________ . Affects message by ______________ and/or ______________

Westley-MacLean Model
fBA x1 x2 x1 x2 x3

A = reporter (observer)

fCA

A
x3 x4

x1

C

x11 fBC

B

C = editor (gatekeeper) B = the public (audience)

x3

x4

Editor is a ______________ — modifies reporter’s ______________ before it ______________
– ______________ gatekeeping— ______________ process – ______________ gatekeeping— influence of editor’s ______________

Westley-MacLean Model
Gatekeepers exist in any comm context where :
– Examples of gatekeepers:
– Personal ______________ (______________ gatekeeper) – Leaving a message w/ a friend’s ______________ (______________ gatekeeper) – Each of us

Convergence Model (1981)

“Communication is a process in which participants ______________ information with one another in order to reach ______________ .”

Convergence Model
Review Barnett’s discussion of the convergence model in Ch. 3

• Focuses on:
– ______________ nature of comm
• Emphasizes comm as a ______________

– ______________— tendency to move towards a ______________ (shared ______________ , ______________ , ______________ , etc.)

Convergence Model

– Comm viewed as a ______________ process of assigning ______________ to info ______________ between ______________ , who, ______________ , progress towards ______________ .
• Adopts a ______________ perspective

Properties of Communication
• Collectively, our definitions & models suggest several properties of communication

Properties of Communication
• Communication is a ______________
– Involves : – Elements are ______________ – Comm interactions are influenced by ______________ and affect ______________

Properties of Communication
• Communication is ______________
– Difficult to ______________ into ______________ , ______________ elements/acts

• Communication is ______________
– Relies on ______________ to ______________
• ______________ as distinct from ______________ & ______________ to some degree

Properties of Communication
• Communication is ______________
– Can’t ______________ a message. ______________ or ______________ is not the same.
• Ex:

• Communication is ______________
– Elements of comm are ______________ . – ______________ influence ______________

Properties of Communication
• Communication is ______________
– ______________ & ______________

• Communication ______________
– ______________, ______________ , ______________

• Communication is ______________
– Encompasses a :

Properties of Human Communication
• We can further specify 3 properties of communication involving humans
– Human comm involves both ______________ & ______________ processes
• Consider ______________

• Messages in human comm have ______________
– Ex. in ______________ comm:

Properties of Human Communication

• ______________ dimension—what a message ______________ • ______________ dimension—what a message ______________ about the ______________ between ______________

Properties of Human Communication
• Human comm is a ______________
– Meaning in comm is ______________ – Perceptual differences : – ______________ shapes ______________ & vice versa