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Exploring Communication

Part 2 Models & Properties


Defining Models

What is a model?

?
Modeling Communication
• A model is simply an abstract
representation

• Used for:
• 1 - Explanation

• 2 - Prediction

• 3 - Control
Benefits of Models
• Models allow scholars to:

– Describe the overall process of comm

– Explore a particular aspect of comm in detail

– Illustrate a concept or theoretical framework

– More effectively represent relationships


Limitations of Models
– Can lack the big picture

– Often context specific - may need to be


reacessed outside of the original
context

– May require supplemental info to


understand
General Models of
Communication
We’ll examine 3 general models:
Linear Model of Communication

Message
Sender Receiver
Channel

• Many early perspectives were linear. Comm


described as:

• One Way - from sender to receiver

• Something you do ‘to’ someone


Transactional Model of
Communication
Environment

Communication
Communicator Communicator

– Simultaneous Exchange – Message/Feedback integrated into


Communication

– Mutual Influence – integrated into Communication

– Environment added - both positive and negative impact


Specific Models of Communication
[ You don’t need to write this ]

As we review these models keep the following in mind:

– Each of the following models illustrates specific aspects of


comm, but may not describe the whole process

– Ch. 3 “Comm & the Diffusion of Information” by Barnett


discusses each model

– You don’t need to copy the diagrams—posted on UB


learns in a separate power point, included in lecture
outline, and can be found in Ch. 2 & 3

– Exam Qs will cover the concepts associated w/ each


model, not the diagram
Lasswell’s Model (1948)
Who?

Says what?

In which channel?

To whom? and

With what effect?

• One of the earliest models of comm. simple ,


organizational model

– Lacks several elements


Shannon-Weaver Model (1949)

Message Signal Noise Received Received


Source Transmitter Receiver Destination
Source Signal Message

Describes mediated comm — comm via device

– Distinction b/w message & signal

– Introduces physical noise & its impact

– Linear
Gerbner’s Model (1956)
Person 1 M
Perceptual Dimension

E
Event as perceived
E1 Reflection, Context, Availability

ce
Event

ur

Channels, Media, Control


So

Control Dimension
ge

n
a

tio
ss

Means &
na
Me

sti
De
gea
ss
Me

Statement about event SE


(Message)

SE1 SE
Form
Content

Statement as perceived

Person 2 M2
Gerbner’s Model
Two noteworthy foci:

2. Role of ______________ in comm. 2 instances of


______________ :

• ______________(SE) describing ______________ (E)


based on ______________ (M) ______________ of it (E1)

• ______________ understanding of ______________


based on their ______________ (SE1) of ______________
Gerbner’s Model

1. Influence of ______________ . Besides


______________ , message ______________
influenced by:

• ____________________________ available & the particular


one ______________ .

• The specific ______________ of that ______________

• The ______________ using that ______________


Berlo’s SMCR Model (1960)
S M C R
Source Message Channel Receiver

Comm. Skills Seeing Comm. Skills

Elements Structure
Attitude Hearing Attitude

Knowledge Touching Knowledge


Treatment
Soc. System Smelling Soc. System

Culture Content Code Tasting Culture

Explores how each ______________ in 4 basic comm


______________ (source, message, channel, & receiver) can
affect ______________
Berlo’s SMCR Model

______________ & somewhat


______________ , but a serviceable:

– 3 important concepts:

• ______________— Each element is


represented as a :
Berlo’s SMCR Model

• ______________— differences in
______________ & ______________ (e.g.
____________________________ ) can
inhibit comm

– ______________, not directly ______________

• Human comm as ______________ — via


______________ & ______________ of
messages by ______________
Westley-MacLean Model (1957)
fBA
A = a reporter
x1 (observer)
x1 fCA C = represents an
x2 editor (gatekeeper)
x2

A C B
x1 x11
B = represents the
x3 public (audience)
fBC
f = feedback

xi = information
x3
x3
x1 = message
x4
x11 = modified
message
x4
Westley-MacLean Model
– Examines ______________

– Describes how ______________ can be


______________ by ______________
agents before reaching their
______________

– Introduced the concept of a


______________
Westley-MacLean Model

• ______________—an ______________ w/
control over ______________ . Affects
message by ______________ and/or
______________
Westley-MacLean Model
fBA
A = reporter
x1 (observer)
x1 fCA
x2 C = editor
x2

A C B
x1 x11 (gatekeeper)
x3
fBC B = the public
(audience)
x3
x3

x4
Editor is a ______________ — modifies reporter’s
x4 ______________ before it ______________

– ______________ gatekeeping— ______________


process

– ______________ gatekeeping— influence of editor’s


______________
Westley-MacLean Model
Gatekeepers exist in any comm
context where :

– Examples of gatekeepers:
– Personal ______________
(______________ gatekeeper)

– Leaving a message w/ a friend’s


______________ (______________
gatekeeper)

– Each of us
Convergence Model (1981)

“Communication is a process in which participants ______________


information with one another in order to reach ______________ .”
Convergence Model
Review Barnett’s discussion of the convergence model in Ch. 3

• Focuses on:

– ______________ nature of comm

• Emphasizes comm as a ______________

– ______________— tendency to move towards a


______________ (shared ______________ ,
______________ , ______________ , etc.)
Convergence Model

– Comm viewed as a ______________ process of


assigning ______________ to info ______________
between ______________ , who, ______________ ,
progress towards ______________ .

• Adopts a ______________ perspective


Properties of Communication
• Collectively, our definitions &
models suggest several
properties of communication
Properties of Communication
• Communication is a ______________

– Involves :

– Elements are ______________

– Comm interactions are influenced by


______________ and affect ______________
Properties of Communication
• Communication is ______________

– Difficult to ______________ into


______________ , ______________
elements/acts

• Communication is ______________

– Relies on ______________ to
______________

• ______________ as distinct from


______________ & ______________ to some
degree
Properties of Communication
• Communication is ______________

– Can’t ______________ a message.


______________ or ______________ is not the
same.

• Ex:

• Communication is ______________

– Elements of comm are ______________ .

– ______________ influence ______________


Properties of Communication
• Communication is ______________

– ______________ & ______________

• Communication ______________

– ______________, ______________ ,
______________

• Communication is ______________

– Encompasses a :
Properties of Human
Communication
• We can further specify 3
properties of communication
involving humans

– Human comm involves both


______________ &
______________ processes

• Consider ______________
Properties of Human
Communication
• Messages in human comm have
______________

– Ex. in ______________ comm:

• ______________ dimension—what a message


______________

• ______________ dimension—what a message


______________ about the ______________
between ______________
Properties of Human
Communication
• Human comm is a ______________

– Meaning in comm is ______________

– Perceptual differences :

– ______________ shapes ______________ & vice


versa