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 Orthodontic cements are used for

adhesion of bands and brackets to the


tooth surface.
 There are various types of cements used
in orthodontics.
 It was introduced in 1878
 Two types:
1. Type 1: fine grained for luting
2. Type 2: medium grained for luting and
filling
 It sets by an acid base reaction
POWDER:
 Zin oxide
 Magnesium oxide
 Silica
 Other oxides
Liquid
 Phosphoric acid
 Water
 Aluminium and zinc phosphate
 Working time is around 5 minutes
 Setting time is 2.5 to 8 minutes
 Compressive strength vary with P:L ratio
 When properly mixed it exhibits a
compressive strength of upto 104 MPa,
tensile strength of 5.5 MPa, and modulus
of elasticity 13.5 Gpa.
 Recommended P:L ratio is about 1.4g to
0.5ml.
 Two minutes after the start of mixing the
pH is approx. 2.
 The pH then increases rapidly but still is
only about 5.5 at 24 hours.
 High solubility
 Zinc phosphate is brittle.

 It has a relatively high solubility in the mouth

 Zinc phosphate relies on mechanical


interlocking for its retentive effect

 . It does not provide any chemical bonding to


tooth or metal surfaces
 Types:
1. Type 1: for luting
2. Type 2: restorative material
3. Type 3: as liner or base
4. Type 4: fissure and sealants
5. Type 5: as orthodontic cement
 Sets with an acid base reaction
 GIC powder is an acid soluble calcium
flouroaluminosilicate glass.
 LIQUID: originally is 50% polyacrylic acid,
with tartaric acid and water.
 Modulus of elasticity is 3.5 to 4 GPa.
 Compressive strength ranges between
90 and 140MPa.
 Tensile strength is 6 to 8 MPa
 Fracture toughness is higher than zinc
phosphate cements.
 GIC bonds chemically to the tooth
structure.
 Inhibits infiltration of oral fluids at the
cement-tooth interface thus preventing
microleakage and demineralization.
 Just initial protection from the moisture
and oral fluids is required until the
cement sets.
 Setting time is between 5-9 minutes
 Working time is 3-5 minutes
 Compressive strength greater than zinc
phosphate.

 An adhesiveness to enamel, dentin, and


cementum.

 Compatibility with the oral tissues.

 Ability to leach fluoride


 Brittleness.

 Low tensile strength.

 Relatively poor esthetics.


 It is a modification of conventional GIC.
 Powder component consists of ion
leachable glass particles and initiator for
light curing eg Camphorquinine.
 Liquid component consists of water and
polyacrylic acid with methaacrylate
monomer.
It can be light cured or chemically
cured.
 It attempts to combine benefits of
 GIC : FLOURIDE RELEASE & CHEMICAL
ADHESION TO THE TOOTH
 COMPOSITE RESIN: STRENGTH &
ESTHETICS
 It also attempts to reduce
 GIC’s hydration sensitivities and poor
early strength.
 Composite resins polymerization
shrinkage and microleakage.
 As a result it has higher compressive and
tensile strength than GIC.
 A material formed from two or more distinct
phases in order to get properties superior to
or intermediate to those of individual
constituents.
 There are four major components in
composite resins:
1. Organic polymer matrix i.e BIS-GMA
2. Inorganic filler particles
3. Coupling agent
4. Initiator accelerator system
 Classified on the basis of filler particle size.
1. TRADITIONAL or MACROFILLED
COMPOSITES: average particle size is 8-12
µm.
2. SMALL PARTICLE FILLED COMPOSITES:
average particle size is 0.5-3µm.
3. MICROFILLED COMPOSITES: individual
particle size is 0.04µm.
4. HYBRID COMPOSITES: contain two types of
filler particles.
 Chemical curing: initiated by mixing two
pastes.
Operator has no control over the working
time once the two pastes are mixed.
 Light curing: do not require mixing,
contains a photo initiator.
Exposure time of 40sec or less is required to
light cure 2mm thick layer.
 Blue light wavelength of 470nm is used.
 VISIBLE LIGHT CURING UNITS:
 Quartz-tungsten halogen(QTH)
 Plasma-arc(PAC)
 Lasers
 Light emitting diode(LED)
 Surface of enamel is smooth and has little
potential for bonding by micromechanical
attachment, so in order to provide bonding
and additional retention surface of enamel
is etched with an acid before the
application of composite resin.
 Etching produces small undercuts in
enamel into which resin can gain access
,set and form a mechanical lock.
 Commonly used acid etchent is 34-37%
phosphoric acid in gel form.
 There are three stages of acid etch
technique:
1. Etching stage: etching time normally
used is 10 & 60 seconds.
2. Washing stage: washing time usually
used is 60 seconds.
3. The drying stage: after washing the
surface must be dried and kept in this
state until resin application.
 Is a composite resin with an ionomer
glass(ion leachable glass) as filler.
 But no water is added.
 It sets by a light cure resin reaction not
by acid base reaction.
 Adhesive system used with compomer is
based on acid etch technique.
 It relies upon water diffusion into the set
polymer to allow flouride release.
 It has very good handling.
 Do not adhere chemically like GIC
 Have higher tensile strength
 Advantage over other cements is that it
bonds chemically to metal so
debonding is easier.