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# • RANGE is the difference between the lowest

## and highest values in a dataset. 𝑅 = 𝐻𝑉 − 𝐿𝑉

• INTERQUARTILE RANGE is the difference
between the lower quartile and the higher
quartile. 𝐼𝑅 = 𝑄3 − 𝑄1
• VARIANCE is the average difference of the values from
the mean.
UNGROUPED DATA
population variance sample variance
σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2
𝜎2 = 𝑠2 =
𝑁 𝑛−1
2 σ 𝑓 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 2 σ 𝑓 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2
𝜎 = 𝑠 =
𝑁 𝑛−1
*using sample mean
• VARIANCE is the average difference of the values from
the mean. Sample size
UNGROUPED DATA
population variance sample variance
7
σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2
𝜎2 = 𝑠2 =
𝑁 𝑛−1
2 σ 𝑓 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 2 σ 𝑓 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2
𝜎 = 𝑠 =
𝑁 𝑛−1
*using sample mean
GROUPED DATA
population variance sample variance
σ 𝑓 𝑥𝑚 2 σ 𝑓 𝑥𝑚 2
𝜎2 = − 𝑥ҧ 2 𝑠2 = − 𝑥ҧ 2
𝑁 𝑛−1
*using sample mean
• STANDARD DEVIATION is a measure of how each
value in a data set deviates from the mean.
• It is the square root of the variance.
• If the data is close together, the standard
deviation will be relatively small.
• If the data is spread out, the standard deviation
will be relatively large.
• It is the square root of the variance.
Population SD Sample SD
σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2
𝜎= 𝑠=
𝑁 𝑛−1

σ 𝑓 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 σ 𝑓 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2
𝜎= s=
𝑁 𝑛−1
GROUPED DATA
Population SD Sample SD
σ 𝑓 𝑥𝑚 2 2 σ 𝑓 𝑥𝑚 2 2
𝜎= − 𝑥ҧ s= − 𝑥ҧ
𝑁 𝑛−1
*using sample mean
The scores of 5 students in the math test: 92,88,80,68 and 52.
𝟐 92+88+80+68+52
𝒙 ഥ
𝒙−𝒙 ഥ
𝒙−𝒙 𝑥ҧ = 5
= 76
52 -24 576
68 -8 64 2 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 1056
𝜎 = 𝑁
= 5
= 211.2
80 4 16
88 12 144
92 16 256 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 1056
𝜎= 𝜎2 = = ~14.53
𝑁 5

෍ 𝒙−𝒙 𝟐 = 1056
The scores of 5 students in the math test: 92,88,80,68 and 52.
𝟐 92+88+80+68+52
𝒙 ഥ
𝒙−𝒙 ഥ
𝒙−𝒙 𝑥ҧ = 5
= 76
52 -24 576
68 -8 64 2 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 1056
𝜎 = 𝑁
= 5
= 211.2
80 4 16
88 12 144
92 16 256 σ 𝑥−𝑥ҧ 2 1056
𝜎= 𝜎2 = = ~14.53
𝑁 5

෍ 𝒙−𝒙 𝟐 = 1056