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Container

Cargo
Capt.Jeseveil Fernandes
Master (F.G.)SDPO
Objectives
 Arrangement of a container ship & how the
position of container is designated.
 Types & Size of Containers
 Markings of Containers.
 Special Requirements,Out of Guage
Containers(OOG)
 Securing and lashing arrangements of containers.
 Factors affecting a container stow.
 Stability,trim,list stresses,stack
height,weight,dangerous goods.
Arrangement of a container ship
Bay Arrangement on Container vsl
Bay Plan
Stowage Plan
Modern Container Vessels
Emma Mærsk is the first container ship in the E-class of eight owned by the A. P. Moller-
Maersk Group. When launched in 2006 she was the largest container ship ever built, and in
2010 she and her seven sister ships were among the longest container ships. Officially, she is
able to carry around 11,000 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) or 14,770 TEU depending on
definition. In May 2010, her sister ship Ebba Mærsk set a record of 15,011 TEU in Tanger-
Med, Tangiers.

Originally Maersk reported a capacity of 11,000 TEU as the maximum capacity of fully
loaded 14 ton containers, according to Maersk company's then method of calculating
capacity, which, at her introduction into service, was about 1,400 more containers than any
other ship. However, Maersk also acknowledges the standard method of defining capacity,
stating 14,770 TEU.
By normal calculations, she has a capacity significantly greater than reported—between
13,500 and 15,200 TEU. The difference between the official and estimated numbers is
because Maersk calculates the capacity of a container ship by weight (in this case, 14
tons/container), i.e. 11,000+ containers, of which 1,000 can be refrigerated containers.
Other companies calculate capacity according to the maximum number of containers that
can be carried irrespective of weight, always greater than the number calculated by the
Maersk method. As of 2012, the E-class is still the largest by full-weight 14-tonne capacity.
The Marco Polo can carry 10,000 14-t containers, 16,020 if not fully loaded.
Types Of Containers
 1. Dry storage container.
 2. Flat rack container
 3. Open top container
 4. Tunnel container.
 5. Open side storage container
 6. Double doors container
 7. Refrigerated ISO containers
 8. Insulated or thermal containers
 9. Tanks
 10. Half height containers
 11. Car carriers
1. Dry storage
container
The most
commonly used
shipping
containers; they
come in various
dimensions
standardized by
ISO. They are used
for shipping of dry
materials and
come in size of
20ft, 40 ft,45 ft
and 10ft.
2. Flat rack
container
With collapsible
sides, these are like
simple storage
shipping containers
where the sides can
be folded so as to
make a flat rack for
shipping of wide
variety of goods.
20 ft & 40 ft
3. Open top

With a
convertible top
that can be
completely
removed to
make an open
top so that
materials of any
height can be
shipped easily.
20 ft and 40 ft
4. Tunnel
container
Container storage
units provided with
doors on both ends
of the container,
they are extremely
helpful in quick
loading and
unloading of
materials.
5. Open side
storage container

These storage units


are provided with
doors that can
change into
completely open
sides providing a
much wider room
for loading of
materials.
6. Double doors
container

They are kind of


storage units that
are provided with
double doors,
making a wider
room for loading
and unloading of
materials.
Construction
materials include
steel, iron etc in
standardized sizes
of 20ft and 40ft.
7. Refrigerated ISO
containers

These are
temperature
regulated shipping
containers that always
have a carefully
controlled low
temperature. They
are exclusively used
for shipment of
perishable substances
like
fruits,meat,diary,fish
and vegetables over
long distances.
8. Insulated or
thermal
containers
These are the shipping
storage containers that
come with a regulated
temperature control
allowing them to
maintain a higher
temperature.
The choice of material is
so done to allow them
long life without being
damaged by constant
exposure to high
temperature. They are
most suitable for long
distance transportation
of products.
9. Tanks
Container storage
units used mostly
for transportation
of liquid materials,
they are used by a
huge proportion of
entire shipping
industry. They are
mostly made of
strong steel or
other anti corrosive
materials providing
them with long life
and protection to
the materials.
10. Half height
containers

Another kind of
shipping containers
includes half height
containers. Made
mostly of steel, these
containers are half the
height of full sized
containers. Used
especially for good like
coal, stones etc which
need easy loading and
unloading.
11.Car carriers

Car carriers are


container storage
units made
especially for
shipment of cars
over long distances.
They come with
collapsible sides
that help a car fit
snugly inside the
containers without
the risk of being
damaged or moving
from the spot.
SIZES OF CONTAINERS
MARKINGS ON THE CONTAINER
MARKINGS ON A CONTAINER
CSC plate on Container
In general, any container used for international transport must have a valid safety
approval plate or "CSC plate". CSC is the abbreviation for Container Safety
Convention. Outside of container: No holes or cracks in walls or roof.
Out Of Guage containers

 OOG stowage :Out of gauge containers are usually stowed


underdeck and in case of an On Deck Stow, careful
consideration will be required. Local planner or agent may
be requested for such approval prior loading. Hatch cover
clearance and Cell guide clearance must be verified to
confirm that there will be no damage to the vessel or
cargo when loaded. Appropriate number of slots must be
kept vacant to accommodate the OOG cargo as necessary.
Out of Guage Container
Stack Weight/Height

 Stack weight is the maximum weight that can be borne by the deck, hatch
covers or tank top at the corners of a bottom slot near the cell guide. The
weight of a container is distributed over the four corner fittings and over the
entire area occupied by the container.
 Container stacks are containers which are stacked vertically and secured
horizontally by stackers, lashing etc. Prior loading cargo, stacking weights of
containers must be checked against the allowable stack weights on board the
vessel both on deck and under deck. Neglecting above may cause serious
damage to ships structure, hull and eventually overall stabilty of ship may get
affected. Maximum allowable stack weights of Tank tops, Hatch covers and
Decks shall not be exceeded at any time.

 Container stack load – Hatch covers for Panamax ships have stack weights up to
90 tonnes/20ft units and 120 tonnes/40ft units. Post-Panamax vessel could
have 100 tonnes/20ft and 140 tonnes/40ft units.
 Stack height :A standard ISO container is designed to withstand 192 MT of
weight stacked on its corner posts, when subject to dynamics that impart a G
force of 1.8. This suggests that a bottom container can support a stack of 6
fully loaded 40' containers and 8 fully loaded 20' containers.
Stack weight contd…..
 It is essential to avoid loading heavy containers over light, or at the top of a stack in a
deck stow, unless specifically permitted in the Cargo Securing Manual. This is because
the securing system would normally have been designed on the assumption that light
containers are stowed on top. Stowage may allow for ‘heavy-heavy-light’; however,
loading ‘heavy-medium-medium’ may result in the same stack weight but would
produce different strain on the securing system, especially if the GM is high.

 If any stacks are found to be exceeding the allowable stack weights, Terminal planner
/ Central planner is to be informed and cargo stow plan appropriately modified. The
most common mistake made when stowing and lashing containers is to load heavy
containers over light or to load so that the maximum permissible stack weights are
exceeded. Heavy on light can only be accepted when specifically permitted in the
Cargo Securing Manual.

 In case such anomaly is noticed after containers have been loaded, the master shall
notify all concerned parties and have the condition corrected at the earliest prior
departure.
Draft, Trim and Heel - Container Stowage Plan affecting hull strength & stability of ship
 When considering acceptability of a container cargo stowage plan, the following
procedures/guidelines concerning hull strength & stability shall be taken into
account:
 Draft restrictions at berth, approaches, passage and next port shall be taken into
consideration and vessels maximum draft must be maintained within the applicable
restriction.
 In no case shall the midship draft exceed the loadline. Also requirements of the
vessels Loading manual regarding limitations of Draft and Trim must be complied
with. Forward draft shall be maintained equal to or more than the limiting figure
mentioned in the Loading manual to avoid Slamming.

 Vessels trim must always be maintained within reasonable limits so as not to


adversely affect cargo operations or vessels safe operation. Excessive trim may result
in difficulty in Loading / Discharging containers especially Under Deck in cell guides.
Excessive trim may also have adverse effects on ships mooring ropes, on smooth
running of machinery and be hazardous during bunkering.
Draft, Trim and Heel – contd……
 Trim is an important factor affecting Visibility from the Bridge. Slight change in
vessels trim may bring the visibility within compliance limits or cause visibility
to exceed requirements.

Besides the obvious, an adverse or excessive trim will also affect vessel Speed /
Consumption and Performance during the passage.

 Stowage plan must be checked to confirm vessels heel at the end of cargo
operations. This value of heel must be such that it can be corrected using
vessels heeling tanks or additional ballast tanks as required.

In case vessel cannot be kept upright in the final condition, Terminal planner /
Central planner is to be informed and cargo stow plan appropriately modified.
Draft, Trim and Heel – contd……
 Unequal distribution of weights on board including cargo and ballast will
result in Torsional forces. Such final stability condition (excessive Heel)
corrected by Ballast Water Re-distribution, will likely result in torsional
stresses exceeding limits.
 Anti-heeling systems – During loading and discharging the ship’s heel has to be
kept to minimum to avoid jamming of containers in cell guides, twisting of
ramps or damage of rolling cargo. Anti-heeling systems are pump or air
blower activated systems developed to compensate ship’s heel.
 For vessel passing Panama Canal or entering rivers, Master must be well
aware of the changes in draft and trim when passing from seawater density to
tropical fresh water density and vice-versa. Corresponding drafts at new
density shall be calculated and noted for reference as applicable.
Maintaining good positive GoM in Container Stowage Plan
 Maintaining a good positive GoM is very important but it is not the only criterion
for a stable ship.

 Dynamic stability of the vessel is equally important and is indicated by the area
under the curve of statical stability (GZ curve).

 A ship with a small GM will be "tender" - have a long roll period - a low GM
increases the risk of a ship capsizing in rough weather and more likely to develop
"synchronized rolling".

 If a ship with low GM is damaged and partially flooded the metacentric height will
be reduced further and make it even less stable.

 On the other hand, a too large metacentric height can cause a vessel to be too
"stiff"; excessive stability is uncomfortable for persons on board because it quickly
snaps back upright after a wave or wind gust which heeled it over has passed.

 An overly stiff vessel rolls with a short period and high amplitude. This can lead to
damage to the ship and cause cargo lashing to loosen or break.
Securing and lashing arrangement of containers

 What is Container Lashing? When a container is loaded over ships, it is secured to the ship's structure
and to the container placed below it by means of lashing rods, turnbuckles, twist-locks etc. This
prevents the containers to move from their places or fall off in to the sea during rough weather or
heavy winds.
Twist Locks

Semi-automatic twistlock
Lashing Bridge on a Container vsl.
Dangerous goods
 DG stowage : Particular caution is to be exercised when stowing
dangerous cargo on board the vessel. Any dangerous cargo presented for
loading must be accompanied by a proper manifest and declaration as
required by international regulations . Further this DG cargo must be
acceptable for carriage as per IMDG code guidance. Reference here is
made to the list of UN numbers restricted/prohibited for carriage on
board particular vessels.
 After confirming acceptability of the DG cargo, the plan must be
checked for proper stowage and segregation. Although terminal and
central planners should provide proper stow of DG cargo, the final
responsibility always lies with the Master.
 Reference shall be made to vessels Document of Compliance with
special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods for confirming
that proposed DG classes are acceptable for stowage in planned
locations on board.
Dangerous goods contd….
 Specific stowage requirements for DG cargo
(e.g. Clear of living quarters OR if under deck, in a mechanically ventilated
space etc) may be verified from individual entries of dangerous goods list in
the IMDG code.

DG segregation shall be verified for compliance with requirements of the


IMDG code. Caution must be exercised when using vessels stowage planning
software for this purpose as it may or may not have comprehensive means
of checking for bad stowage & segregation against the latest international
requirements. It is advisable to manually check for compliance.
 The greatest care should be taken to ensure that incompatible substances
are never stowed together in the same compartment or container. The IMDG
Code classifies such substances according to the principal hazard, but not
all substances of a particular class are necessarily compatible (e.g. Class 8
where a violent reaction may take place between acids and alkalis).
 Foodstuffs must not, as a general rule, be packed with Dangerous Goods.
Dangerous Goods contd…..
 Careful consideration should be given to all other commodities (and their
packaging) to be stowed with hazardous substances to ensure against dangerous
interaction occurring. For instance non-hazardous cargo packed with straw, wood,
wool or other combustible materials should not be stowed with Dangerous Goods.
Substances which react with water must not be stowed with items having a water
base.

 Segregation requirements of the IMDG code and any other local/national


regulations must be strictly adhered to.
 One must be aware that even DG cargoes belonging to the same class may have
segregation requirements amongst them.

 A good example is that of alkalis requiring to be separated form acids where as


both acids and alkalis may belong to IMO Class 8. Such segregation requirement will
not be found in the segregation tables of the IMDG code and only individual entries
of the dangerous goods list in the code indicate the requirement.
DG Stowage On Deck
Dangerous Goods stowed on deck must be properly secured, having regard both to
the nature of the packages and the weather conditions liable to be experienced.
Adequate security can be obtained by means of temporary structures made by
using bulwarks, hatch coamings and bridge bulkhead, the structure being closed
by means of portable angles bolted to bulwarks and hatch stiffeners. The cargo so
stowed should be further secured by means of overall lashings or nets. Unless so
stowed or secured by some equally satisfactory methods bulky packages should be
lashed individually, preferably with wire rope.

Stowage should be such as to provide safe and satisfactory access to the crew's
quarters and all parts of the deck required to be used in the navigation and
necessary work of the ship, with sufficient space for the crew to work clear of
the goods concerned. Dangerous Goods stowed in wells should not be stowed
above the height of the bulwarks, and cargo which, by reason of its nature, is
liable to damage hatch covers or their seals should not be stowed on the hatch.
DG Stowage On Deck Contd……
 Where deck cargo of an inflammable nature is carried, special precautions
must be taken to prevent smoking or the use of naked lights in the vicinity of
the cargo. Notices should be prominently displayed to that effect. Substances
liable to give off inflammable or poisonous vapours should be stowed away
from intake ventilators.

In ships carrying passengers, Dangerous Goods may not be stowed in any part
of the decks available for passengers or near passenger accommodation.

In the case of combustibles care must be taken to avoid the risk of ignition
which may arise from electrical short circuits or old electric cables.
Dangerous goods classes
 Classes of dangerous goods according to SOLAS (Chapter VII, Part A), the IMSBC-Code
and the IMDG-Code, are as follows:

CLASS 1 – Explosives
Division 1.1 Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.2 Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass
explosion hazard.
Division 1.3 Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast
hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.4 Substances and articles which present no significant hazard.

Subdivision 1.4S contains substances and articles so packaged, or designed, that any
hazardous effects arising from accidental functioning are confined within the package
unless the package has been degraded by fire, in which case all blast or projection
effects are limited to the extent that they do not significantly hinder fire-fighting or
other emergency response efforts in the immediate vicinity of the package.

Division 1.5 Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.6 Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard.
Dangerous goods classes contd…..
 CLASS 2 – Gases, compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure
Class 2.1 Flammable gases
Class 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Class 2.3 Toxic (poisonous) gases

 CLASS 3 – Flammable liquids


Flammable liquids are grouped for packing purposes according to their flashpoint,
their boiling point, and their viscosity.

 CLASS 4 – Flammable solids; substances liable to spontaneous combustion; substances


which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Class 4.1 Solids having the properties of being easily ignited by external sources, such
as spark and flames, and of being readily combustible, or of being liable to cause or
contribute to a fire or cause one through friction.
Class 4.2 Solids or liquids possessing the common property of being liable
spontaneously to heat and to ignite.
Class 4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
CLASS 5 – Oxidising substances (agents) and organic peroxides
Dangerous goods classes contd….

 Class 5.1 Substances which, although themselves are not necessarily combustible, but may,
either by yielding oxygen or by similar processes, increase the risk and intensity of fire in other
materials which they come into contact with.
Class 5.2 Organic peroxides

 CLASS 6 – Toxic and infectious substances


Class 6.1 Toxic substances liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm health if
swallowed or inhaled, or by skin contact.
Class 6.2 Infectious substances.
CLASS 7 – Radioactive materials
CLASS 8 – Corrosive substances
Substances, which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage, when in contact with living
tissue or, in case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means
of transport. Many substances are sufficiently volatile to emit vapour irritating to the nose and
eyes.
CLASS 9 – Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
IMO Intact Stability Criterion
 Intact stability criteria – Analyzing the data of vessels that behaved well,
and especially the data of vessels that did not survive adverse conditions,
various researchers and regulatory authorities defined criteria for deciding if
the stability of a vessel is satisfactory.

Therefore, it is important to understand that the existing stability


regulations are codes of practice that provide reasonable safety margins
without giving 100% guaranty that the vessel which meets the requirements
can survive all challenges. According to the International Code on Intact
stability, 2008, the following criteria are mandatory for passenger and cargo
ships constructed on or after 1st January 2010:The area under the righting
lever curve (GZ curve) should not be less than 0.055 metre-radians up to 30°
angle of heel.
IMO Intact Stability Criterion contd….
 The area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) should not be less than 0.09
metreradians up to 40° angle of heel or the angle of downflooding if this is less than
40°.
 The area under the righting curve between the angles of heel of 30° and 40° or
between 30° and the angle of downflooding if this angle is less than 40°, should not
be less than 0.03 metre-radians.
 The righting lever GZ should be at least 0.20 m at an angle of heel equal to or
greater than 30°.
 The maximum righting arm should occur at an angle of heel preferably exceeding
30° but not less than 25°.
 The initial metacentric height GMo should not be less than 0.15 m.
 Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) In addition to the criteria
described above, ships covered by the 2008 IS Code should meet a weather criterion
that considers the effect of strong beam wind and waves applied when the vessel is
in dead ship condition.