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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 411

Lesson 2A
 Drilling Systems

 Drilling Rigs

 Drilling a Well
Homework

 Read ADE to p. 21

 Learn the Definitions in Lesson 2B

 ADE # 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 (on the internet)


2A. Rigs,
due Monday, September 8, 2003
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 2 of 53
Rotary Drilling

CHAPTER 1 (ADE)
 Drilling Team
 Drilling Rigs
 Rig Power System
 Hoisting System
2A. Rigs,  Circulating System . . .
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 3 of 53
Rotary Drilling - cont’d

 The Rotary System


 The Well Control System
 Well-Monitoring System
 Special Marine Equipment
 Drilling Cost Analysis

2A. Rigs,
 Examples
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 4 of 53
The Rig Count

2A. Rigs,
From the Houston Chronicle, August 2001, 2002 and 2003
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 5 of 53
From
2A. Rigs,the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, September 1, 2002
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 6 of 53
2A.From
Rigs, the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, August 31, 2003
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 7 of 53
Noble
Drilling’s
Cecil
Forbes

A Jack-
Up Rig
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 8 of 53
Sonat’s A Semi-
George Submersible
Washington Rig

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 9 of 53
Zapata’s
Trader

A
Drillship

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 10 of 53
Deep Water Development Options

SUBSEA FIXED
COMPLETIONS PLATFORMS

COMPLIANT
TOWERS

FLOATING TENSION
PRODUCTION LEG
2A. Rigs, SYSTEMS PLATFORMS

Drilling a PETE 411 Well


Well Drilling Slide 11 of 53
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 12 of 53
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
TENSION LEG PLATFORM
Well Drilling Slide 13 of 53
Shell’s
Auger

Tension
Leg
Platform
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 14 of 53
Shell’s
Bullwinkle
World’s tallest
offshore
structure

1,353’ water
depth

Production
began in 1989
45,000 b/d
80MM
2A. Rigs,scf/d
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 15 of 53
To TENSIONERS
SLIP JOINT

MARINE
RISER

GUIDE LINES
BOP STACK

2A. Rigs, GUIDE BASE


Drilling a PETE 411 Well MUDLINE
Well Drilling Slide 16 of 53
2A. Rigs,
Drilling
Fig. 1.3a PETEdrilling
- Typical 411 Well rig organization
Well Drilling Slide 17 of 53
Fig. 1.4
The
rotary
drilling
process

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 18 of 53
Fig. 1.5

2A. Rigs, Classification of


Drilling a PETE 411 Well rotary drilling
Well Drilling rigsSlide 19 of 53
Fig. 1.13
Engine
power
output

P=F.V

Power = Force * Velocity

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 20 of 53
TABLE 1.1 - HEATING VALUE
OF VARIOUS FUELS

Fuel Density Heating Value


Type (lbm/gal) (Btu/lbm)

diesel 7.2 19,000


gasoline 6.6 20,000
butane 4.7 21,000
methane --- 24,000
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 21 of 53
Example 1.1. A diesel engine gives an output
torque of 1,740 ft-lbf at an engine speed of 1,200
rpm. If the fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr,
what is the output power and overall efficiency of
the engine?

Solution: The angular velocity,  , is given by


 = 2 (1,200) = 7,539.8 rad/min.)
The power output can be computed using Eq.1.1
7,539.8 (1,740) ft - lbf/min
P  T   397.5hp
2A. Rigs,  33,000 ft - lbf/min  /hp
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 22 of 53
Since the fuel type is diesel, the density is 7.2
lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000
Btu/lbm (Table 1.1). Thus, the fuel consumption
rate w f is:
 1 hour 
w f  31.5 gal/hr (7.2 lbm/gal)  
 60 minutes 

wf = 3.78 lbm/min.

The total heat energy consumed by the engine is


given by Eq. 1.2:
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 23 of 53
Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)

Qi = w f H
3.78 lbm/min 19,000Btu/lbm   779 ft - lbf/Btu 
Qi 
33,000 ft - lbf/min/hp
Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200
rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is

P 397.5
2A.E t 
Rigs,   0.234 or 23.4%
Drilling a
Qi 1695.4
PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 24 of 53
Drilling a Well

 Steps in Drilling a Well


 Duties of Drilling Engineer
 Making a Connection
 Making a Trip
 Rig Selection Criteria
 Derrick Loading
2A. Definitions (Lesson 2B) (separate)
 Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 25 of 53
Steps to Drill A Gas/Oil Well
1. Complete or obtain seismic, log, scouting
information or other data.
2. Lease the land or obtain concession.
3. Calculate reserves or estimate from best data
available.
4. If reserve estimates show payout, proceed with
well.
5. Obtain permits from conservation/
national authority.
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 26 of 53
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d

6. Prepare drilling and completion


program.
7. Ask for bids on footage, day work, or
combination from selected drilling
contractors based on drilling program.
8. If necessary, modify program to fit
selected contractor equipment.
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 27 of 53
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d

9. Construct road, location/platforms and


other marine equipment necessary for
access to site.
10. Gather all personnel concerned for
meeting prior to commencing drilling
(pre-spud meeting)
11. If necessary, further modify program.
12. Drill well.

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 28 of 53
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d

13. Move off contractor if workover unit is


to complete the well.
14. Complete well.
15. Install surface facilities.
16. Analysis of operations with concerned
personnel.

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 29 of 53
Drilling Operations
Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen
A. Well planning prior to SPUD
B. Monitor drilling operations
C. After drilling, review drilling results and
recommend future improvements
- prepare report.
D. General duties.
What are the well requirements?
Objectives, safety, cost
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 30 of 53
Making Making
a a
Connection Trip

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 31 of 53
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a Making aPETE
mouse411hole
Wellconnection
Well Drilling Slide 32 of 53
Moving Kelly
to Single in
Mousehole Single
Added.
Stabbing Ready to
the Pipe Drill

2A. Rigs,
Making
Drilling a a mouse
PETE hole
411connection
Well - cont’d
Well Drilling Slide 33 of 53
Making a trip
Why
trip?

Use
Elevators
Put Kelly in
for
Rathole
tripping
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 34 of 53
Tripping
one stand
at a time

60-90 ft

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Making a trip - cont’d
Drilling Slide 35 of 53
Criteria for determining
depth limitation
 Derrick
 Drawworks
 Mud Pumps
 Drillstring
 Mud System
 Blowout Preventer

2A. Rigs, Power Plant
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 36 of 53
T W

T W
W W

2W
• FIG 1-1 Simple Pulley System

T=W
2A. Rigs, LD = 2W (no friction in sheave)
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 37 of 53
n = number
of lines

W = weight
(hook load)

LD = load
on derrick

• FIG 1-2 Block and Tackle System


Assuming no friction
W=4T T = W/4  n 2 
2A. Rigs, LD   W
Drilling
LD = a6 T = 6 W/4
PETE 411 Well  n 
Well Drilling Slide 38 of 53
Example 1.1
(no friction)

The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch


casing for a deep well is determined to be
400,000 lbs. Since this will be the heaviest
casing string run, the maximum mast load
must be calculated. Assuming that 10
lines run between the crown and the
traveling blocks and neglecting buoyancy
effects, calculate the maximum load.
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 39 of 53
Solution:

The tension, T, will be distributed equally


between the 10 lines. Therefore,
T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf
The tension in the fast line and dead line
will also be 40,000 lbf, so the total load is
40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 40 of 53
Solution, cont.

Example 1.1 demonstrates two additional


points.

1. The marginal decrease in mast load


decreases with additional lines.

2. The total mast load is always


greater than the load being lifted.
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 41 of 53
A Rotary Rig
Hoisting System

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 42 of 53
Projection of
Drilling Lines
on Rig Floor

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well TOTAL
Well Drilling Slide 43 of 53
Load on Derrick
(considering friction in sheaves)
Derrick Load = Hook Load
+ Fast Line Load
+ Dead Line Load

Fd = W + Ff + Fs

W W  1  E  En 
Fd  W   = W
En n  En 
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a E = overall efficiency,
PETE 411 Well
e.g., E = en = 0.98n
Well Drilling Slide 44 of 53
Example 1.2

A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The drawworks


can provide an input power to the block and tackle
system as high as 500 hp. Eight lines are strung
between the crown block and traveling block.
Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line
when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hook horsepower
available,
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 45 of 53
Example 1.2, cont.

3. the maximum hoisting speed,


4. the actual derrick load,
5. the maximum equivalent derrick load,
and,
6. the derrick efficiency factor.

Assume that the rig floor is arranged as


shown in Fig. 1.17.
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 46 of 53
Solution

1. The power efficiency for n = 8 is given as 0.841


in Table 1.2. The tension in the fast line is given by
Eq. 1.7.

Tension in the Fast Line,

W 300,000
F   44,590 lb
E n 0.841* 8
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a ( 0.98
PETE 4118 =Well
0.851 )
Well Drilling Slide 47 of 53
Solution

2. The maximum hook horsepower


available is

Ph = Epi = 0.841(500) = 420.5 hp.

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 48 of 53
Solution

3. The maximum hoisting speed is given by

Ph
vb 
W
 33,000 ft - lbf / min 
420.5 hp  
 hp 

300,000 lbf
2A. Rigs,
Drilling a = 46.3 ft /411
PETE minWell
Well Drilling Slide 49 of 53
Solution to 3., cont.

To pull a 90-ft stand would require

90 ft
t  1.9 min.
46.3 ft / min

2A. Rigs,
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 50 of 53
Solution

4. The actual derrick load is given by Eq.1.8b:

 1  E  En 
Fd   W
 En 
 1 + 0.841 + 0.841(8) 
=  (300,000)
 0.841(8) 
2A. Rigs, = 382,090 lbf.
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 51 of 53
Solution

5. The maximum equivalent load is given


by Eq.1.9:

 n4 8 4
Fde    W   * 300,000
 n   8 
W W
FDLL  
4 n

F
2A. Rigs, de  450, 000 lbf n 4
FDLL    W
 4n 
Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 52 of 53
Solution

6. The derrick efficiency factor is:

Fd 382,090
Ed  
Fde 450,000

2A. Rigs, E d  0.849 or 84.9%


Drilling a PETE 411 Well
Well Drilling Slide 53 of 53