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# Equalization in a wideband TDMA system

Three basic equalization methods Linear equalization (LE) Decision feedback equalization (DFE) Sequence estimation (MLSE-VA) Example of channel estimation circuit

**Three basic equalization methods (1)
**

Linear equalization (LE):

Performance is not very good when the frequency response of the frequency selective channel contains deep fades. Zero-forcing algorithm aims to eliminate the intersymbol interference (ISI) at decision time instants (i.e. at the center of the bit/symbol interval). Least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm will be investigated in greater detail in this presentation. Recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm offers faster convergence, but is computationally more complex than LMS (since matrix inversion is required).

Three basic equalization methods (2) Decision feedback equalization (DFE): Performance better than LE. due to ISI cancellation of tails of previously received symbols. Decision feedback equalizer structure: Feed-back filter (FBF) Input Feed-forward filter (FFF) Adjustment of filter coefficients Output + + Symbol decision .

Three basic equalization methods (3) Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation using the Viterbi Algorithm (MLSE-VA): Best performance. Operation of the Viterbi algorithm can be visualized by means of a trellis diagram with m K-1 states. where m is the symbol alphabet size and K is the length of the overall channel impulse response (in samples). State trellis diagram State Sample time instants Allowed transition between states .

zero-forcing algorithm Basic idea: Raised cosine spectrum Z .Linear equalization.

f ! B .

f H .

f E .

f Channel frequency response (incl. T & R filters) Equalizer frequency response = Transmitted symbol spectrum B.

f H .

f .

f Z.

f 0 fs = 1/T f .

Conventional linear equalizer of LMS type Received complex signal samples Transversal FIR filter with 2M +1 filter taps Widrow LMS algorithm for adjustment of tap coefficients rk M c M T T T rk M c1 M cM 1 7 cM zk ek + Ö bk Complex-valued tap coefficients of equalizer filter Estimate of k:th symbol after symbol decision .

3.Joint optimization of coefficients and phase rk Equalizer filter zk e jJ Ö bk + Coefficient updating Phase synchronization ek Godard Proakis. Section 11-5-2 Minimize: J ! E ek 2 ek Ö zk bk ¨ M ¸ Ö cm rk m ¹ exp . Ed.

jJ bk © § ª m M º .

Least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm (simplification of ³method of steepest descent´) for convergence towards minimum mean square error (MMSE) x ek 2 Real part of n:th coefficient: c c Re _ n .

i 1 a Re _ n .

i a ( x « Re _cn a» ½ x ek 2 Imaginary part of n:th coefficient: Im _ n .

i 1 a! Im _ n .

i a c c x ek J 2 x « Im _cn a» ½ ek ! ek ek 2 Phase: J .

i 1 ! J .

i xJ 2 .

2 M 1 1 equations Iteration index Step size of iteration .

the recursion equations are obtained in the form ! M ! M ® jJ M ¾ Ö e J .LMS algorithm (cont.) After some calculation.

i 1 ! J .

i 2(J Im ¯bk §M cm rk m ¿ ° À m ! ¢ ¢ ¢ ® jJ ¨ Im _ n .

i 1 a! Im _ n .

i a 2( Im ¯© e c c ª ° M c rk ¡ ¡ ¡ ® jJ ¨ Re _ n .

i 1 a! Re _ n .

i a 2( Re ¯© e c c ª ° M c rk ¾ Ö ¸ r e jJ ¿ bk ¹ k n º À ¾ Ö ¸ r e jJ ¿ bk ¹ k n º À ek .

Effect of iteration step size ( smaller (J larger Slow acquisition Poor tracking performance Poor stability Large variation around optimum value .

Decision feedback equalizer T Ö bk 1 T Ö bk Q ? zk T + Ö bk q1 qQ 1 FBF qQ 7 rk M rk M c M + ek LMS algorithm for tap coefficient adjustment T T c1 M cM 1 FFF cM 7 .

Decision feedback equalizer (cont.) The purpose is again to minimize J ! E ek £ £ 2 } ek 2 where Ö ek ! zk bk ! § £ M ! M Ö Ö c rk § qn bk n bk n !1 Q Feedforward filter (FFF) is similar to filter in linear equalizer tap spacing smaller than symbol interval is allowed => fractionally spaced equalizer => oversampling by a factor of 2 or 4 is common Feedback filter (FBF) is used for either reducing or canceling (difference: see next slide) samples of previous symbols at decision time instants tap spacing must be equal to symbol interval .

K . Section 10-3-1 ! M . Section 11-2 By calculation from FFF coefficients and channel coefficients (we achieve exact ISI cancellation in this way. 2. Ed.Decision feedback equalizer (cont. Ed.3. Q Proakis.) The coefficients of the feedback filter (FBF) can be obtained in either of two ways: Recursively (using the LMS algorithm) in a similar fashion as FFF coefficients Proakis.3. but channel estimation is necessary): qn ! § M c hn n ! 1.

Decision feedback equalizer (cont.) How do samples of previous symbols affect symbol decision? FFF span Samples of previous symbols can be minimized in DFE Sample sequence of current symbol (under decision) Samples of future symbols cannot be eliminated (future symbols are not yet known) t .

Section 11-3 Estimated symbols LMS algorithm Ö bk Filter length = CIR length T T T Ö bk M Ö hm ! cm c0 Ö rk c1 cM 1 7 cM rk + k:th sample of received signal Estimated channel coefficients . Ed.3.Channel estimation circuit Proakis.

Alternatively: blind estimation (no training sequence) .) 1. time-varying channel coefficients can be tracked to some extent.Channel estimation circuit (cont. 2. Acquisition phase Uses ³training sequence´ Ö Symbols are known at receiver. bk ! bk . Tracking phase Uses estimated symbols (decision directed mode) Symbol estimates are obtained from the decision circuit (note the delay in the feedback loop!) Since the estimation circuit is adaptive.

optional for DFE bk Training symbols (no errors) Symbol estimates (with errors) Estimated channel coefficients Channel estimation circuit Ö hm Equalizer & decision circuit Ö bk rk Received signal samples ³Clean´ output symbols .Channel estimation circuit in receiver Mandatory for MLSE-VA.

. matched filter performance can be achieved.Theoretical ISI cancellation receiver (extension of DFE. for simulation of matched filter bound) Ö Ö bk P K bk 1 Precursor cancellation of future symbols Ö Ö bk 1 K bk Q Postcursor cancellation of previous symbols rk P Filter matched to sampled channel impulse response Ö bk + If previous and future symbols can be estimated without error (impossible in a practical system).

MLSE-VA receiver structure r .

t Matched filter NW filter yk MLSE (VA) b _Ö a k _fk a f .

t ! h .

t h .

t f nw .

t Channel estimation circuit MLSE-VA circuit causes delay of estimated symbol sequence before it is available for channel estimation => channel estimates may be out-of-date (in a fast time-varying channel) .

) The probability of receiving sample sequence y (note: vector form) of length N. f ! p y k b. f ! exp ¯ 2 N 2 2T W N k !1 .MLSE-VA receiver structure (cont. conditioned on a certain symbol sequence estimate and overall channel estimate: Since we have AWGN Length of f(t) N K 1 n !0 ® 1 1 ± Ö Ö Ö Ö p y b.

± 2W ° .

N .

(select best b using VA) .. § y § k k !1 ¾ ± Ö b Ö f n k n ¿ ± À 2 Objective: find symbol sequence that maximizes this probability This is allowed since noise samples are uncorrelated due to NW (= noise whitening) filter Metric to be minimized Ö .

including response of matched filter and NW filter . in other words the time span of the channel is (K-1)T. the metric to be minimized is a sum expression. _fk a 0 K-1 k Note: this is overall CIR. If the length of the overall channel impulse response in samples (or channel coefficients) is K. the next step is to construct a state trellis where a state is defined as a certain combination of K-1 previous symbols causing ISI on the k:th symbol. Since product of exponentials <=> sum of exponents.MLSE-VA receiver structure (cont.) We want to choose that symbol sequence estimate and overall channel estimate which maximizes the conditional probability.

K=5): At time k-3 At time k-2 At time k-1 At time k 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 : : 16 states Bit detected at time instant Bits causing ISI not causing ISI at time instant .) At adjacent time instants.MLSE-VA receiver structure (cont. the symbol sequences causing ISI are correlated. As an example (m=2.

Ed.MLSE-VA receiver structure (cont. Section 10-1-3 . the VA selects the transition associated with highest accumulated probability (up to that time instant) for further processing.) State trellis diagram Number of states The ´best´ state sequence is estimated by means of Viterbi algorithm (VA) m K 1 Alphabet size k-3 k-2 k-1 k k+1 Of the transitions terminating in a certain state at a certain time instant.3. Proakis.