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      Background Problem statement Objective of study Significance of the research Literature Review Methodology .

LWC : Lightweight concrete LWA : Light weight aggregate LWAC : Lightweight Concrete GGBFS : Ground Granulated blast furnace slag .

 The lightweight concrete in construction industry has become popular in the past few decades due to its some benefits. thinner structural member. fire ratings. . less reinforcing etc. improved resistance to cyclic loading longer spans better.  Earlier use of LWAC occurred about two thousand years ago when the Romans built the Pantheon and the Colosseum in Rome. The benefits of using LWC include: reduce dead load.

lightweight concrete wall panel factory was set up at Nilai. Malaysia used to import the lightweight aggregate from France and Germany. and in 1983. . Negeri Sembilan.  (Lightweight Construction Methodology LCM) is the one of the factories producing LWC in Malaysia and they have experience to develop LWC industry .


cement and fine aggregate . The mixture produced should reach a compressive strength of 30Mpa and comply with certain standard . tests and procedures of producing LWAC . palm oil shells . This study will mainly involve the design mix of LWAC using ground granulated blast furnace slag. .

workability and the degree of compaction.. .1-To compare between the conventional concrete mix and the LWAC. 2-To study the properties of LWAC due to cement replacement in different percentages with GGBFS in terms of compressive strength .

palm oil shells . fine aggregate and water .slag cement .  To test and certify that the slag cement mixes have achieved intended aims through systematic testing according to the ASTM specification as well as relevant analytical procedures . . To produce Laboratory test specimens for LWAC design mix with composition of cement .

 It also will focus on the lightweight aggregate concrete which produced of the concrete design mix and which additive can be added to the mix to make the mixer very suitable by using slag cement and palm oil shells . The significance of this study is to provide better understanding of the LWC characteristic . . Also exposing myself to the LWC in the real World and Allows me to apply the technique and carry out the compressive strength test.


 The main properties of LWC are low density and thermal conductivity . Lightweight concrete is similar to normal weight concrete except that it has a lower density . faster building rates in .It made with LWA or with a combination of lightweight and normal weight aggregates .  Its main advantages of using LWC in construction are a reduction of dead load and construction .

cellular or porous aggregate . Particularly lightweight concrete can be categorized into three groups . Lightweight concrete can be prepared either by injecting air in its composition or it can be achieved by omitting the finer sizes of the aggregate or even replacing them by a hollow .

is a mixture of cement water and single sized coarse aggregate combined to produce a porous structural materials . NO FINE CONCRETE  considered as a lightweight has a high volume of voids which as factor responsible to produce lower strength and lightweight concrete . .

2. There are many physical properties of light weight aggregate concrete  . performance in service in terms of safety serviceability and durability which under suitability of the materials for structural application . LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE  LWAC has been successful used in wide range of construction from conventional dwellings and office blocks to complex highly specialized structures .

 There are two methods to prepare the aerated concrete .3. AERATED / FOAMED CONCRETE  Aerated concrete does not contain coarse aggregate and can be regarded as an aerated mortar . and sand replaced by pulverized fuel ash or other siliceous materials . .  It can be made by introducing air or other form of gases into a cement slurry and fine sand .

In second method air is introduced either by mixing in stable foam or by whipping in air.1. The first method is to inject the gas into the mixing during its plastic condition by means of a chemical reaction . .suitable for insulation roof screeds . 2. this method is mainly used for in situ-concrete . use this method in precast concrete .

   ADVANTAGES Lower dead load Better physical properties:   Rapid and relatively simple construction DISADVANTAGE S    Very sensitive with water content in mixers . Mixing time is longer than conventional concrete to assure proper mixing . More brittle .

slump test . density .  The materials used for making of LWAC as Slag cement. .Compaction factor . palm oil shells . Portland cement and water .  Laboratory test will be in compressive strength . In this chapter provides proportion of LWAC mix design and compare it with normal concrete mix. fine aggregate .


 The GGBFS will be replaced as 30 .  palm oil shells will be used as coarse aggregate . 40 and 50 from the weight of cement. . Design mix will be based on the British standard institution BS6699: 1992 Specification for ground granulated blast furnace slag for use with Portland cement .

50% 25 ² 50% 25 -50 % .Concrete application Concrete paving Basement floors Footings Walls & column Pre-stressed & Pre ² cast concrete Concrete Blocks High strength Slag cement 25 ² 50% 25.50% 30 ² 65 % 25 -50% 25.

50%) ter Fine ggreg te P lm oil shells Water cement ratio (.DESIGN MIX OF LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE Component Cement GGBFS (%.40 .55 ) . 30% .. 40% .