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John Summerscales
University of Plymouth 

! ©  definition includes Ʀ
î about    and 
  in which we live.
î facilities for day-to-day life and for transport
and industry to go about its work.
î ivil engineers ÀÀ À bridges
roads railways and tunnels. They also design
and build tall buildings and large structures Ʀ
  

! ¦  h 
 er  

  e, co    ec  e 
!  e   e (FEA/CFD) 
   e (e.. ee    )
! S  
!  
, E e , S e
 He  
( EH)  
e
! C ee
Π  

! low density
! high specific modulus/strength
! creep and fatigue resistance*
! durability in corrosive environments*
! ballistic resistance
* LinLiao et al Journal of Advanced Materials 1998 30(4) 3-40.
* G Pritchard Reinforced Plastics Durability Woodhead 1999.
½  
! fibres:
î basalt
î reclaimed Ơmilledơ short carbon fibres
î natural fibres
! matrix:
î bio-based resin systems
! nano-additives
! embedded sensors and biomimetics
¦ À ÀÀ
    
 
! Slender structures
! Lightweight roofs including e.g. minimal part mosque domes
! High-performance scaffolding/tower cranes and longer telescopic cranes
! Functional formwork
! Rehabilitation: off-shore rigs underground tunnels in-situ pipework
! Marine renewable energy system seating and tethers
! Storm water and drainage solutions
! ontrol structures applicable to rivers and canals
! Port and breakwater construction
! ©mpermeable lining of canals and (anaerobic) landfill sites
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! potential use for pultruded sections
! pulsed microwave curing giving alternating
î cured solid section
î uncured flexible sections
ÀÀ
! Mondial House
î one half of panels removed after 33 years service
î one half of panels cleaned and polished.
! American xpress Brighton c.1977.
î structural cladding supporting glazing.
! functional formwork?
© 
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u 
xperience of
(a) prefabricated housing
+ (b) naval vessels
= (c) floating or submerged residences to
! alleviate pressure on fertile land
! protect against flooding (Bangladesh/New Orleans)
© 
ër "$% 
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! Build
î  Ʀ multi-storey building
! energy required to lift components
î À Ʀ into the desert regions
! bonded composites require no water
î  Ʀ onto or under the sea
! Ôas on earlier slide)
ë  

! V©S©ONS Network of xcellence
î Visionary oncepts for Ships & Floating Structures
î uropean FP6 priority 1.6.2 sustainable transport
î http://www.maritime-visions.net
! free-ports
! renewable energy
! N©MBY: not in my back yard
! offshore gambling casinos

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! move the village to the water
or pipe the water to the village ?
! lightweight water tankers
î more water less vehicle
! prefabricated shelters
Ô   
! arthquake containment
î over-wrapped bridge supports
î why not adopt Ơ 
  
ơ
rather than do this retrospectively?
! Pipework
î in-situ-form pipe lining
! Historic structures
î ©ghtham Mote ÔNational Trust)
¦À

! Several modest examples in urope
! Some strengthening/rehab in USA
! proposed á 
¦À
as a flagship project
i      
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 %  ( 0  $  (  
2%  
 51  %   2% % $  $ #5#
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Need for private cars
or effective public transport ?:
! dedicated elevated/tunnelled routes
ë ensuring no delays
ë regular and reliable service
ë on-demand provision?
u  À  
! Shanghai airport to centre
î 30 km in 7min 20s Ôadvertised as 8min)
î maximum normal speed of 431 km/h Ô268 mph)
î Ʀ but mostly ac-/de-celerating
! flight check-in is tedious so
! given concern over aircraft emissions
the challenge is to À 
Ôintra-continental)    À .
 À 

! University of Liverpool Department of Mathematical Science
î metamaterial Ơinvisibility cloakơ
could reduce the risk of large water waves
overtopping coastal defences
î need to replicate in a Ɲrealƞ life situation
to protect land from natural disasters/tsunamis and
defend structures such as oil rigs in the ocean.

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! Land
î hydroelectric
î wind
î geothermal
! Sea
î waves
î tidal barrage and tidal stream
î ocean thermal energy conversion ÔOT 
½   À  
À   À
! ëinite lement Analysis
î laminate stacking sequence
î material/structural anisotropy
! omputational ëluid Dynamics
! Genetic Algorithms

î but where is the underlying database?
áÀÀ
! Positive:
î Sims ÔNPL drove aerospace RAG
to ©SO standards
! Negative:
î lack of standards for thick composites
î difficulty of addressing multiple laminate
configurations/stacking sequences
î need a champion for this sector
@À
! adhesives
! pultrusions with connectors:
î omposolite®
î Startlink
^   á  

Àu  Ô^áu 
! ^uality > ©SO 9000 series
! nvironment > ©SO 14000 series
! Safety and Health > OHSAS 18000 series
! ^unSH aims to integrate these systems
^   á  

Àu  Ô^áu 
! Off-site preparation of modular systems
! Lower embodied energy
! More comprehensive
Ôquantitative Life ycle Assessment
! mbedded systems for
structural health monitoring

! omposites inherently expensive?
! Move fabrication to low-wage economy
! onsider system costs e.g.
î Autovia del antabrico
first carbon-fibre composite bridge in Spain
î easy and quick to assemble
î completed in 10 hours using a 50 tonne crane
Ôequivalent structure in concrete > 400 tonne crane 
  
Peter Headƞs
Brunel ©nternational Lecture series for the
©nstitution of ivil ngineers
Ơntering the ecological age: the engineer's roleơ
 !!   !

heavy focus on        

   
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! 8 '    5r2
7089 

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! The value of the worldƞs ecosystem
services and natural capital
[Nature May 1997].
! The biosphere provides us with services
worth some US$33 trillion per year
- nearly double the worldƞs GDP! 
  # 
! asy to express in monetary terms:
î Agriculture and livestock hunting fishing water
supply genetic resources various chemicals
! More complex to evaluate Ôregulatory services:
î arbon sequestration atmospheric regulation air
quality water supply erosion nutrient supply
regulation of pests and diseases
! Difficult to evaluate Ôcultural services:
î Aesthetic artistic educational spiritual/religious
recreation and leisure.
! http://www.millenniumassessment.org Ô2000
^
$  
# Ô^$ #
! acidification
! climate Ôglobal warming
! eutrophication
! ozone
! resource depletion
! smog
! toxicity ©á%%
]á  
! Ʀ in 2007 global warming managed to
impose itself as a world-wide issue

- whereas À is still struggling to
rise above the status of a marginal issue.
[research*U 56 dated June 2008].
# À 
! strange case of vanishing western honeybee
î colony collapse disorder
! varroa mites and/or agrochemicals
î dangerously out of kilter with nature?
î the world can't survive without it:
! Ơno more pollination no more plants no more manơ.
! May Berenbaum:
î Ơmanaged honey bees will cease to exist &'(ơ
Alison Benjamin and Brian Mc allum A World Without Bees
Guardian Newspapers June 2008. ©SBN-13: 978-0852650929.
MR Berenbaum olony ollapse Disorder and Pollinator Decline
US House of Representatives ommittee 29 March 2007
# 
! as the ocean warms
the area that can support growth of algae
grows smaller Ʀ driven ever closer to poles
until algal growth ceases.
Threshold for failure of the algae
which actively remove O2 from the air
is ~ 500 parts per million Ôppm
which we will reach ... in about forty years.
James Lovelock The Revenge of Gaia
Allen Lane London 2006.
©SBN-13: 978-0-713-99914-3
á  

! Skilled industry personnel
î accredited training
î higher salaries in aerospace/ëormula 1?
! ducate the users
î Plymouth ivil ngineering Bng students
take same 20 credit composites course as
Bng Mechanical ngineering with omposites
Π 
! conservatism of civil engineering industry
! price sensitivity
! absence of comprehensive
Ơmaterialsơ property database
! absence of design codes
! automated manufacture
# À 
! Toby Mottram University of Warwick
! Dave asterbrook University of Plymouth
! ëethi Azizi University of Plymouth
download the PowerPoint from
www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/composites/cobrae.ppt

± Thank you for your attention

Ʀ any questions?