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physically . include twisted-pair cable. Guided Media. !  . . | . and fiber-optic cable. coaxial cable. Twisted-pair cable and coaxial cable use metallic (copper). Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light. .

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hrequency range is suitable for transmitting both data and voice. | .T. each with its own colored plastic insulation.  .nshielded Twisted-Pair (TP) Cable is the most common type of telecommunication medium in use today. .P consists of two conductors. .

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|  . .Coaxial has a central core conductor of solid copper enclosed in an insulating sheath.  . Coaxial Cable has a single copper conductor a plastic layer provides insulation. Carries signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair cable.

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physical specifications. . Each RG number denotes a unique set of . and . thickness. 0ifferent coaxial cable designs are categorized by their radio government (RG) rating. the size and type of the outer casing. . . |  . . the construction of the shield. . type of inner insulator.

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Optical hiber is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services |  . . hiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. . . Optical hiber . rt also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds.

. But however the electronic devices required are significantly more expensive than comparable devices for copper cable. . . Greater skill is required to install fiber optic cable. | | . The cost of fiber optic cables has fallen significantly in recent years.

.Optical fibers use reflection to guide light through a channel. |  .The difference in density of the two materials must be such that a beam of light moving through the core is reflected off the cladding instead of being refracted into it.A glass or plastic core is surrounded by a cladding of less dense glass or plastic. . . .rnformation is encoded onto a beam of light as a series of on-off flashes that represent 1 and 0 bits.

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Can penetrate walls . Radio waves . 1kHz ƛ 1GHz . interference with other waves . Omni directional (all directions) . |  . Low data rate for digital communication. Relatively narrow (compared to microwave) . Good for long distances (sky propagation).

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. unidirectional . no interference . sending & receiving antennas should be aligned. 1GHz ƛ 300GHz (wide band) . high data rate. Requires permission from authorities |  . Can not penetrate walls . microwaves .

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Can not penetrate walls (short range communication. infrared . no interference) . Remote control. wireless keyboard |  . 300GHz ƛ 300THz .

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