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E D U C AT I O N

GROUP 5
EDUCATION
• Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the
acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Educational methods include storytelling, discussion,
teaching, training, and directed research. Education
frequently takes place under the guidance of educators,
however learners may also educate themselves. Education
can take place in formal or informal settings and any
experience that has a formative effect on the way one
thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The
methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.
EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
• DEPED – It is an executive department of the Philippine
Government who manage and regulate the education in the
Philippines.
• In 1946, the education system was patterned by the education
system in Spain and United States.
• From 1945 to 2011 , it is composed of 6 years of elementary (age
of 7) and 4 years in high school (age of 12).
• In 2011, it started transition from its 10 years basic educational
system to a K-12 educational system.
FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION IN THE
SOCIETY
1. Giving training and specific skills or the basic general
education literacy.
2. Prepare people for occupational roles.
3. Preserving the culture from one generation to the next.
4. Encouraging democratic participation by teaching verbal
skills.
5. Developing the person’s ability to think rationally and
independently.
6. Enriching life by enabling the student to expand his or
her intellectual aesthetic horizons.
7. Improving personal adjustment through personal
counseling and such courses as applied psychology,
sex education, family living and drug abuse.
8. Improving the health of the nation’s youth by providing
physical exercise and courses in hygiene.
9. Producing patriotic citizens through lessons illustrating
the country’s glory.
10.Building character.
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS RELEVANT TO
BASIC EDUCATION
1. “ The state shall protect the right of all citizens to quality
education to all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make
such education accessible to all.”
2. “The state shall establish, maintain and support a complete,
adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the
needs of people and society.”
3. “The state shall establish and maintain a system of free
education in the elementary and high school levels. Without
limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children,
elementary education is compulsory for all children of school
age.”
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS RELEVANT
TO BASIC EDUCATION
4. “The state shall establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants,
student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which
shall be available to deserving students in both public and private
schools especially to the underprivileged.”
5. “ The state shall encourage non-formal , informal, and indigenous
learning systems as well as self – learning , independent, and out – of –
school study programs particularly those that respond to the
community needs.
6. “The state shall provide adult citizens the disabled and out – of –
school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency and other
skills.”
FORMAL EDUCATION

• It refers to the systematic and deliberate process of hierarchically


structured and sequential learning corresponding to the general
concept of elementary and secondary level of schooling. At the end
of each level, the learners must obtain certification in order to
enter or advance to the next level
FORMAL EDUCATION SHALL CORRESPOND THE
FOLLOWING LEVELS IN BASIC EDUCATION:
ELEMENTARY – It is the first part of educational system. It includes first
6 years of compulsory education from Grades 1 to 6. Major subjects
include Math, Science, English, Filipino and Social Sciences.
Optional subjects include Music, Arts, Physical Education and
Health.
SECONDARY – It is concerned primarily with continuing basic
education of the elementary level and expanding it to include the
learning of employable, gainful skills, usually corresponding 4 years
of junior high school and 2 years of senior high school.
TERTIARY – Colleges typically offer 1 or more specialized programs
while universities must offer at least 8 different under graduate
degree programs in wide array of subects and at least 2 graduate
programs. Most universities offer 4 year degree programs with 2
semesters per year.
VOCATIONAL – Programs offered vary in duration from a few weeks
to 2 years. On completion students may take centrally –
administered examinations to obtain their diploma or certificate.
Vocational colleges don’t usually require an entrance examination.
Only a record of high school education and an enrollment fee are
required.
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

• It refers to any organized systematic educational activity carried


outside of the framework of the formal system to provide selected
types of learning to a segment of the population.
• It is a life long process of learning by which every person acquires
and accumulates knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights from
daily experiences at home, at work, at play, and from life itself.
SPECIAL EDUCATION

• It refers to the education of persons who are physically, mentally,


emotionally, socially or culturally different from so-called “normal”
individuals, such that they require modification of school practices
to develop their potential
• SPED aims to develop the maximums potential of the child with
the special needs to enable him/ her to become self-reliant and
take advantage of the opportunities for a full and happy life.
RELIGION
AND BELIEF
SYSTEMS
R • IT IS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION
THAT ANSWERS QUESTIONS
E AND EXPLAINS THE
L SEEMINGLY INEXPLICABLE.
I • PROVIDES EXPLANATIONS
FOR WHY THINGS HAPPENS
G AND DEMYSTIFIES THE
I IDEAS OF BIRTH AND
O DEATH.
N • MONOTHEISTIC
• IT REFERS TO THE BELIEF IN
INNUMERABLE SPIRITUAL BEINGS
A CONCERNED WITH HUMAN
AFFAIRS AND CAPABLE OF
N HELPING OR HARMING HUMAN
I INTEREST.
• ANIMISTIC BELIEFS WERE FIRST
M COMPETENTLY SURVEYED BY SIR
EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR IN HIS
I WORK PRIMITIVE CULTURE (1871),
S TO WHOM IS OWED THE
CONTINUED CURRENCY OF THE
M TERM.
• IT S THE BELIEF THAT ALL OBJECTS
HAVE SPIRIT.
IMPORTANCE OF ANIMISM IN THE
STUDY OF CULTURE AND RELIGION
• Animism denotes not a single creed or doctrine but a view of the world
consistent with a certain range of religious beliefs and practices, many of
which may survive in more complex and hierarchical religions.
• Since the “great” religions og the world have all evolved in historic time, it may
be assumed that animistic emphases dominated the globe in the prehistoric
era.
• No historically given creed has an inevitable appeal to the educated mind – had
scarcely gained a place in scholarly argument more than 100 years ago.
M • IT REFERS TO THE BELIEF IN THE
O EXISTENCE OF ONE GOD,OR IN THE
ONENESS OF GOD;AS SUCH,IT IS
N DISTINGUISHED FROM POLYTHEISM,THE
O BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF MANY
GODS,AND FROM ATHEISM,THE BELIEF
T THAT THERE IS NO GOD.

H • IT CHARACTERIZES THE TRADITIONS OF


JUDAISM,CHRISTIANITY,AND
E ISLAM,AND ELEMENTS OF THE BELIEF
ARE DISCERNIBLE IN NUMEROUS OTHER
I RELIGIONS.
S
M
• THE WORD COMES FROM THE GREEK
P WORDS POLY+THEOI,LITERALLY “MANY
O GODS”
• IT IS BELIEF IN,OR WORSHIP
L OF,MULTIPLE GODS OR DIVINITIES.
Y • POLYTHEIST DIVIDE THEIR WORLD UP
T INTO A VARIETY OF DOMAINS AND
ASSIGN GODS TO EACH:A GOD OF THE
H SEA,A GOD OF THE SUN AND SO
E FORTH.
I • IN THEIR EFFORTS TO COVER THEIR
BASES,POLYTHEISTS END UP WITH
S CONFLICTING GODS:A GOD OF WAR
M AND A GOD OF PEACE,A GOD OF
VIRGINITY AND A GOD OF FERTILITY,A
GOD OF CREATION AND A GOD OF
DESTRUCTION.
I
N
• CREATED AND CONTROLLED BY AN
S
ESTABLISHED ORGANIZATION.
T
I R
T E TWO FORMS:
U L A.RELIGION
T I -IS LIMITLESS AND OPEN
I G -SOMETHING THAT EXISTS AS TIME
O I EXISTS,BUT WHEN IT IS CHANGED OR
N O TAMPERED WITH,SEPARATED AND RIPPED IN
A N DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS…IT SIMPLY BECOMES
L AN INSTITUTION.
I
Z
E
D
I
N
S “ RELIGION SHALL MEAN FOR US THE
T FEELINGS, ACTS, AND EXPERIENCES OF
I R INDIVIDUAL MEN IN THEIR SOLITUDE…
T E IN RELATION T WHATEVER THEY MAY
U L CONSIDER THE DIVINE. SINCE THE
T I RELATION MAY BE MORAL, PHYSICAL,
I G OR RITUAL, IT IS EVIDENT THAT OUT OF
O RELIGION IN THE SENSE IN WHICH WE
I
N
O TAKE IT, THEOLOGIES, PHILOSOPHIES,
A
L N AND ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION
I MAY SECONDARILY GROW.”
Z - WILLIAM JAMES
E
D
I
N B. INSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGION
S • IS NOT LIMITLESS,AND IT IS CLOSED.
T • IT IS DISTINGUISHED FROM THE
I R BROADER IDEA OF RELIGION ESPECIALY
T E IN ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY AND
U PHILOSOPHY.
L • JAMES FURTHER COMMENT THAT THE
T
I ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
I
O G “INSTITUTIONAL RELIGION” ARE “
WORSHIP AND SACRIFICE, PROCEDURE
N I FOR WORKING ON THE DISPOSITIONS
A O OF THE DEITY [i.e] THEOLOGY, AND
L CEREMONY AND ECCLESIASTICAL
N ORGANIZATION.”
I
Z
E
D
MOST OF THE WORLD SUBSCRIBES T ONE OF THE
FOLLOWING RELIGIONS:

CHRISTIANITY

• The most widespread world religion,Christianity was derived from


Judaism.
• it is based on the belief that jesus Christ is the son of god and the
redeemer of mankind.there are many different Christian
denominations.
ISLAM
• Followers of islam are called “Muslims”
• Muslims believe that the true word of god was revealed to the
prophet Muhammad around 570 a.d.
• God in islam is the same god as the Christian and Judaic deity.

JUDAISM

• Is a monotheistic religion that predates Christianity,built on the


belief that the Israelites are the “chosen people” of god.
HINDUISM
• Is the oldest major world religion,dominant in india.
• Hindus do not worship a single person or deity but rather are
guided by a set of ancient cultural beliefs.

BUDDHISM
• Most whom live in Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, and
Burma, follow the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, a
spiritual teacher of the 6th century B.C.E.
• It does not feature any single all – powerful deity but
teaches that by eschewing materialism, one can
transcend the “illusion” of life and achieve
enlightenment.
TYPES OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS

According to sociologist, there are 3 group categories of religious


organizations.

CHURCH – It is integrated with society.


SECT – Sets itself apart from society as a whole
CULT – It is outside te standard cultural norms, typically centered
on a charismatic leader.
SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
• “ The Separation of Church and State shall be inviolable” (Article
II, Section 6) declared by the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.
• “No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and
enjoyment of religious profession worship, without discrimination or
preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be
required for the exercise of civil or political rights.” (Article III,
Section 5)
• “ No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied,
paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or
support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or
system of religion” ( Article VI, Section 29)
HEALTH
H • HEALTH IS A STATE OF PHYSICAL,
MENTAL AND SOCIAL WELL -BEING IN

E
WHICH DISEASE AND INFIRMITY ARE
ABSENT.
• THE MEANING OF HEALTH HAS
A EVOLVED OVER TIME. IN KEEPING
WITH THE BIOMEDICAL PERSPECTIVE,

L EARLY DEFINITIONS OF HEALTH


FOCUSED ON THE THEME OF THE
BODY'S ABILITY TO FUNCTION;
T HEALTH WAS SEEN AS A STATE OF
NORMAL FUNCTION THAT COULD BE

H DISRUPTED FROM TIME TO TIME BY


DISEASE.
SYSTEM OF DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION
AND HEALING

1. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
- Complementary/alternative medicines (CAM). The terms
“complementary medicine” or “alternative medicine” are often
used interchangeablywith traditional medicine in some
countries.They refer to a broad set of health care practices that are
not part of that country’s own tradition and are not integrated into
the dominant health care system.
2. HERBAL MEDICINE
 It includes herb, herbal materials, herbal preparations and finished herbal
products that contain as active ingredient parts of plants, or other plant
materials, or combinations of plant materials.
 Herbs are crude plant materials such as leaves, flowers, fruit, seed, stems,
wood, bark, roots, rhizomes or other plant parts, which may be entire,
fragmented or powdered.
 Herbal materials include fresh juices, gums, fixed oils, essential oils, resins, and
dry powder of herbs.
 Herbal preparations are the bases for finished herbal products and may include
powdered herbal materials, or extracts, tinctures and fatty oils of herbal materials.
 Finished herbal products are herbal preparations made from one or more
herbs. If more than one herb is used, the term mixture herbal product can also
be used. It both contain percipients in addition to the active ingredients.
3. TRADITIONAL USE OF HERBAL
MEDICINES
• It refers to the long historical use of theses medicines. Their use is
well established and widely acknowledged to be safe and
effective, and may be accepted by national authorities.

4. THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY
• It refers to the successful prevention, diagnosis and
treatment of physical and mental illnesses; improvement of
symptoms of illnesses; as well as beneficial alteration or
regulation of the physical and mental status of the body.
5. ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

• It refers to ingredients of herbal medicines with therapeutic


activity.
• The preparation of these medicines should be standardized to
contain a defined amount of the active ingredients, if adequate
methods are available.
• In cases where it not possible to identify the active ingredients, the
whole herbal medicine may be considered as one active
ingredient.
HEALTH AS HUMAN RIGHT
• Everyone has the right to the highest attainable standard of
physical and mental health.
• This right guarantees a system of health protection for all.
• Everyone has the right to the health care they need, ad to living
conditions that enable each one to be healthy.
• Health care must be provided as a public good for all, financed
publicly and equitably.
• The human right to health care means that hospitals, clinics,
medicines, and doctors’ services must be accessible, available,
acceptable and of good quality for everyone, on a equitable
basis, where and when needed.
UNIVERSAL ACCESS
• Access to health care must be universal, guaranteed for all on an
equitable basis. Health care must be affordable and
comprehensive for everyone, and physically accessible where
and when needed.

AVAILABILITY
• Adequate health care infrastructure like hospitals, community
health facilities, trained health care professionals; goods like
drugsand equipment; and services like primary care and mental
health must be available in all geographical areas and to all
communities.
ACCEPTABILITY AND DIGNITY
• Health care institutions and providers must respect dignity,
provide culturally appropriate care, be responsive to needs
based on gender, age, culture, language, and different ways of
life and abilities. They must respect medical ethics and protect
confidentiality.

QUALITY
• All health care must be medically appropriate and of good
quality, guided by quality standards and control mechanisms
and provided in a timely, safe, and patient – centered manner.
PROCEDURAL PRINCIPLES WHICH APPLY
TO ALL HUMAN RIGHTS:
NON – DISCRIMINATION – Health care must be accessible and
provided without discrimination (in intent or effect) based on health
status, race, ethnicity, age, sex, sexuality , disability, language,
religion, national origin, income, or social status
TRANSPARENCY – The health care system must be open with regard
to information, decision – making, and management.
PARTICIPATION – Individuals and communities must be able to take
an active role in decisions that affect their health, including in the
organization and implementation of health care services.
ACCOUNTABILITY
• Private companies and public agencies must be held accountable
fro protecting the right to health through enforceable standards,
regulations, and independent compliance monitoring. The health
care system must be accountable to the people it serves.

HEALTH CARE
• A human right campaign in several U.S. states, inspired by the
example of Vermont, in which 2011 became the first state to
pass a law for universal, publicly financed health care system.
UNIVERSALITY – Everyone must have access to equal high – quality and
comprehensive health care.
EQUITY – Resources and services must be distributed ad accessed according
to people’s needs. We get what we need and give what we can.
THANK
YOU