You are on page 1of 37

URINE

AND
FECES
Prepared by: Group 5
URINE
 COMPOSITIONS OF URINE
 PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE
 PATHOLOGICAL CONSTITUENT OF URINE
WHAT IS URINE?
It is a liquid by product of the body
secreted by the kidneys through a
process called URINATION and excreted
through the urethra.
WHAT IS URINE?
 Urine is a waste product that is produced by the kidneys in their process of
cleaning the blood and is made up of water and dissolved waste products.
 The waste products are substances that the body does not need and that
can be harmful to our organs if accumulated in the body.
 The kidneys are constantly producing urine, which is sent down to the
bladder.
URINE COMPOSITION
Normal Chemical Composition of Urine
Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with a
minimum of these remaining constituents (5%) in order of
decreasing concentration:
2 % Urea
0.18 % Sulphate
0.12 % Phosphate
0.6 % Chloride
0.6 % Potassium
Normal Chemical Composition of
Urine
 0.1 % Sodium
 0.1 % Creatinine
 0.05 % Ammonia
 0.03 % Uric acid
 0.015 % Calcium
 0.01 % Magnesium
 0.Other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds
(proteins, hormones, metabolites).
Physical CHARACTERISTICS of
urine

• Color
• Odor
• Turbidity
• Ph
• Volume
• Density (Specific Gravity)
Physical CHARACTERISTICS of
urine

– Color and Transparency


– Clear, pale to deep yellow (due to urochrome)
– Concentrated urine has a deeper yellow/amber color
– A red or red-brown (abnormal) color could be from a food dye, eating fresh beefs, a
drug, or the presence of either hemoglobin or myoglobin.
– If the sample contained many red blood cells, it would be cloudy as well as red.
– TURBIDITY AND CLOUDINESS maybe caused by excessive cellular material or protein in
the urine.
• The cellular metabolism generates many by-products which are rich in nitrogen and must be
cleared from the bloodstream, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine.
• These by-products are expelled from the body during urination (urea, uric acid, and
creatinine), which is the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body.
A urinalysis can detect nitrogenous wastes of the mammalian body.
• Normal urine color ranges from pale yellow to deep amber — the result of a pigment called
urochrome and how diluted or concentrated the urine is.
• Pigments and other compounds in certain foods and medications can change your urine color.
Physical CHARACTERISTICS of
urine
– ODOR
– Fresh urine is slightly aromatic
– Standing urine develops an ammonia odor
– Some drugs and vegetables (asparagus) alter the usual odor.
– Elevated ketones smells fruity or acetone-like
– Consumption of alcohol, saffron coffee, tunafis and onion can result in teltate
scents.
CHARACTERISTICS of urine

– PH LEVEL
– PH 6 Normal
– The neutral ph is 7. The higher the number the
more basic (alkaline) it is. The lower the number
the more acidic your urine is.
VOLUME

– NORMAL:
– Average urine production in human is about 1-2 liters per day.
– The volume depends on the state of hydration, activity level, environmental
factors and health of individuals.
– ABNORMAL:
Under 1 liters per day (due to decreased fluid intake or Kidney Failure)
Physical CHARACTERISTICS of
urine

– COLOR
– Dark yellow – indicative of hydration
– Yellow or orange – due to removal of vitamin B
– Orange – due to certain medication such as rifamine
– Brown – can be a symptoms of Jaundice, Rhabdomylosis or Gilbert’s syndrome
– Pinkish – due to consumption of beef
Pathological constituents

• Other constituents include urea, chloride, sodium,


potassium, creatinine and other dissolved ions, and
inorganic and organic compounds. Urea is a non-toxic
molecule made of toxic ammonia and carbon dioxide. Any
abnormal constituents found in urine are an indication of
disease.
Effects of pathological constituents

– Abnormal constituents of urine


– In determining whether pathological conditions exist through urine analysis,
it is necessary to perform both physical and chemical tests. Of the physical
tests that are available, only appearance of the urine will be observed. The
chemical tests will be for pH, protein, glucose, ketones, hemoglobin. The
significance of each abnormality will accompany the specific test.
ABNORMAL TYPES OF URINE

– There are several conditions that can cause abnormal components to be excreted
in urine or present as abnormal characteristics of urine. They are mostly referred
to by the suffix -uria. Some of the more common types of abnormal urine
include:
– Proteinuria—Protein content in urine, often due to leaky or damaged glomeruli.
– Oliguria—an abnormally small amount of urine, often due to shock or kidney
damage.
– Polyuria—an abnormally large amount of urine, often caused by diabetes.
ABNORMAL TYPES OF URINE

– Dysuria—Painful or uncomfortable urination, often from urinary


tract infections.
– Hematuria—Red blood cells in urine, from infection or injury.
– Glycosuria—Glucose in urine, due to excess plasma glucose in
diabetes, beyond the amount able to be reabsorbed in the
proximal convoluted tubule.
FECES
COMPOSITIONS
CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES
PATHOLOGICAL CONSTITUENTS
What is feces?
 Poop, also known as stool or feces, is a normal part of the
digestive process. Poop consists of waste products that are
being eliminated from the body. It may include undigested
food particles, bacteria, salts, and other substances.
Sometimes, poop can vary in its color, texture, amount, and
odor.
COMPOSITION OF FECES

 Feces are mostly made of water (about 75%). The rest is made of dead
bacteria that helped us digest our food, living bacteria, protein,
undigested food residue (known as fiber), waste material from food,
cellular linings, fats, salts, and substances released from the intestines
(such as mucus). Although feces are made up of about 75% water, this
number varies from person to person, depending on how long the feces
stay in the intestine.
Characteristics of feces
Color
Texture
Smell
Frequency
Color
 Brown poop is considered the "normal" color of poop, some greenish-brown hues may also be
acceptable.
– Poop can be other colors too, such as:

– Black
 Stools that are black, especially if they have the appearance of coffee grounds or suggest gastrointestinal bleeding. Substances
such as iron supplements, black licorice, black stout, and bismuth medications also cause black poop.
– White
 If stools are white, gray, or pale, a person may have an issue with the liver or gallbladder as pale stools suggest a lack of bile.
Some anti-diarrhea medications cause white stools.

– Green
color
 Spinach, kale, or other green foods can cause green poop. However, green-colored stool may be
a sign that there is too much bile and not enough bilirubin in the poop.

– Red
 Poop that is red-colored may be the result of gastrointestinal bleeding. Small amounts of blood
in the stool can indicate hemorrhoids. Eating beets or red berries, or drinking beet or tomato
juice, also turns poop red..

- Orange
 Consuming many orange-colored foods, which are rich in a pigment called beta-carotene,
causes orange stool. Carrots, sweet potatoes, and winter squash are among the many foods
that contain this pigment. However, blocked bile ducts or certain medications including some
antacids and the antibiotic rifampin can cause orange poop.
Color
Yellow
 If stool appears yellow or is greasy-looking, it suggests the poop contains too
much fat. This may be the result of absorption issues, or difficulty producing
enzymes or bile.

– (Most people will experience variations in stool color at some stage. Usually, this
is down to diet or some other minor cause. However, anyone who experiences
changes in poop color that last for 2 or more weeks or has red or black stool
should see their doctor.)
Texture
Smell
Feces normally have an unpleasant smell. Foul-smelling stools have an
unusually strong, putrid smell. In many cases, foul-smelling stools occur
due to the foods people eat and the bacteria present in their colon.
However, foul-smelling stools can also indicate a serious health problem.
Diarrhea, bloating, or flatulence may occur with foul-smelling stools.
These stools are often soft or runny.
Other conditions that can cause foul-smelling stools include chronic
pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and short bowel syndrome.
Frequency
 Frequent bowel movements is a condition in which a person defecates
(eliminates waste from the bowel) more often than usual. There is no “normal”
number of bowel movements. Most people have 0-4 bowel movements a week,
but the frequency can range from three times a day to three times a week. To say
that a person’s bowel movements have become more frequent is based on an
increase in that person’s usual pattern, not on a standard definition that applies
to everyone.
 The two main bowel movement conditions are constipation(fewer than three
bowel movements per week) and diarrhea(more than three movements of loose
stools per day).
PATHOLOGICAL
CONSTITUENT
– Diarrhea
 Is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day.
 It occurs when insufficient fluid is absorbed by the colon. As part of the digestion process, or
due to fluid intake, food is mixed with large amounts of water. Thus, digested food is
essentially liquid prior to reaching the colon. The colon absorbs water, leaving the remaining
material as a semisolid stool.
 Diarrhea is most commonly caused by a myriad of viral infections but is also often the result
of bacterial toxins and sometimes even infection.
PATHOLOGICAL
EFFECTS
– Constipation
 Refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a
common cause of painful defecation. Severe constipation includes obstipation
(failure to pass stools or gas) and fecal impaction, which can progress to bowel
obstruction and become life-threatening.
– Steatorrhea, or fatty stool
 Occurs when there is too much fat in the stool. Stool or feces contain a mixture of
undigested nutrients. These include proteins, fibers, and salts.
Feces facts
– Normal poop is brown and has a soft to firm consistency.
– Normal poop is generally:
– Medium to dark brown
 This is because it contains a pigment called bilirubin, which forms when red blood cells
break down.
– Strong-smelling
 Bacteria in excrement emit gases that contain the unpleasant odor associated with
poop.
– Pain-free to pass
 A healthy bowel movement should be painless and require minimal strain.
Feces facts
– Soft to firm in texture
 Poop that is passed in one single piece or a few smaller pieces is typically considered to
be a sign of a healthy bowel. The long, sausage-like shape of poop is due to the shape of
the intestines.
– Passed once or twice daily
 Most people pass stool once a day, although others may poop every other day or up to
three times daily. At a minimum, a person should pass stool three times a week.
– Consistent in its characteristics
 A healthy poop varies from person to person. However, a person should monitor any
changes in the smell, firmness, frequency, or color of poop as it can indicate there is a
problem.