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Chapter 6

Introduction

formulations of the equations of robot arm motion.

Equations of motion

The way in which the motion of the manipulator arises from

torques applied by the actuators, or from external forces

applied to the manipulator.

Forward and Inverse Dynamics

find the required vectors of joint torques, .

: problem of controlling the manipulator

calculate the resulting motion of the manipulator,

, , and .

: problem of simulating the manipulator

Forward Dynamics

Problem

Given: Joint torques and links ,

geometry, mass, inertia,

friction, joint torques

Compute: Angular acceleration of the

links (solve differential

equations)

Solution

Solve a set of differential equations

Dynamic Equations - Newton-Euler method

or Lagrangian Dynamics

V (,

τ M () ) G() F (,

)

Inverse Dynamics

Problem

Given: Angular acceleration, velocity and

angels of the links in addition to

the links geometry, mass, inertia,

friction

Solution

Solve a set of algebraic equations

Dynamic Equations - Newton-Euler

method or Lagrangian Dynamics

V (,

τ M () ) G() F (,

)

Two Approaches

Energy based: Lagrange-Euler.

vector cross product. Allow real time control.

Dynamics - Newton-Euler Equations

Newton Equation

For a rigid body (like a robot link)

whose center of mass is

experiencing an acceleration, the

force acting at the center of mass

that caused the acceleration is given

by Newton’s equation

d mvc

F

dt

For our robot manipulators, whose

link masses are constant, this

equation simplifies to

F mvc

Dynamics - Newton-Euler Equations

Eular Equation

For a rotating rigid body, the moment

that causes an angular acceleration is

given by Euler’s equation

N

d c I

dt

For our robot manipulators, whose link

moment of inertia is constant, this

equation simplifies to

N cI c I

The second term on the right will be

non-zero when the link’s angular

velocity vector is not coincident with the

link’s principle axis of inertia.

Dynamics - Newton-Euler Equations

To solve the Newton and Euler equations, we’ll need to develop

mathematical terms for:

c

I– The Inertia tensor (moment of inertia)

F mvc

N I I

c c

Chapter 5

Linear and Rotational Velocity

A

B

• Vector Form

B

PQ

A

VQ VBORG R VQ B R PQ

A A

B

B A A

B

B

• Matrix Form

A

VQ AVBORG BAR BVQ BAR BAR BPQ

Angular Velocity

A

C A B BAR B C

• Vector Form

• Matrix Form

A

C R BAR BAR CBR BA RT

11

Acceleration of a rigid body

Linear and angular accelerations:

dB

B

VQ (t t ) BVQ (t )

B

VQ VQ lim ,

dt t 0 t

A d A

(t t ) A

B (t )

B A

B lim B

.

dt t 0 t

Linear acceleration

A

VQ BAR BVQ A B BA R BQ. : origins are coincident.

d A B

( B R Q) BAR BVQ A B BA R BQ. : re-write it as.

dt

d A R BQ A d ( AR BQ) : by differentiating.

A

VQ ( BAR BVQ ) A B B B B

dt dt

BAR BVQ A B BA R BVQ A

A R BQ A ( AR BV A A R BQ)

B B B B Q B B

A R BQ A ( A A R BQ).

B B B B B

Linear acceleration

the case in which the origins are not coincident

A AR BQ

B B

B ( B R Q).

A A A

B

B

VQ BVQ 0.

B : when B

Q is constant

A AR BQ.

B B

rotational joints.

Angular acceleration

B is rotation relative to A and C is rotating relative to B

A

C A B BAR B C .

A A

C B

d A B

dt

B R C .

A AR B

A AR B .

B B C B B C

Dynamics - Newton-Euler Equations

To solve the Newton and Euler equations, we’ll need to develop

mathematical terms for:

c

I– The Inertia tensor (moment of inertia)

F mvc

N I I

c c

Propagation of Acceleration – Angular

Matrix Approach

B is rotation relative to A and C is rotating relative to B

A

C A B BA R B C A B BA R B C ,

A 0, B i, C i 1

0

i 1 0 i 0i R i i 1 0 i 0i R i i 1

i 1

Multiply by 0 R

i 1 i 1

0 R 0 i 1 0 R 0 i i 01R 0i R i i 1 i 01R ( 0 i 0i R i i 1 )

i 1

i 1 i 1i i 1Ri i i 1 i 01R 0 i i 01R 0i R i i 1

0 0

i 1

i 1 i i1R ii 0 i i1R ii 0

i 1 i 1

Propagation of Acceleration – Angular

Matrix Approach

To derive a general formula for the angular acceleration, we will

differentiate the angular velocity

i 1 i 1

i

i

i 1 R i 0 0 i 1

T

Applying the chain rule, we find:

i 1 i 1

i

i

i

i 1 R i R i 0 0 i 1

i 1

i

T

Recall that 0 z y

A

BR

d A

dt

B R z 0

A A A

x B R B R B R

y x 0

Propagation of Acceleration – Angular

Matrix Approach

Matrix form (Revolute Joint) i 1

i 1 i

i 1 i 1 i

i 1 i R i i R i R i 0 0 i 1

T

Converting from matrix to vector form gives the angular acceleration

vector

0 0

Vector form (Revolute Joint)

i 1

i 1 i i1R i i i i1R i i 0 0

i 1 i 1

If joint i+1 is prismatic, the angular terms are zero ( i 1 i 1 0 ) and

the above equation simplifies to:

i 1 i i1R i i

Dynamics - Newton-Euler Equations

To solve the Newton and Euler equations, we’ll need to develop

mathematical terms for:

c

I– The Inertia tensor (moment of inertia)

F mvc

N I I

c c

Propagation of Acceleration - Linear

Simultaneous Linear and Rotational Velocity

Vector Form

A

B

PQ

A

B

Matrix Form

A

Propagation of Acceleration - Linear

Matrix Approach

To derive a general formula for the linear acceleration, we will differentiate

the linear velocity. However, instead of differentiating the recursive equation

like we did for the angular acceleration derivation, we’ll begin at a slightly

earlier step. Recall the three-part expression:

A

VQ BAR A

B

R BPQ org AVB org BAR BVQ

A 0 B i Q i 1

i 1 i i i 1 i i

Re-assigning the link frames ( 0V 0R 0 R iP 0V 0R iV

i 1 ), we find

0

Vi 1 0i R

0 R iP 0R 0 R 0 R iP 0R 0 R iP 0V 0R 0 R iV 0R iV

i i 1 i i i i 1 i i i 1 i i i i 1 i i 1

Propagation of Acceleration - Linear

0

Vi 1 0i R

0 R iP 0R 0 R 0 R iP 0R 0 R iP 0V 0R 0 R iV 0R iV

i i 1 i i i i 1 i i i 1 i i i i 1 i i 1

0

Vi 1 0i R

0 R iP 0R 0 R 0 R iP 0V 20R 0 R iV 0R iV

i i 1 i i i i 1 i i i i 1 i i 1

i 1

Pre-multiplying both sides of the equation by 0 R gives:

i 1

0 R 0Vi 1 i 01R 0i R

0 R iP i 1R 0R 0 R 0 R iP i 1R 0V 2i 1R 0R 0 R iV i 1R 0R iV

i i 1 0 i i i i 1 0 i 0 i i i 1 0 i i 1

i 1

0 R 0Vi 1 i i1R 0iR 0i R

0 R iP i 1R iR 0R 0 R 0 R iP i 1R 0V 2i 1R iR 0R 0 R iV i 1R 0R iV

i i 1 i 0 i i i i 1 0 i i 0 i i i 1 0 i i 1

Propagation of Acceleration - Linear

i 1

0 R 0Vi 1 i i1R 0iR 0i R 0i R iPi 1 i i1R 0iR 0i R 0i R 0i R iPi 1 i 01R 0Vi 2i i1R 0iR 0i R 0i R iVi 1 i 01R 0i R iVi 1

T s 0A

Simplifying the previous equation using (Note: R R R t R B

s A s

)

t B t

i 0 0 i RT iR 0

iR i

R R R iR 0R 0 i i 0 i 0 0 i 0 i i

0

i

R 0i R 0i R 0i R i i i i

i 1

0 R 0Vi i i1R 0iR 0Vi i i1R i vi

0

i

R 0i R 0i R 0i R 0i i i

we have

i 1

vi 1 i i1R i i i Pi 1 i i i i i Pi 1 i vi 2i i i 1 vi 1 i 1vi 1

Propagation of Acceleration - Linear

i 1

vi 1 i i1R i i i Pi 1 i i i i i Pi 1 i vi 2i 1i 1 i 1 vi 1 i 1vi 1

This equation can be written equivalently as:

0 0

General form i 1vi 1 i i1R i i i Pi 1 i i i i i Pi 1 i vi 2i 1 i 1 0 0

di 1 di 1

If joint i+1 is revolute joint, the linear terms are zero and the

above equation simplifies to:

Revolute Joint i 1

vi 1 i i1R i i i Pi 1 i i i i i Pi 1 i vi

Propagation of Acceleration - Linear

From the general equation, we can also get the solution for the

acceleration of the center of mass for link i. Appropriate frame

substitution and elimination of prismatic terms gives we find:

i

vci i i i Pc i ii i i i Pc i i vi

Frame {Ci} attached to each link with its origin located at the Center

of mass of the link, and with the same orientation as the link frame {i}

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