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1

Kinematics Relations - Joint & Cartesian Spaces

effector).

The location of the robot tip may be specified using one of the

following descriptions:

Joint Space

1 {N}

2

N

Cartesian Space

R

0 0

PN

0 PN

X 0

T

0 N

N

0 1 rN

2

Kinematics Relations – Forward & Inverse

robot tip location

X FK ( )

1

2

0 PN

X 0

rN

N

IK ( X )

Tip Location in Tip Location in

Joint Space Cartesian Space

3

Kinematics Relations – Forward & Inverse

vx

1 v

y

d

[ ] 2 d

v v

X [ X ] N z

dt

dt

N x

N y

z

Tip Velocity in Tip velocity in

Joint Space Cartesian Space

4

Jacobian Matrix - Introduction

Suppose that for example we have 6 functions, each of which is a

function of 6 independent variables

y1 f1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 )

y2 f 2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 )

y6 f 6 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 )

Y F(X )

5

Jacobian Matrix - Introduction

If we wish to calculate the differential of yi as a function of the

differential xi we use the chain rule to get

f1 f f

y1 x1 1 x2 1 x6

x1 x2 x6

f 2 f f

y 2 x1 2 x2 2 x6

x1 x2 x6

f 6 f f

y 6 x1 6 x2 6 x6

x1 x2 x6

F

Y X

X

6

Jacobian Matrix - Introduction

The 6x6 matrix of partial derivative is defined as the Jacobian

matrix

F

Y X J ( X )X

X

of the Jacobian as mapping velocities in X to those in Y

Y J ( X ) X

7

Jacobian Matrix - Introduction

Jacobian matrix describe the

relationship between the joint

angle rates ( N ) and the

translation and rotation velocities

of the end effector ( x ). This

relationship is given by:

x J

J 1 x

8

Jacobian Matrix - Introduction

This expression can be expanded to:

x 1

y

2

z J

x

y

z N

6x1 6xN Nx1

Where:

x is a 6x1 vector of the end effector linear and angular velocities

J is a 6xN Jacobian matrix

N is a Nx1 vector of the manipulator joint velocities

N is the number of joints

9

Motion of the Link of a Robot

• In considering the motion of a robot link we will always use link

frame {0} as the reference.

Where: vi- is the linear velocity of the origin of link frame (i)

with respect to frame {0} (Computed AND Represented)

i - is the angular velocity of the origin of link frame (i)

with respect to frame {0} (Computed AND Represented)

10

Velocity of Adjacent Links – Summary

Angular Velocity

0 - Prismatic Joint

0

i 1

i 1 i i1Rii 0

i 1

Linear Velocity

0 - Revolute Joint

0

i 1

vi 1 i i1R ii i Pi 1 i vi 0

di 1

11

Angular and Linear Velocities – 2links Robot - Example

i j k

P x y z i ( y Pz z Py ) j ( x Pz z Px ) k ( x Py y Px )

Px Py Pz

c1 s1 0 0 1 0 0 l 2

s1 c1 0 1 0 0

3T

0 0 2

1T

0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

c 2 s 2 0 l1

s2 c2 0 0

2T

1

0 0 1 0

12

0 0 0 1

Angular and Linear Velocities – 2links Robot - Example

0

i 1

i 1 i i1Rii 0

i 1

For i=0

0 c1 s1 0 0 0 0

1

1 01R 00 0 s1 c1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 1 1

For i= 1

0 c2 s 2 0 0 0 0

2

2 12 R 11 0 s 2 c 2 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 1 1 2 1 2

13

Angular and Linear Velocities – 2links Robot - Example

For i=2

1 0 0 0 0

3

3 23 R 22 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 2 1 2

0

i 1

vi 1 i i1R ii i Pi 1 i vi 0

di 1

For i=0

v1 01R00 0 P1 0v0 s1 c1 0 0 0 0 0

1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0

14

Angular and Linear Velocities – 2links Robot - Example

For i=1

c 2 s 2 0 0 l1 0

2

v2 12 R 11 1P2 1v1 s 2 c 2 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 0

c 2 s 2 0 0 l1s 21

s 2 c 2 0 l11 l1c 21

0 0 1 0 0

For i=2

1 0 0 0 l 2 l1s 21

3

v3 23 R 22 2 P3 2 v2 0 1 0 0 0 l1c 21

0 0 1 1 2 0 0

15

Angular and Linear Velocities – 2links Robot - Example

c1 s1 0 c 2 s 2 0 c1c 2 s1s 2 c1s 2 s1c2 0

c1 0 s 2 c 2 0 s1c 2 c1s 2 s1s 2 c1c 2 0

2 R s1

0

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

c12 s12 0

s12 c12 0 30 R

0 0 1

0 0 3

v3 3 R v3 s12 c12 0 l1c 21 l 2 1 2

0 0 1 0

16

x J

1

2

17

Angular and Linear Velocities - 3R Robot -

Example

For the manipulator shown in the figure, compute the angular and

linear velocity of the “tool” frame relative to the base frame

expressed in the “tool” frame (that is, calculate 4 and 4 v4 ).

4

Angular and Linear Velocities - 3R Robot -

Example

Frame attachment

Angular and Linear Velocities - 3R Robot -

Example

DH Parameters

i i 1 ai 1 di i

1 0 0 0 1

2 90 L1 0 2

3 0 L2 0 3

4 0 L3 0 0

Angular and Linear Velocities - 3R Robot -

Example

From the DH parameter table, we can specify the homogeneous

transform matrix for each adjacent link pair:

c i s i 0 ai 1 c1 s1 0 0

s c c c s s d s1 c1 0 0

i 1

iT

i i 1 i i 1 i 1 i 1 i

1T

0

s i si 1 c i si 1 ci 1 ci 1d 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

c3 s 3 0 L 2 0

0

s3 c3 0 0

0 0

0 1 0 1

2T

1 4T

3

s2 c2 0 0 3T

2 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

Compute the angular velocity of the end effector frame relative to the

base frame expressed at the end effector frame.

0

i 1

i 1 i i1Rii 0

i 1

For i=0

0 c1 s1 0 0 0 0

1

1 01R 00 0 s1 c1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 1 1

22

For i=1

0 c2 0 s 2 0 0 s 21

2

2 12R11 0 s 2 0 c 2 0 0 c 21

2 0 1 0 1 2 2

For i=2

0 c3 s3 0 s 21 0 s 231

3

3 2 R 2 0 s3 c3 0 c21 0 c231

3 2

3 0 0 1 2 3 2 3

For i=3

0 1 0 0 s 231 0 s 231

4

4 3 R 3 0 0 1 0 c231 0 c231

4 3

Note 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 2 3

23 3 4 4

3

Compute the linear velocity of the end effector frame relative to

the base frame expressed at the end effector frame.

Note that the term involving the prismatic joint has been dropped

from the equation (it is equal to zero).

0

0

i 1

vi 1 i i1Ri i Pi 1 ivi 0

di 1

24

For i=0

v1 01R00 0 P1 0v0 s1 c1 0 0 0 0 0

1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0

For i=1

c2 0 s 2 0 L1 0 0

v2 12R111P2 1v1 s 2 0 c 2 0 0 0 0

2

25

For i=3

c3 s3 0 s 21 L 2 0

3

v3 2 R 2 P3 v2 s3 c30 0 c 21 0 0

3 2 2 2

0 0 1 2 0 L11

c3 s 3 0 0 L 2s32

s3 c3 0

L 21

L 2c 3 2

0 0 1 L 2c 21 L11 ( L1 L 2c 2)1

For i=4

1 0 0 s 231 L3 L 2s32

4

v4 34R33 3 P4 3v3 0 1 0 c 231 0 L 2c32

0 0 1 2 3 0 ( L1 L 2c 2)1

L 2s32

( L 2c3 L3) 2 L3 3

( L1 L 2c 2 L3c 23)1

26

Angular and Linear Velocities - 3R Robot -

Example

27

Jacobian: Velocity propagation

Therefore the recursive expressions for the adjacent joint linear and

angular velocities can be used to determine the Jacobian in the end

effector frame

N

X N J

1

N

x

y

N

2

z vN

N

N

X N J

x N

y

z N

28

Jacobian - 3R - Example

The linear angular velocities of the end effector (N=4)

L2 s32 s 231

4

v4 ( L2c3 L3)2 L33 4

4 c231

( L1 L2c2 L3c23)1 2 3

L 2 s32

4

x

y L3

( L 2c 3 L 3) 2 3

4

z 4 v4 ( L1 L 2c 2 L3c 23)1

X 4

x 4 s 231

y c 231

z

2 3

29

Jacobian - 3R - Example

Jacobian matrix is expressed in frame {4}

4

X 4J

4 4

x 0 L 2 s3 0

y 0 L 2c 3 L 3 L 3

1

z L1 L 2c 2 L3c 23 0 0

2

x s 23 0 0

y 0

3

c 23 0

z 0 1 1

N

v N and N N are always a linear combination

of the joint velocities, so they can always be used to find the 6xN

Jacobian matrix ( N J ) for any robot manipulator.

30

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