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PHILIPPINE POPULAR

CULTURE
Individual Activity
 In ½ crosswise yellow paper:

1. Answer this in not less than 3 sentences:


What is your own understanding of culture?
Explain.

2. List down the different cultures that you


are practicing at home, in school, and in
your community.

3. Share your answers in the class.


I. CULTURE
What is CULTURE?
Culture refers to the person’s way of life and everything that
the person learns, follows, and shares as a member of the
society. It includes:
 Language/Dialects
 Religion
 Food
 Arts
 Celebrations
 Manners
 Clothes and Dressing
 Beliefs
 Laws
 Norms
 Values
 Knowledge
 Medical cure
 Marriage
 Literature
 Music
 Dances
 Sports
What is
ANTHROPOLOGY?
Anthropology Anthropos
is derived means
from two ‘HUMAN’.
Greek words
anthropos Logos means
and logos. ‘THE STUDY
OF.’
Anthropology is the scientific
study of humans (past and
present) and their respective
cultures where they were born
and actively belong to.
Franz Boas is the
father of American
Anthropology. He
was the first
person to
implement the
scientific method
into the study of
human cultures
and societies.
Alfred Kroeber and
William Henry
Morgan studied the
indigenous rights
like traditional
cultural
preservation and
ancestral domain
of the American
Indian tribes.
Ruth Benedict
became a
specialist in
anthropology and
folklore and
authored one of the
three famous books
utilized in the
academic scene
for reference
purposes known as
Patterns of Culture.
Margaret Mead
became
controversial
for intensively
studying the
sexual
practices
among native
populations.
Bronislaw
Malinowski
made a strategy
wherein in order to
get data
information from
the respondents,
there should be a
participant
observation which
is central to
ethnography or the
ethnographic
approach.
Other meanings…
 Culture is a product of human interaction.
 Culture is a social heritage that is complex
and socially transmitted.
 Culture provides a socially acceptable
patterns for meeting biological and social
needs.
 Culture is a distinguishing factor.
 Culture is an established pattern of
behavior.
Non material
Culture
Material Culture
- consists of intangible - consists of tangible
things. things.
EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES:
 Ideas  Technological Tools
 Behavior, gesture, and  Food
habits  Architectural Structures
 Language  Fashion and
 Religion Accessories
Etc. Etc.

TYPES OF CULTURE
Characteristics of CULTURE
 Culture is LEARNED.
 Culture is TRANSMITTED.
Culture is never static and is
TRANSFORMED over time as it
adapts to changing conditions
in society.
 Culture is CUMULATIVE.
CATEGORIES OF NON
MATERIAL CULTURE
Symbols are
anything that
meaningfully
represents
something.

I. SYMBOLS
Language is the most
important set of symbols.
Without this, much of
human thought would not
be possible.
Values are ideas
shared by the
people in the
society about what
is good and bad,
right and wrong,
desirable and
undesirable.

II. VALUES
Norms are expectations of how people
are supposed to act, think, or feel in
specific situations. It is either
prescriptive (it tells you what to do) or
proscriptive (it tells you what not to
do).

III. NORMS
3 Types of Norms
1.Folkways
2.Mores
3.Taboos
1. Folkways are patterns Examples:
of repetitive behavior
• Taking a bath/shower
which becomes habitual
and conventional part of • Praying after waking
living, but these norms up
may be easily broken • Brushing teeth after
and don’t have serious
consequences.
meals, etc.
2. Mores are the most Examples:
specific, clearly stated, • Rules in school
and strictly enforced • Rules in offices
norms that carry • Rules in society, etc.
corresponding
punishments for those
that break them or fail to
follow it.
3. Taboos are very Examples:
strong negative Incest
norms. These refer Cannibalism
to the prohibition of Pre-marital sex
certain behavior that To be a
is so strict that homosexual/gay
violating it results in Eating pork among
extreme disgust and Muslims, etc.
even expulsion from
the group or society.
The obedience to or
violation of norms
results in sanctions.
Sanctions are rewards and
punishments.

2 Types of Sanctions
1. Positive Sanctions (rewards)
2. Negative Sanctions
(punishments)
Example:
Belief on life after death
Belief on heaven and hell
Beliefs refer to what
Belief on the existence
people consider as of aliens
factual. Belief on the
supernatural elements,
etc.

IV. BELIEFS
TERMS TO
REMEMBER
Cultural Variation – refers to the differences in
social behaviors that different cultures exhibit
around the world.

Ethnocentrism – it is the belief that one’s own


culture is superior than other cultures.

Xenocentrism – it is the belief that other’s culture


is superior than own culture
Culture Shock – is a term used to express a
negative feeling experienced by persons moving
from one society to another or within one’s own
society.

Xenophobia – is a culturally based fear of


outsiders or sometimes fictitious fear of the
strangers for the competition of jobs, or ethnical,
racial, or religious prejudice.
Cultural Relativism – it is a principle that an
individual person’s beliefs and activities should
be understood by others in terms of that
individual’s own culture.