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cc/ .final-yearprojects.where materials are just getting smarter day by day . What NEXT«. http://troubleshoot4free .Stone Age ..Iron Age .co.Bronze Age. Nevertheless to say we are very well into the Nanotech age..Each element would be smart enough to repair & replicate itself as and when required.All this would be possible by manipulating matter at the nanometer scale.silicon Age«.com/fyp/ http://www.

Now we should understand how simple atoms & molecules come together and arrange themselves to form complex systems. scientists have practiced what can be called ³top-down science ´. This ³bottom-up´ approach deals with how complex systems are built from simple atomic-level constituents which has opened up new horizons of research in the era of Nanotechnology .such as living cells that make life possible on .final-yearprojects.Introduction For most of the 20th century. http://troubleshoot4free .nucleons and starting form the understanding of the basic interactions & elementary particles attempt is made to explain structure & properties of materials & all possible phenomena.nuclei.The goal has been to simplify our understanding of matter by breaking it into its basic building blocks ranging from atoms.

final-yearprojects.WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY? Nanotechnology is molecular manufacturing one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms. Nanotechnology utilizes well-understood chemical properties of atoms & molecules to construct devices that posses extraordinary properties .co. http://troubleshoot4free .cc/ . It is a very vast field and is the merger of all known technologies that we have today. Nanotechnology is an essential technology for http://www. fabricating and applying Nanometer-scale systems.

Nanotechnology was conceived in Dr Feynman explained that the principles of physics don¶t deny the possibility of manipulating things atom by atom .final-yearprojects.when Nobel Laureate physicist Richard P. Dr Feynman is therefore credited with being the first person to advance the possibility of molecular http://www. http://troubleshoot4free .cc/ . Feynman gave a lecture titled ³Thereµs plenty of Room at the bottom´ and it outlined the theoretical concept of manipulating atoms to build molecules.

atom by atom .In 1986. as of now. is the missing link between the material sciences of today and the futuristic nanomachines. such an assembler. a key breakthrough in understanding the http://troubleshoot4free http://www.through the use of µassemblers¶.com/fyp/ . In 1987. DONALD CRAM was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry for molecular assembly techniques in µHost Guest chemistry¶. a technologist named J. . which is yet to be properties and assembly of individualmolecules. The assembler he proposed was a molecular robotic DREXLER published ³ENGINES OF CREATION´ which proposed the building of molecular machines .final-yearprojects. Dr.

cc/ .EXISTENCE OF NANO IN REAL . http://troubleshoot4free . IBM scientists have developed a vast assembly of transistors using materials only a few molecules wide.WORLD An Israel taking a major step toward much thinner and powerful has developed a pill-size video camera that can travel through the digestive track and transmit pictures along the way providing a less invasive technique to examine the small intestine. This video camera uses a miniature CMOS video imaging chip and white LED as a light source.

co. a single molecule acts as the . USA has designed a transistor with an active switching layer that is one molecule thick. Bell labs. In this http://troubleshoot4free .Sandwiching several non-magnetic layers less than a nanometer thick between magnetic layers has resulted in sensors for disk drives that boast of many times the sensitivity of traditional devices facilitating more bits to be packed onto the surface of each http://www.

electronics. chemicals. information technology. and national security that have been enabled by the break throughs in Nanotechnology. IndiaNano is an initiative supported by the US and INDIAN research http://troubleshoot4free . INDIAN SCENARIO: The scope of Nanotechnology is quite evident as our country has another incubator in the form of IndiaNano. environment and energy management . medicine and http://www. investment firms and corporations aimed at developing a platform for collaboration between entrepreneurs and service providers in order to harness the benefits of advances in materials and manufacturing .cc/ . agriculture.

final-yearprojects. As per the observation of Gordon Moore the number of transistors being packed into integrated circuits doubled every . In fact since 1975 the number of transistors on a semiconductor chip has doubled every 18 http://www. by 2020 it could have 5 billion. This dramatic advance in miniaturization has possible because of revolutionary research and developments in physics. A microprocessor today has approximately 40 million transistors. http://troubleshoot4free .NANODEVICES: Computers have been getting smaller faster and cheaper because of advances in silicon material science and devices associated technologies.

The characteristics of nanotubes are as Nanotubes have a special feature that they are about six times lighter & ten times stronger than http://www. http://troubleshoot4free . . High current densities. 1. Emission of electrons at a relatively low Carbon nanotubes are an exotic variation of common graphite. A single nanotube with a natural junction where a straight section joined to a helical section is called single wall nanotube. Minimal power requirement. 2.

com/fyp/ http://www.APPLICATIONS OF THE NANOTECHNOLOGY : Manipulating matter on such a fine scale is the inevitable consequence of continued advancements in the fields of ³ CHIP MANUFACTURING ´ . new methods for storing & converting energy are anticipated in the area of ENERGY &ENVIRONMENT. http://troubleshoot4free . Improved batteries. Miniaturizing of electronic circuits has served as a stimulus for massive scientific& technological progress .co.

toughness and desirable optical properties are entertained in the fields of MAGNETIC MATERIALS & CHEMICALS. New materials anticipated with greater strength . http://troubleshoot4free .Sensors based on molecular interactions are very http://www.DNA recognition is OPTICAL COMMUNICATION is being enhanced with new materials that offer properties based on NANOMETER-SCALE fabrications .co. especially important for BIOLOGICAL .

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Nanotechnology as a scientific and technological thrust encompasses the best of many opportunities afforded to the scientific. Today¶s advances offer tremendous possibilities & also tremendous risks-and we¶re just going to learn to live with both of them. heat is conducted much In the nanoworld chemical reactions can occur much more quickly. engineering. The materials are much stronger. industrial .com/fyp/ http://www. batteries can last longer without being charged. electrons move faster. http://troubleshoot4free .

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