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Mechanics of

Solids

Vijay

Deformation,

Strain and

Material

Properties

Vijay

Hooke Law

P/A

L P

δ

δ/L

Stress= E×Strain

P

Vijay

The Fundamental

Strategy of Deformable-

Body Mechanics

on depends on loading, material and geometry

Vijay

The Fundamental

Strategy of Deformable-

Body Mechanics

Load Stress

Equilibrium

Macro Geometry Micro

Strain

Deformation

Geometry

Macro

Vijay

Tug of War

Cross-section: 6 cm2

BC 500 833.3 8.35×10- 3 2.0 16.70×10- 3

CD 800 1333.3 13.33×10- 3 1.5 20.02×10- 3

DE 550 916.7 9.20×10- 3 1.5 13.78×10- 3

EF 300 500.0 5.00×10- 3 2.0 10.00×10- 3

Vijay

Measuring the height of

Kutub

W = ρAxg = T

σ = T/A = ρxg

72 m

ε = σ/E = ρxg/E

dδ = εdx = ρgxdx/E

T

dx

x

W(x)

Vijay

Measuring the height of

Kutub

or

~ 400 MPa, we get δ ~ 52 mm

GPa, we get δ ~ 1 mm

Vijay

Deflection in a Truss

RA,y

A RA,x RA,y = 20 kN

A

RA,x = − 20 kN

1m

RB,y = 20 kN

B

C

20kN

B

RB,y

C

20kN

TAC = 28.8 kN

1m TBC = − 20 kN

MemberForce Lengt Area Stress Strain Elongation

AC kN h1.41

28.3 m 2

1.77 MPa

160.1 7.6×10−4 m

1.07×10−3

BC − 20 m1 1.77 − −113.2 −5.4×10

×10 −0.54×10−

4 −4 3

×10−

4

Vijay

Deflection in a Truss

A A

E 45o

B C B E C

D y D

x F

G 45

o

C1

C1

X-displacement of C ~ shortening of BC =−0.54 mm

y-displacement of C ~ EF + FC1 = CD/cos45o + FG(=EC)

~ 1.25 mm Vijay

Statically Indeterminate

Problems

PP

R1 R2 R3

supports depends on the bending of plank.

Vijay

A Simple Example

2.6 m 1.3 m

F1 F2

150 kN

1m

Vijay

Statically Indeterminate

Problems

deration of static equilibrium and determination of loads

Vijay

Statically Indeterminate

Structure

R1

Taking moments about

the pivot point,

2R1 + 2R2 – P = 0

P R2

Geom. Comp.

δ1 = δ2

R1L1/E1A1 =

R2L2/E2A2

Vijay

Statically Indeterminate

Structure

R2- F - R1 = 0; R1L – Fx = 0

Geom. Comp.

h + δ1 = 2(h

- δ2)

F

R1 = kδ1

R2 = kδ2

L x Vijay

Statically Indeterminate

Structure

P

P = R1+ R2

R2 R1 = (E1A1/L1)δ1

R1

R2 = (E2A2/L2)δ2

Geom. Comp.

δ1 = δ2

Vijay

Stress-Strain

Relationship

σxx

εxx = σxx /E

σxx

Vijay

Poisson Ratio

σxx

εyy = - ν εxx

ν is Poisson ratio

σxx

Vijay

Stress-Strain

Relationship

Let us consider εxx .

σxx produces an εxx = σxx /E

Poisson ratio gives εxx = -νεyy = - νσyy /E.

Similarly for σzz .

Vijay

Generalized Hooke’s Law

σzz /E

= [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E

Vijay

An Example

F

σyy = −F/A, σzz = 0

Geometric compatibility:

y εxx = 0

x

εxx = [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E

→ σxx =νσyy = − ν F/A

ν)F/AE Vijay

Shear Strain

θ θ1 − θ2 (with anti-clockwise

θ1 angles as positive)

Vijay

Shear Strain

y Coordinates after

C deformation (in mm) are:

D A(0,0), B(0.194, 0.013), and

D(−0.012, 0.196).

θ2

θ1 B θ1 = 0.013/0.2 = 0. 065

A x

θ2 = 0.012/0.2 = 0. 06

γxy = 0.65 − 0.60 = −0.05 radians

Vijay

Shear Stress

Shear strain γ is related to shear

stress τ by

where G is shear modulus

θ

It can be shown that γxy does

not depend on other

components of stress.

Vijay

Shear Modulus

Material G, GPa

Aluminium 25

Steel 80

Glass 26-32

Vijay

Vibration Isolator

8,000 N

4,000 N

Shear stress τ =

4,000 N/ (0.1 m)(0.12 m)

= 3.33×105 Pa

10 cm × 10 cm

= 3.33×10−4 with 12 cm height

Vijay

Elastic Properties

• We have so far introduced three

elastic properties of materials.

Material E, GPa G, GPa ν

Aluminium 70 25 0.33(1/3)

0.004 0.001

Vijay

Thermal Strains

Material α ×10-6 /oC

Steel ~10

Aluminium ~20

Vijay

Generalized Hooke’s Law

αΔT

εyy = [σyy – ν(σzz + σxx )]/E+

αΔT

εzz = [σzz – ν(σxx + σyy )]/E+

αΔT

Vijay

An Example

σyy

Steel: εx = 0.6×10−4 ;

εy = 0.3×10−4

Vijay

Another Example

Aluminium rod, rigid supports.

Temperature raised by ΔT.

What are the stresses?

Vijay

An Example

Tank is flush when empty.

Find end forces when pressure is p

p

ue to p: σzz = pr/ 2t, σθθ = pr/ t z

due to it is F/2πrt

−νpr/t ]/E

Equate it to 0 and determine F

Vijay

Stress-Strain

Relationship

• A material property.

Vijay

Extensometer

Vijay

Stress-Strain Curve:

Elasticity

Vijay

Failure Modes

σ (= F/Ao)

Necking

ε (=∆L/Lo)

Vijay

Plastic Deformation, Yield

Strength

Y

Yield stress, σY

σ (= F/A0)

Vijay

Strain Hardening

Y1 Ultimate stress

σ (= F/A0) Y

B

ε (= ΔL/L0)

Vijay

Stress-Strain in Brittle

Materials

Vijay

Idealized Stress-Strain

Curves

σ σ σ

ε ε ε

(c) Elastic-Plastic

(a) Rigid (b) Perfectly elastic

σ σ

Increase in

yield strength

ε ε

(d) Perfectly plastic (e) Elastic- Plastic

(strain hardening)

Vijay

Pre-Stressing

A Section AA

Vijay

Pre-stressing

during casting. Tension in released and the structure

tendon, no stress in shrinks.

concrete.

concrete does not let the residual force in the tendon

tendon shrink as much as it is trying to compress the

would on its own. This concrete, which is in tension

results in residual tension in now.

the tendon.

Vijay

Pre-stressing: A simple

example

A concrete beam of cross-sectional area 5 cm×5

cm and length 2 m be cast with a 10 mm dia mild

steel rod under a tension of 20 kN. The external

tension in steel released after the concrete is set.

What is the residual compressive stress in the

concrete?

Vijay

Pre-stressing: A simple

example

2.42 mm

δs

F

δc

δs + δc = 2.42 mm

Vijay

Failure Under

Compression

Buckling

Vijay

Buckling of a Bridge

Vijay

Elastic Buckling

Vijay

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