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MEC201

Mechanics of
Solids
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Deformation,
Strain and
Material
Properties
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Hooke Law

P/A
L P

δ
δ/L
Stress= E×Strain

P
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The Fundamental
Strategy of Deformable-
Body Mechanics
on depends on loading, material and geometry

Strain depends on stress AND material. NOT on

ress depends on loading and geometry

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The Fundamental
Strategy of Deformable-
Body Mechanics
Load Stress
Equilibrium
Macro Geometry Micro
Strain

Micro Material Property

Deformation
Geometry
Macro

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Tug of War
Cross-section: 6 cm2

Section Tension, N Stress, kPa Strain Length, m Elongation, m

AB 250 416.7 4.16×10- 3 1.5 6.24×10- 3


BC 500 833.3 8.35×10- 3 2.0 16.70×10- 3
CD 800 1333.3 13.33×10- 3 1.5 20.02×10- 3
DE 550 916.7 9.20×10- 3 1.5 13.78×10- 3
EF 300 500.0 5.00×10- 3 2.0 10.00×10- 3
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Measuring the height of
Kutub
W = ρAxg = T
σ = T/A = ρxg
72 m
ε = σ/E = ρxg/E

dδ = εdx = ρgxdx/E
T
dx
x
W(x)
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Measuring the height of
Kutub

or

For a Nylon wire the density ~ 0.8X103 kg/m3, and E


~ 400 MPa, we get δ ~ 52 mm

For steel density is 7.6X103 kg/m3, and E is 200


GPa, we get δ ~ 1 mm

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Deflection in a Truss
RA,y
A RA,x RA,y = 20 kN
A
RA,x = − 20 kN
1m
RB,y = 20 kN
B
C
20kN
B
RB,y
C

20kN
TAC = 28.8 kN
1m TBC = − 20 kN
MemberForce Lengt Area Stress Strain Elongation
AC kN h1.41
28.3 m 2
1.77 MPa
160.1 7.6×10−4 m
1.07×10−3
BC − 20 m1 1.77 − −113.2 −5.4×10
×10 −0.54×10−
4 −4 3
×10−
4

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Deflection in a Truss
A A

E 45o
B C B E C
D y D
x F
G 45
o
C1
C1
X-displacement of C ~ shortening of BC =−0.54 mm
y-displacement of C ~ EF + FC1 = CD/cos45o + FG(=EC)
~ 1.25 mm Vijay
Statically Indeterminate
Problems
PP

R1 R2 R3

Reaction at middle support (and hence, at all


supports depends on the bending of plank.
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A Simple Example

2.6 m 1.3 m

F1 F2

150 kN
1m

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Statically Indeterminate
Problems
deration of static equilibrium and determination of loads

ing loads to stresses, then transforming stresses to strain u

derations of the conditions of geometric compatibility


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Statically Indeterminate
Structure
R1
Taking moments about
the pivot point,
2R1 + 2R2 – P = 0
P R2
Geom. Comp.
δ1 = δ2
R1L1/E1A1 =
R2L2/E2A2

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Statically Indeterminate
Structure
R2- F - R1 = 0; R1L – Fx = 0

Geom. Comp.
h + δ1 = 2(h
- δ2)
F

R1 = kδ1
R2 = kδ2
L x Vijay
Statically Indeterminate
Structure
P

P = R1+ R2
R2 R1 = (E1A1/L1)δ1
R1
R2 = (E2A2/L2)δ2

Geom. Comp.
δ1 = δ2

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Stress-Strain
Relationship

σxx
εxx = σxx /E

σxx

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Poisson Ratio

σxx

εyy = - ν εxx

ν is Poisson ratio
σxx

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Stress-Strain
Relationship
Let us consider εxx .
σxx produces an εxx = σxx /E

σyy produces an εyy = σyy /E, which through


Poisson ratio gives εxx = -νεyy = - νσyy /E.
Similarly for σzz .
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Generalized Hooke’s Law

Shear stresses do not cause any normal strain

εxx = σxx /E – νσyy /E - ν


σzz /E
= [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E

Similarly for εyy and εzz

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An Example
F
σyy = −F/A, σzz = 0

Geometric compatibility:
y εxx = 0
x
εxx = [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E

0 = [σxx – ν(σyy + 0)]/E,


→ σxx =νσyy = − ν F/A

εyy = [σyy – ν(σxx + σzz )]/E = [−F/A + ν F/A]/E = −(1−


ν)F/AE Vijay
Shear Strain

Shear strain γ is π/2 − θ

θ2 Shear strain is also seen as:


θ θ1 − θ2 (with anti-clockwise
θ1 angles as positive)

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Shear Strain

y Coordinates after
C deformation (in mm) are:
D A(0,0), B(0.194, 0.013), and
D(−0.012, 0.196).
θ2
θ1 B θ1 = 0.013/0.2 = 0. 065
A x
θ2 = 0.012/0.2 = 0. 06
γxy = 0.65 − 0.60 = −0.05 radians

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Shear Stress
Shear strain γ is related to shear
stress τ by

γxy = τxy /G,


where G is shear modulus
θ
It can be shown that γxy does
not depend on other
components of stress.

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Shear Modulus

Material G, GPa
Aluminium 25

Steel 80

Glass 26-32

Soft Rubber 0.003- 0.001

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Vibration Isolator
8,000 N
4,000 N

Shear stress τ =
4,000 N/ (0.1 m)(0.12 m)
= 3.33×105 Pa

Shear strain γ = τ/G Wall Wall

3.33×105 Pa/1 GPa Rubber blocks


10 cm × 10 cm
= 3.33×10−4 with 12 cm height

Vertical deflection of load = 3.33×10−4 ×0.10 m


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Elastic Properties
• We have so far introduced three
elastic properties of materials.
Material E, GPa G, GPa ν
Aluminium 70 25 0.33(1/3)

Steel 200 80 0.27(1/4)

Glass 50-80 26-32 0.21-.27

Soft Rubber 0.0008- 0.003- 0.50


0.004 0.001
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Thermal Strains

There is no thermal shear strain


Material α ×10-6 /oC
Steel ~10
Aluminium ~20

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Generalized Hooke’s Law

εxx = [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E +


αΔT
εyy = [σyy – ν(σzz + σxx )]/E+
αΔT
εzz = [σzz – ν(σxx + σyy )]/E+
αΔT
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An Example
σyy
Steel: εx = 0.6×10−4 ;
εy = 0.3×10−4

Find σxx and σyy . σxx

E = 200 GPa, ν = 0.3

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Another Example
Aluminium rod, rigid supports.
Temperature raised by ΔT.
What are the stresses?

εxx = 0 = [σxx /E + αΔT]

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An Example
Tank is flush when empty.
Find end forces when pressure is p
p
ue to p: σzz = pr/ 2t, σθθ = pr/ t z

If end forces F, axial stress


due to it is F/2πrt

εzz = [(pr/ 2t − F/2πrt)


−νpr/t ]/E
Equate it to 0 and determine F

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Stress-Strain
Relationship
• A material property.

Tensile Test Machine, UTM


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Extensometer

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Stress-Strain Curve:
Elasticity

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Failure Modes
σ (= F/Ao)

Necking
ε (=∆L/Lo)

Ductile Failure Brittle Failure


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Plastic Deformation, Yield
Strength

Y
Yield stress, σY
σ (= F/A0)

0.02% Permanent set ε (= ΔL/L0)

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Strain Hardening

Y1 Ultimate stress
σ (= F/A0) Y

B
ε (= ΔL/L0)

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Stress-Strain in Brittle
Materials

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Idealized Stress-Strain
Curves
σ σ σ

ε ε ε
(c) Elastic-Plastic
(a) Rigid (b) Perfectly elastic

σ σ
Increase in
yield strength
ε ε
(d) Perfectly plastic (e) Elastic- Plastic
(strain hardening)

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Pre-Stressing

A Section AA

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Pre-stressing

(a) Tendon being stresses (b) After casting, the force is


during casting. Tension in released and the structure
tendon, no stress in shrinks.
concrete.

(c) FBD of tendon. The (d) FBD of concrete. The


concrete does not let the residual force in the tendon
tendon shrink as much as it is trying to compress the
would on its own. This concrete, which is in tension
results in residual tension in now.
the tendon.

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Pre-stressing: A simple
example
A concrete beam of cross-sectional area 5 cm×5
cm and length 2 m be cast with a 10 mm dia mild
steel rod under a tension of 20 kN. The external
tension in steel released after the concrete is set.
What is the residual compressive stress in the
concrete?

T = 20 kN →σ = 255 Mpa →ε = 1.21×10- 3 →δ = 2.42 mm

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Pre-stressing: A simple
example
2.42 mm
δs
F
δc

δs + δc = 2.42 mm

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Failure Under
Compression

Buckling
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Buckling of a Bridge

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Elastic Buckling

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