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# MEC201

Mechanics of
Solids
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Deformation,
Strain and
Material
Properties
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Hooke Law

P/A
L P

δ
δ/L
Stress= E×Strain

P
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The Fundamental
Strategy of Deformable-
Body Mechanics

## Strain depends on stress AND material. NOT on

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The Fundamental
Strategy of Deformable-
Body Mechanics
Equilibrium
Macro Geometry Micro
Strain

## Micro Material Property

Deformation
Geometry
Macro

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Tug of War
Cross-section: 6 cm2

## AB 250 416.7 4.16×10- 3 1.5 6.24×10- 3

BC 500 833.3 8.35×10- 3 2.0 16.70×10- 3
CD 800 1333.3 13.33×10- 3 1.5 20.02×10- 3
DE 550 916.7 9.20×10- 3 1.5 13.78×10- 3
EF 300 500.0 5.00×10- 3 2.0 10.00×10- 3
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Measuring the height of
Kutub
W = ρAxg = T
σ = T/A = ρxg
72 m
ε = σ/E = ρxg/E

dδ = εdx = ρgxdx/E
T
dx
x
W(x)
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Measuring the height of
Kutub

or

## For a Nylon wire the density ~ 0.8X103 kg/m3, and E

~ 400 MPa, we get δ ~ 52 mm

## For steel density is 7.6X103 kg/m3, and E is 200

GPa, we get δ ~ 1 mm

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Deflection in a Truss
RA,y
A RA,x RA,y = 20 kN
A
RA,x = − 20 kN
1m
RB,y = 20 kN
B
C
20kN
B
RB,y
C

20kN
TAC = 28.8 kN
1m TBC = − 20 kN
MemberForce Lengt Area Stress Strain Elongation
AC kN h1.41
28.3 m 2
1.77 MPa
160.1 7.6×10−4 m
1.07×10−3
BC − 20 m1 1.77 − −113.2 −5.4×10
×10 −0.54×10−
4 −4 3
×10−
4

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Deflection in a Truss
A A

E 45o
B C B E C
D y D
x F
G 45
o
C1
C1
X-displacement of C ~ shortening of BC =−0.54 mm
y-displacement of C ~ EF + FC1 = CD/cos45o + FG(=EC)
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Statically Indeterminate
Problems
PP

R1 R2 R3

## Reaction at middle support (and hence, at all

supports depends on the bending of plank.
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A Simple Example

2.6 m 1.3 m

F1 F2

150 kN
1m

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Statically Indeterminate
Problems
deration of static equilibrium and determination of loads

## derations of the conditions of geometric compatibility

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Statically Indeterminate
Structure
R1
the pivot point,
2R1 + 2R2 – P = 0
P R2
Geom. Comp.
δ1 = δ2
R1L1/E1A1 =
R2L2/E2A2

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Statically Indeterminate
Structure
R2- F - R1 = 0; R1L – Fx = 0

Geom. Comp.
h + δ1 = 2(h
- δ2)
F

R1 = kδ1
R2 = kδ2
L x Vijay
Statically Indeterminate
Structure
P

P = R1+ R2
R2 R1 = (E1A1/L1)δ1
R1
R2 = (E2A2/L2)δ2

Geom. Comp.
δ1 = δ2

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Stress-Strain
Relationship

σxx
εxx = σxx /E

σxx

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Poisson Ratio

σxx

εyy = - ν εxx

ν is Poisson ratio
σxx

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Stress-Strain
Relationship
Let us consider εxx .
σxx produces an εxx = σxx /E

## σyy produces an εyy = σyy /E, which through

Poisson ratio gives εxx = -νεyy = - νσyy /E.
Similarly for σzz .
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Generalized Hooke’s Law

## εxx = σxx /E – νσyy /E - ν

σzz /E
= [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E

## Similarly for εyy and εzz

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An Example
F
σyy = −F/A, σzz = 0

Geometric compatibility:
y εxx = 0
x
εxx = [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E

## 0 = [σxx – ν(σyy + 0)]/E,

→ σxx =νσyy = − ν F/A

ν)F/AE Vijay
Shear Strain

## θ2 Shear strain is also seen as:

θ θ1 − θ2 (with anti-clockwise
θ1 angles as positive)

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Shear Strain

y Coordinates after
C deformation (in mm) are:
D A(0,0), B(0.194, 0.013), and
D(−0.012, 0.196).
θ2
θ1 B θ1 = 0.013/0.2 = 0. 065
A x
θ2 = 0.012/0.2 = 0. 06
γxy = 0.65 − 0.60 = −0.05 radians

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Shear Stress
Shear strain γ is related to shear
stress τ by

## γxy = τxy /G,

where G is shear modulus
θ
It can be shown that γxy does
not depend on other
components of stress.

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Shear Modulus

Material G, GPa
Aluminium 25

Steel 80

Glass 26-32

## Soft Rubber 0.003- 0.001

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Vibration Isolator
8,000 N
4,000 N

Shear stress τ =
4,000 N/ (0.1 m)(0.12 m)
= 3.33×105 Pa

## 3.33×105 Pa/1 GPa Rubber blocks

10 cm × 10 cm
= 3.33×10−4 with 12 cm height

## Vertical deflection of load = 3.33×10−4 ×0.10 m

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Elastic Properties
• We have so far introduced three
elastic properties of materials.
Material E, GPa G, GPa ν
Aluminium 70 25 0.33(1/3)

0.004 0.001
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Thermal Strains

## There is no thermal shear strain

Material α ×10-6 /oC
Steel ~10
Aluminium ~20

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Generalized Hooke’s Law

## εxx = [σxx – ν(σyy + σzz )]/E +

αΔT
εyy = [σyy – ν(σzz + σxx )]/E+
αΔT
εzz = [σzz – ν(σxx + σyy )]/E+
αΔT
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An Example
σyy
Steel: εx = 0.6×10−4 ;
εy = 0.3×10−4

## E = 200 GPa, ν = 0.3

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Another Example
Aluminium rod, rigid supports.
Temperature raised by ΔT.
What are the stresses?

## εxx = 0 = [σxx /E + αΔT]

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An Example
Tank is flush when empty.
Find end forces when pressure is p
p
ue to p: σzz = pr/ 2t, σθθ = pr/ t z

## If end forces F, axial stress

due to it is F/2πrt

## εzz = [(pr/ 2t − F/2πrt)

−νpr/t ]/E
Equate it to 0 and determine F

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Stress-Strain
Relationship
• A material property.

## Tensile Test Machine, UTM

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Extensometer

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Stress-Strain Curve:
Elasticity

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Failure Modes
σ (= F/Ao)

Necking
ε (=∆L/Lo)

## Ductile Failure Brittle Failure

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Plastic Deformation, Yield
Strength

Y
Yield stress, σY
σ (= F/A0)

## 0.02% Permanent set ε (= ΔL/L0)

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Strain Hardening

Y1 Ultimate stress
σ (= F/A0) Y

B
ε (= ΔL/L0)

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Stress-Strain in Brittle
Materials

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Idealized Stress-Strain
Curves
σ σ σ

ε ε ε
(c) Elastic-Plastic
(a) Rigid (b) Perfectly elastic

σ σ
Increase in
yield strength
ε ε
(d) Perfectly plastic (e) Elastic- Plastic
(strain hardening)

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Pre-Stressing

A Section AA

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Pre-stressing

## (a) Tendon being stresses (b) After casting, the force is

during casting. Tension in released and the structure
tendon, no stress in shrinks.
concrete.

## (c) FBD of tendon. The (d) FBD of concrete. The

concrete does not let the residual force in the tendon
tendon shrink as much as it is trying to compress the
would on its own. This concrete, which is in tension
results in residual tension in now.
the tendon.

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Pre-stressing: A simple
example
A concrete beam of cross-sectional area 5 cm×5
cm and length 2 m be cast with a 10 mm dia mild
steel rod under a tension of 20 kN. The external
tension in steel released after the concrete is set.
What is the residual compressive stress in the
concrete?

## T = 20 kN →σ = 255 Mpa →ε = 1.21×10- 3 →δ = 2.42 mm

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Pre-stressing: A simple
example
2.42 mm
δs
F
δc

δs + δc = 2.42 mm

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Failure Under
Compression

Buckling
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Buckling of a Bridge

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Elastic Buckling

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