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# MEC201

Mechanics of Solids

m 
Oecture 18

m 
@ecap: Pre-stressing

   



   
     

  
  
  
  
 
 



 

  

##            

   
   
      

 
 
 
   


   
 
  


 
  
 
 

m 
@ecap: A simple example
    

    
  !
  "# 

##      

!#\$%   


 
      

 
& 
 
  

'


 
  (

## À  !#\$)* +!, )- +"!" "# . )è  !/!

m 
@ecap: A simple example
!/!
Ñ

Ñ

Ñ 0Ñ +!/!

m 
@ecap: Failure Under Compression

 
m 
Àorsion

m 
Shaft carrying torque

m 
Àorsion-bar suspension




O 

m 
Àorsion-bar suspension

##   123 4 ! 

m 
Àorsion of a bar

 


m 
Àorsion of a bar

å 3 
 
  
å    
  

 
 
 

m 
Àorsion: Deformation to Strain

A  ù 


  ù


"
" 
" A 
" 

"

m 
Àorsion: Strain to Stress
ù 

A 
ù


 
 A  

"
" 
"
"

"

m 
Àorsion: Stress Distribution
Î  A  

m 



3 
   
m 

Î  A  


   
   À5

 
 
À u
m 
Circular Shaft



m 
Circular Shaft



m 
[ollow Shaft
â 
  A  

 
  
 
 
m 
Power shaft

 #"

 #.  #.
" .
/\$ \$
06\$ !
! !

,
 

   
m 
Power shaft

 


m 
Power shaft

## ð !""#   

\$!  

m 
Another example
¨ "# 
¨  
 ¨ ! 
¨ 7 

"#\$
"  #7

"#\$

!#\$

m 
Another example
¨ "# 
¨  
 ¨ ! 
¨ 7 

"#\$
"  #7

m 
Another example
¨ "# 
¨  
 ¨ ! 
¨ 7 

"#\$
"  #7

 !   

   
'  

          
"#27"  ###8   


9     

  
  

  ###8 0#"! +#"!8  :.7 
m 
A statically indeterminate case
"  !

,

&'!!
%    ( ( ) ( 

 "%       

m 
A Composite Shaft

Ô  Ô




m 
Àhin-walled shaft

## Ô  ; 

 



 
'  
 

G" +G!

m 
Àhin-walled shaft

9  G  
  À




uÀ  !  
¥  À!

m 
An Example
À "##\$
 !#
 "7

'
Î */6\$22###/+"!!,3

m 
Forces and Moments
in Beams

m 
ntroduction to Beams
å    
 
     
  
 
å     
    
      

ºº
m 
Forces in Beams

 



m 
Forces in Beams






J
J
J


m 
Forces in Beams

J  %     

   
 

   
 '    
J  J
  
 
 
  

  
  
 '  

  
 <
  %    
 
 
 


     



4     
   
  
'
 
   

  
 
   
 , ,% 

    
  ;      ,; 


      %  
m 
Forces in Beams

Ô  

 , 
m 
Sign Conmvention


m 
Sign Convention

>
0

3
 ' = \$ ' =

D -
m 
Sign Convention

## Sign of the outward Actual direction of Assigned sign to

normal to the section the force or moment the shear force or
bending moment
Along the D ve     
coordinate direction         
Along the о ve      
coordinate direction         
Along the D ve      
coordinate direction         
Along the о ve       
coordinate direction       

m 
Sign Convention

m 
Sign Convention...

\$ 'Ô  
3
 ' ,
m 
ürigin of Shear Force
å Ô Ô 

## '     

m 
ürigin of @esisting Moment

Y 

  
?% 
  

m 
ürigin of @esisting Moment

\$  
 
; @

m 
ürigin of @esisting Moment...

?% 
  
Y 

  
m 
Bending Stresses in Beams

\$  
 
; @

m 
Beam Supports

## Ô 9   

m 
dealized supports
Support type Freedom of motion @eactions present
Built-in support ë          
 
   
   
 
Pinned support  
   
Ô         
        

## @oller support     

       
    
 
  
m 

¦ ë

Y  

  

m 

## O '  

   Y 
m 
mariations in Shear Force &
Bending Moment



  #  


m 
Shear Force & Bending Moment
Diagrams


! !
 
!

  !

m 
SFD & BMD


0 !
Ô
!

m 
SFD & BMD...


! !

 2! 


 2! 
 2! 
m 
SFD & BMD...


0 !
Ô
!
0 /
,

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example






m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example


Ô

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example



#



 /+#
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example


Ô

/
,

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦ \$2
¦! ¦!

¦!


 ¦  ¦
+
  
¦ ¦

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦ \$2
¦! ¦!

Ô ¦

¦

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦ \$2
¦! ¦!

¦!

¦

 ¦!
¦
!2!+
  ¦

¦
!2!
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦ \$2
¦! ¦!

Ô ¦

¦
¦!28
,

m 
Method of Sections:
å x    
       
å x            ! 
         "   
                 
              

å x             
loading pattern        !   "
          
              
     
m 
Method of Sections:
å J        "  
            Jx      

å !    #     m   
            
          
      
å x     \$    ÔJ   % 
&       " &     
        
 

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 
 ! 

  


  

 !

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 
 ! 

Ô



m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 
 ! 



  #



 !


  
  #A   
  
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 
 ! 

Ô


, 0 !

!
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example



 

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example



m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example



  
 #


 

 
  #

 


m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example



Ô

,


m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example

!

!  #

!  

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example

!

Ô

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example

!

!  !+#

!

 !B 
 2! #

 !0 
 2! m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example

!

Ô

,

!
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦! ¦ \$2

¦
¦
¦!

¦

 ¦  ¦
 #
 
¦ 0¦
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦! ¦ \$2

¦
Ô

¦

m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦! ¦ \$2

¦

¦!
¦ ¦

¦
¦

¦! ¦
¦
!2!  #
  ¦

¦!
!2!
m 
SFD & BMD: Another Example
 ¦! ¦ \$2

¦
Ô

¦
,

¦!
m 
Comparison: Simply Supported vs.
Cantilevered
¦ \$2 ¦ \$2

¦

¦!

¦
¦!28

¦!
m 
Area Method
 ë 
@V  @


  




 

 

Ô

,
    
 
 

    

m 
Area Method: At the location of
concentrated force
 ë 
@V  @    

   

  
  4 

  '  1   


   
   
   

 
   
  

m 
Area Method: At the location of
concentrated moment
 ë 
@V  @
   
   
  
  
4 
 '  




 
1    
    


##      '  


    

  

m 
Area Method: At the location of a
 ë 
@V  @
    
      
  

1   



  
 
     Ô 

   
 
  
1 
  '

     

m 
Area Method: Drawing SFD
å J           
å '          
å Ô      ÔJx        
         # 
 
å           "     ÔJ
       
å Ô           
    \$   
å             
        

m 
Area Method: Drawing SFD
å          (  ÔJx  
     )     
  "      
å      ÔJx      &  
      *       +
,        "    
        
å '   ÔJ         & 
            , 
             
   
å ,            
   ÔJ   
       
#      
m 
merifying Area Method: SFD
¦! ¦ ¦!

! !
¦
0 !
!
¦


! 


m 
merifying Area Method: SFD
¦
¦!

¦


¦
!

m 
Constructing SFD
"##\$ "##\$ "##\$
!##\$2

"# "#

0#
0"##

"#
m 
Area Method: Drawing BMD

## å J             

å Ô             
      # 
 
å           "     %
       
å      %x      & 
*   +  ÔJ      
å '   %         & 
 *   +       ÔJ  

m 
Area Method: Drawing BMD

## å '        (  %x  

     
å -           "
          
å ,            
   %    
      
 #      

m 
merifying Area Method: BMD

0 !

!

/
0 /

m 
merifying Area Method: BMD
¦! ¦ \$2 ¦!
  
!

¦



¦
¦!28
0 !

!
m 
merifying Area Method: BMD

 !



!
m 
Constructing BMD
"##\$ "##\$ "##\$
!##\$2

"# "#
0"#
0"##
0#

"# !#7!
!##
0"#
#

m 
Another Example
@V ë ë @
ë 
ë

   

V    

ë
ë

Vë 

ë
ë
ë ë

ë

Vë
m 