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Mechanics of

Solids

Vijay

Combined

Stresses and

Strains

Vijay

Combined stresses

Vijay

Wire over pulley

Section at AA

Φ 500

A A

Dia 1

Bending stresses

+

Direct stresses

100 N =

Resultant stresses

Vijay

Spirally-wound

cylindrical vessel

Consider a spirally-wound cylindrical vessel of diameter 40 mm. The

vessel is made from a thin copper strip of width 30 mm wound spirally.

The edges of the strip are brazed together. The diameter of the

cylinder is 40 mm and the wall thickness is 2 mm. What is the shear

strength of the brazed joint if the internal pressure that this cylinder

can withstand is 3 MPa.

σθθ

π(40)

r σ τnt

mm

θ zz θ = 0.234 rad

z

θ σnn = 42.2o

30 mm

Vijay

Spirally-wound

cylindrical vessel

Vijay

Spirally-wound

cylindrical vessel

σθθ

σ τnt

zz

θ σnn

MPa, respectively

Vijay

Plain stresses

y

σyy

τyx

σxx τxy σ

xx

τxy

x τyx

σyy

z

Vijay

Two-Dimensional Stress

σyy

τ First convert stresses in to

δy τxy y forces since ≡m is of forces

x not stresses.

σxxτ δx σxx

xy Take depth = 1

y τ

y σyy

x

x

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane

τnt σnnn

σxx θ

τxy

τ σyy

x

y

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

τnt σnn

σxx θ +

τxy

τx +τxy

y σyy

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

τnt σnn

σxx θ

τxy

τx σyy

y

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

τnt σnn

σxx θ

τxy

τx

y σyy

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

τ

●n

If τxy = 0

2θ σ

●

n'

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

τ ●Y

If τxy ≠ 0

●

X

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

τ

●Y

y

t

n

θ

x

● 2θ

σ

2θ

●N

● (σ nn , −τ nt )

X

Vijay

Stresses on θ Plane...

Plot the stress components on the σ-τ plane using the convention that

a positive shear stress on an x-like face is plotted downward while a

positive stress on a y-like face is plotted upwards. Reverse for the

negative shear stresses

τ

●Y

y

t

n

θ

x

● 2θ

σ

2θ

●N

● (σ nn , −τ nt )

X

Vijay

X- and Y- Faces

B A

B A

A A B

B

Vijay

Principal Planes

y

τ Y●

x

b B● A σ

a ●

θ

2θ

●

X

σa,b =

Vijay

Uni-axial Tension

C

σxx

D

τ

C Ductile Failure

●

Y● ●X σ

●D

Brittle Failure

Vijay

Uni-axial Compression

S1

σ yy S2 τ

S1

●

Y

● ● X σ

●S

2

Vijay

Hydrostatic Loading

σ1

σ1 τ

●

X,Y σ

•No shear

•Compressive stress

independent of direction

Vijay

Equal Tensile Loading

σ1

σ1 τ

•No shear

•Tensile stress

●

X,Y σ independent of

direction

Vijay

Shear Loading

θ

τo

τo z

τ

Z

● 2

2● ●1 σ 1

Principal Directions

●

Θ

Vijay

Torsion Failure

y 2 1

τo

x

Principal Directions

ductile material brittle material

Vijay

An Example

y τ

P2 50 kPa

σ2 σ1 Y●

P1

40 kPa

θ C

● ●P1

110 kPa x P2 2θ σ

●

X

(c)

=P150= ((80 + 50), 0) = (130,0), P2 = ((80 − 50), 0) = (30,0)

Vijay

63.7 MPa

S1

Torsional Pendulum

θ

z

Φ =1 mm

L= 1 m

τ

S1

Θ

●

S2 41.8 MPa

σ θ ±60o

50 N

2φ z

●Z

S2 Vijay

S1

Torsional Pendulum

θ

z

τ

S1

Θ

●

S2

σ θ ±60o

50 N

2φ z

●Z

S2 Vijay

Displacement and strain

y,v C’

B’

B D’ v+(∂v/∂y)δy

A’

v v+(∂v/∂x)δx

A

D

u

u+(∂u/∂y)δy

u+(∂u/∂x)δx

x,u

Vijay

Transformation of plane

strains

y,v

B’ The coordinates of point B are

δlcosθ and δlsinθ

B” X’

E

D

y’ A’

BC

θ

A x,u

Vijay

Transformation of plane

strains

y,v

B’

B” X’

E

D

y’ A’

BC

θ

A x,u

Vijay

Mohr circle of strain

γ/2

y' y

ε y‘y’ Y●

’

γ y’x Y’●

ε x‘x’ '

x C

O

γ x’y’

ε x‘x’ θ x γx'y’ /2 ε

2θ

● X’

ε y‘y’

●

εy'y’ X

(εxx +εyy )/2

εx'x’

Vijay

An Example:

In a condition of plane stress in a steel

•

80 MPa, Find

y the principalτ

strains.

•

Y

• x ●

= 128 30 σ

σ1 = 30 + 128 = 158 MPa

σ2 = 30 - 128 = -98 MPa ●X

Vijay

Example, continued:

In the last example:

σ1 = 158 MPa

σ2 = -98 MPa

ε2 = (σ2 –νσ1)/E = (-98 – 0.25×(158))/200×103 = -

0.69×10-3

Vijay

Distortion in computer

graphics

5% compression

γ/ 2

S1

●

y

● ●

1% stretch y xε

x

●

S2

Maximum angular strain γS1S2 equal to two

times the radius of the circle, i.e., 0.06

Vijay

Relationship between

elastic properties E, G

and

y

ν τ

2 1

●

Y y

τo

● ●

x 2 1 σ x

γ = τo/G ●

Xσ1 = −σ2 = τo

2 1

●

Y y

●

2

●

1 ε x

●

X Vijay

Relationship between

elastic properties E, G

and

y

ν

τo

x

γ = τo/G

Vijay

Bonded Resistance Strain

Gauges

Backing sheet

Active grid length

Alignment

marks

Solder

tabs

Vijay

An application

Model

vocal

Air chord Gauge

Cantilevered reed

Vijay

Measuring shear

stresses with strain

gauges

γo θ

γ/2 Z

●

γo/2 P2 θ P1

P2 O P1● ε = γo/2

● ε

z

γo/2

γo/2

●Θ

Vijay

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