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MEC201

Mechanics of
Solids
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Combined
Stresses and
Strains

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Combined stresses

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Wire over pulley
Section at AA
Φ 500

A A
Dia 1
Bending stresses
+
Direct stresses
100 N =

Resultant stresses
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Spirally-wound
cylindrical vessel
Consider a spirally-wound cylindrical vessel of diameter 40 mm. The
vessel is made from a thin copper strip of width 30 mm wound spirally.
The edges of the strip are brazed together. The diameter of the
cylinder is 40 mm and the wall thickness is 2 mm. What is the shear
strength of the brazed joint if the internal pressure that this cylinder
can withstand is 3 MPa.

σθθ

π(40)
r σ τnt

mm
θ zz θ = 0.234 rad
z
θ σnn = 42.2o
30 mm
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Spirally-wound
cylindrical vessel

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Spirally-wound
cylindrical vessel
σθθ
σ τnt
zz

θ σnn

σnn and τnt are obtained as 23.2 MPa and = 7.5


MPa, respectively
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Plain stresses

y
σyy
τyx
σxx τxy σ
xx
τxy
x τyx
σyy
z

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Two-Dimensional Stress
σyy
τ First convert stresses in to
δy τxy y forces since ≡m is of forces
x not stresses.
σxxτ δx σxx
xy Take depth = 1
y τ
y σyy
x
x

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Stresses on θ Plane
τnt σnnn
σxx θ
τxy
τ σyy
x
y

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Stresses on θ Plane...
τnt σnn
σxx θ +
τxy
τx +τxy
y σyy

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Stresses on θ Plane...
τnt σnn
σxx θ
τxy
τx σyy
y

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Stresses on θ Plane...
τnt σnn
σxx θ
τxy
τx
y σyy

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Stresses on θ Plane...

τ
●n
If τxy = 0
2θ σ


n'
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Stresses on θ Plane...

τ ●Y
If τxy ≠ 0


X
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Stresses on θ Plane...

τ
●Y
y
t
n
θ
x
● 2θ
σ

●N
● (σ nn , −τ nt )
X
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Stresses on θ Plane...
Plot the stress components on the σ-τ plane using the convention that
a positive shear stress on an x-like face is plotted downward while a
positive stress on a y-like face is plotted upwards. Reverse for the
negative shear stresses
τ
●Y
y
t
n
θ
x
● 2θ
σ

●N
● (σ nn , −τ nt )
X
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X- and Y- Faces

B A
B A

A A B
B

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Principal Planes
y
τ Y●
x

b B● A σ
a ●
θ


X

σa,b =
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Uni-axial Tension
C
σxx
D
τ
C Ductile Failure

Y● ●X σ

●D
Brittle Failure
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Uni-axial Compression
S1

σ yy S2 τ
S1

Y
● ● X σ
●S
2

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Hydrostatic Loading

σ1
σ1 τ


X,Y σ
•No shear
•Compressive stress
independent of direction

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Equal Tensile Loading

σ1
σ1 τ

•No shear
•Tensile stress

X,Y σ independent of
direction

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Shear Loading
θ
τo
τo z

τ
Z
● 2

2● ●1 σ 1
Principal Directions


Θ
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Torsion Failure
y 2 1
τo
x
Principal Directions

Torsion failure of a Torsion failure of a


ductile material brittle material
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An Example
y τ
P2 50 kPa
σ2 σ1 Y●
P1
40 kPa
θ C
● ●P1
110 kPa x P2 2θ σ

X
(c)

C = ((110 + 50)/2, 0) = (80,0), R = √[{(110 – 50)/2}2 + 402)]


=P150= ((80 + 50), 0) = (130,0), P2 = ((80 − 50), 0) = (30,0)

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63.7 MPa
S1

Torsional Pendulum
θ
z

Φ =1 mm
L= 1 m
τ
S1
Θ

S2 41.8 MPa

σ θ ±60o
50 N
2φ z
●Z
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S1

Torsional Pendulum
θ
z

τ
S1
Θ

S2

σ θ ±60o
50 N
2φ z
●Z
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Displacement and strain

y,v C’
B’

B D’ v+(∂v/∂y)δy
A’
v v+(∂v/∂x)δx
A
D
u

u+(∂u/∂y)δy
u+(∂u/∂x)δx
x,u
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Transformation of plane
strains
y,v
B’ The coordinates of point B are
δlcosθ and δlsinθ
B” X’
E
D
y’ A’
BC
θ
A x,u

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Transformation of plane
strains
y,v
B’

B” X’
E
D
y’ A’
BC
θ
A x,u

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Mohr circle of strain

γ/2
y' y
ε y‘y’ Y●

γ y’x Y’●
ε x‘x’ '
x C
O
γ x’y’

ε x‘x’ θ x γx'y’ /2 ε

● X’
ε y‘y’

εy'y’ X
(εxx +εyy )/2
εx'x’

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An Example:
In a condition of plane stress in a steel

plate, σxx = 130 MPa, σyy = -70 MPa, τxy =


80 MPa, Find
y the principalτ
strains.

Y
• x ●

Radius = sqrt(1002 + 802)


= 128 30 σ
σ1 = 30 + 128 = 158 MPa
σ2 = 30 - 128 = -98 MPa ●X
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Example, continued:
In the last example:
σ1 = 158 MPa
σ2 = -98 MPa

Find principal strains

ε1 = (σ1 –νσ2)/E = (158 – 0.25×(-98))/200×103 = 0.9×10-3


ε2 = (σ2 –νσ1)/E = (-98 – 0.25×(158))/200×103 = -
0.69×10-3

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Distortion in computer
graphics

5% compression
γ/ 2
S1

y
● ●
1% stretch y xε
x

S2

Radius = [0.01 – (−0.05)]/2 = 0.03.


Maximum angular strain γS1S2 equal to two
times the radius of the circle, i.e., 0.06
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Relationship between
elastic properties E, G
and
y
ν τ
2 1

Y y
τo
● ●
x 2 1 σ x

γ = τo/G ●
Xσ1 = −σ2 = τo
2 1


Y y


2

1 ε x


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Relationship between
elastic properties E, G
and
y
ν
τo
x

γ = τo/G

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Bonded Resistance Strain
Gauges
Backing sheet
Active grid length

Alignment
marks

Solder
tabs

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An application

Model
vocal
Air chord Gauge
Cantilevered reed

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Measuring shear
stresses with strain
gauges
γo θ

γ/2 Z

γo/2 P2 θ P1
P2 O P1● ε = γo/2
● ε
z
γo/2
γo/2
●Θ
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