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INTRODUCTION

u Complex Nature Of Behaviour


Behaviour goes beyond what meets the eye.
What processes underlie all we exhibit?

u Physiological Psychology and behaviour:


That arm of psychology that attempts to
understand the relations between biological
processes (physical and chemical processes)
and behaviour.
The Nervous System

u The Neuron: Basic specialized cell of the


nervous system.
Typical Layout of neurons in the body
Úovement of impulse to and away from the neuron
Communication at the synapse
THE DISCOVERY OF NEUROTRANSÚITTERS

T = time
S = stimulus in the vagus
D = contractions of heart D
R = contractions of heart R

Fig.


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What then are Neurotransmitters?
u Tiny liquid
u Synthesized by the neuron from materials in
the blood
u Chemical messengers across the synapse
u Bind themselves to receptors across the
synapse
u Inhibitory or excitatory
u The influence behaviour
Discovery of each Neurotransmitters
u Acetylcholine ± 1930¶s
u Adrenaline ± 1940¶s
(Noradrenaline a derivative)
u Serotonin - 1940¶s
u Dopamine ± 1950¶s
u Substance P ± late 1950¶s
u Four amino acids discovered in 1960 ±
Glutamate, Aspartate (as excitatory agent), GABA
and Glycine (as inhibitory agents)
u Neuropeptides -1970¶s

After these a lot more have been discovered and are still been
discovered.
Biosynthesis, packaging, and release of neurotransmitters
A quick review of synaptic action

u receptor types (ionotropic and metabotropic)


u receptor subtypes
Catecholamine synthesis

àthis is °  for torture


-understanding
synthesis can be
important for
understanding drug
action
Dopamine

Õubtantia nigra and


Parkinsonǯs disease

Mesocorticolimbic system
and schizophrenia
Serotonin synthesis
Serotonin

Serotonergic pathways in the brain


-raphe, 15 subtypes, Prozac and depression
Acetylcholine synthesis
Amino acids: The workhorses of
the neurotransmitter family
Glutamate - the primary excitatory neurotransmitter
in brains

GABA (Gamma-amino-butyric-acid) - the primary


inhibitory
neurotransmitter
The fabulous glutamate receptor

§ctivation of NMD§ receptor can cause changes in the


numbers of §MP§ receptors Ȃ a mechanism for learning?
The fabulous GABA receptor

Multiple binding sites


Peptides
‡Produced in minute quantities
‡often substances that are also found in areas of body
other than brain (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)
‡tremendously potent and long-acting
(neuromodulatory)
‡opiates
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§cetylcholine (§ch) *Neuromuscular junction *Movement
*Preganglionic autonomic *§utonomic function
synapses *Learning and memory
*Postganglionic
parasympathetic synapses
*Basal forebrain projections
to hippocampus and
amygdala.
Dopamine *Õubstantia nigra and basal *Movement
ganglia *Reinforcement
*Ventral tegmentum *Planning
projections to hippocampus
and amygdala, and nucleus
accumbens
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Õerotonin Projections originate in the *Õleep


pons, particularly the raaphe *§ppetite
nucleus, and project widely in *Mood
the brain and spinal cord

Glutamate Widely distributed in the central *Excitation


nervous system *Long- term memory
G§B§ Widely distributed in the central *Inhibition
nervous system *Mood
*Õeizure threshold
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Endogenous Opioids *Periaqueductal gray *Pain reduction
*Hypothalamus *Feelings of well-being
*Pituitary gland
*Limbic system
*Basal ganglia
*Õpinal cord
*Ventral tegmentum
Õubstance P Õpinal cord *Pain
Nitric Oxide (NO) *Central and peripheral *Relaxes smooth muscle
nervous systems cell in blood vessels
*Õmooth muscle *Erection
*Possible retrograde
signaling
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What is a Ǯdrugǯ?
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§mphetamine Excitement, alertness, Increases release of


elevated Mood, decreased dopamine and several
fatigue other neurotransmitters
Cocaine Excitement, §lertness, Blocks reuptake of
elevated mood , decreased Dopamine and several other
fatigue Neurotransmitters
Methylphenidate Increased concentration Blocks reuptake of
Dopamine and others but
more gradually than
Cocaine does.
Nicotine Mostly stimulant effects Õtimulate Nicotinic Ȃ type
acetylcholine, receptor
Opiate Relaxation, withdrawal, Õtimulate endorphin
decreased pain receptors
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LÕD Distorted sensations Õtimulate serotonin type
two receptors (5-HT2)
§lcohol Relaxation, decreased Felicitates G§B§,
attention receptor
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