0 Up votes0 Down votes

130 views31 pagesNov 15, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

130 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- unit 2
- CIL Coal India MT Electrical Question Paper for Management Trainees Exam
- C21 Alternating Current Student3
- Rpm Manual Mnm
- acbridge-140528201937-phpapp02
- 23-f Venu Yarllagadda1
- questions3,4,6,7
- E103.doc
- TechRef_SeriesReactance
- 08082014[1]
- BPE1_pre_req
- assigem1
- sdarticle2
- 710007 [PDF Library]
- Basic Electrical Theory
- Unit III-reactive Powerûvoltage Control
- Formulas
- KEM MAD Sample Exam (EEE1)
- Power Factor Correction Capacitors
- Ghosh Monday July 23 2003

You are on page 1of 31

Circuits

and Electromagnetic

Waves

21.1 Resistor in an AC

Circuit

An AC circuit consists of a combination of circuit

elements and an AC generator or source

The output of an AC generator is sinusoidal and

varies with time according to the following equations

v = Vmax sin 2π ƒt, i = Imax sin 2π ƒt

current, respectively

V

max is the maximum voltage of the generator

I

max is the maximum current

ƒ is the frequency in Hz (ω =2π ƒ)

Resistor in an AC Circuit,

cont.

Consider a circuit consisting of i, v

an AC source and a resistor

The graph shows the current i

through and the voltage across

the resistor v

The current and the voltage

reach their maximum values at

the same time

The current and the voltage are

said to be in phase

the current over one cycle is

zero!

Resistor in an AC Circuit,

cont.

The “bar” indicates average value

The average value of a sinusoidal current is zero: I = 0

However, we have to consider I2R:

P=(Imax )2R sin2ω t

sin2ω t = ½(1-cos2ω t)

Average: ½(1-cos2 ω t)= ½

Zero!

power: I2R → This step requires the rms (root-mean-

square) current

Resistor in an AC Circuit,

cont.

Irms =(I2)½=[(½)(Imax )2]½ → (Irms )2=(½)(Imax )2

2

I rms = I max = 0.707 I max

2

P=(½)(Imax )2 R= (Irms )2R

AC Power delivered to a

resistor

Pmax

rms Current and Voltage

Rms Current:

2

I rms = I max = 0.707 I max

2

Rms Voltage:

2

Vrms = Vmax = 0.707Vmax

2

rms Current and Voltage,

cont.

The direction of the current has no

effect on the behavior of the resistor

The rms current is the DC current

that would dissipate the same

amount of energy in a resistor as is

dissipated by the actual AC current

Ohm’s Law in an AC

Circuit

rmsvalues will be used when

discussing AC currents and voltages

AC ammeters and voltmeters are designed

to read rms values

Many of the equations will be in the same

form as in DC circuits

Ohm’s Law for a resistor, R, in an AC

circuit

Vrms = Irms R

Also applies to the maximum values of v and i

Example: An AC power supply with Vmax =48 V is

connected to a resistor with 12 Ω . Calculate (a) the

rms current, (b) P and (c) Pmax .

Irms =2.83 A

P=96 W

(c) Pmax =2P=192 W

21.2 Capacitors in an AC

Circuit

Consider a circuit containing a capacitor and an

AC source

The current starts out at a large value and

charges the plates of the capacitor

There is initially no resistance to hinder the flow of

the current while the plates are not charged

As the charge on the plates increases, the

voltage across the plates increases and the

current flowing in the circuit decreases

More About Capacitors in

an AC Circuit

The current reverses

direction

The voltage across the

plates decreases as the

plates lose the charge

they had accumulated

The voltage across the

capacitor lags behind the

current by 90° (current

leads)

Reason for the phase shift

Discharging Charging Discharging

Current leads

Current Voltage

Capacitive Reactance Xc

f=0 Hz, XC=∞ (remember

the DC case)

Capacitive Reactance and

Ohm’s Law

The impeding effect of a capacitor on the current in an

AC circuit is called the capacitive reactance and is given

by

1

X C in=Hz and C is in F, X will be in ohms

When ƒ is

2πfC C

Vrms = Irms XC

21.3 Inductors in an AC

Circuit

Consider an AC circuit

with a source and an

inductor

The current in the

circuit is impeded by

the back emf of the

inductor

The voltage across

the inductor always

leads the current by

90°

Proof of the phase shift

(Faraday’s law) VL∝dΦ /dt

vL=L(dI/dt)

Imax

L(dI/dt)=Vmax cosω t

∫

I=(Vmax /L) cosω tdt=(Vmax /ω L)sinω t+K

reactance [unit: Ω ]

Inductive Reactance and

Ohm’s Law

The effective resistance of a coil in an AC

circuit is called its inductive reactance

and is given by

XL = 2π ƒL

When ƒ is in Hz and L is in H, XL will be in ohms

Ohm’s Law for the inductor

Vrms = Irms XL

21.4 The RLC Series

Circuit

The resistor,

inductor, and vR vL vC

capacitor can be

combined in a

circuit

The current in the

circuit is the same

at any time and

varies sinusoidally

with time

Current and Voltage

Relationships in an RLC

Circuit

The instantaneous

voltage across the

resistor is in phase

with the current

The instantaneous

voltage across the

inductor leads the

current by 90°

The instantaneous

voltage across the

capacitor lags the

current by 90°

Phasor Diagrams

To account for the

different phases of the

voltage drops, vector

techniques are used

Represent the voltage φ

across each element as

a rotating vector, called

a phasor

The diagram is called a

phasor diagram

Phasor Diagram for RLC

Series Circuit

The voltage across the

resistor is on the +x axis

since it is in phase with

the current

The voltage across the

inductor is on the +y

since it leads the current Current

by 90°

The voltage across the

capacitor is on the –y axis

since it lags behind the

current by 90°

Phasor Diagram, cont

The phasors are

added as vectors VL

to account for the

phase differences

VC

in the voltages

VL and VC are on

the same line and Vmax

VL - VC

so the net y

component is VL - φ

VC VR

Vmax from the Phasor

Diagram

The voltages are not in phase, so they

cannot simply be added to get the voltage

across the combination of the elements or

the voltage source

2

Vmax = VR + (VL − VC ) 2

VL − VC

tanφ =

VR

φ is the phase angle between the current

and the maximum voltage

Impedance of a Circuit

The impedance,

Z, can also be

represented in a

phasor diagram

Z = R + (XL − XC)

2 2

XL − XC

tanφ =

R

Impedance and Ohm’s

Law

to the impedance

V = I

max max Z

Summary of Circuit

Elements, Impedance and

Phase Angles

21.5 Power in an AC

Circuit

No power losses are associated with

capacitors and pure inductors in an AC

circuit

In a capacitor, during one-half of a cycle energy

is stored and during the other half the energy is

returned to the circuit

In an inductor, the source does work against the

back emf of the inductor and energy is stored in

the inductor, but when the current begins to

decrease in the circuit, the energy is returned to

the circuit

Power in an AC Circuit,

cont

The average power delivered by

the generator is converted to

internal energy in the resistor

P = Irms VR = Irms Vrms cos φ

cos φ is called the power factor of the

circuit

Phase

shifts can be used to

maximize power outputs

21.6 Resonance in an AC

Circuit

Resonance occurs at

the frequency, ƒ0,

where the current has

its maximum value Vrms

To achieve maximum I rms =

current, the impedance

Z

must have a minimum

value

This occurs when XL = XC

1

ƒo =

2π LC

Resonance, cont.

Theoretically, if R = 0 the current would be infinite

at resonance

Real circuits always have some resistance

Tuning a radio

A varying capacitor changes the resonance frequency of

the tuning circuit in your radio to match the station to be

received

Metal Detector

The portal is an inductor, and the frequency is set to a

condition with no metal present

When metal is present, it changes the effective

inductance, which changes the current which is detected

and an alarm sounds

- unit 2Uploaded byprashantpnd07
- CIL Coal India MT Electrical Question Paper for Management Trainees ExamUploaded byAshish Mahapatra
- C21 Alternating Current Student3Uploaded bypradeepbmahajan
- Rpm Manual MnmUploaded byParichay Gupto
- acbridge-140528201937-phpapp02Uploaded byumamaheshwarrao
- 23-f Venu Yarllagadda1Uploaded byragvshah
- questions3,4,6,7Uploaded byAysha Yasmin
- E103.docUploaded byKarimovaRaikhanovna
- TechRef_SeriesReactanceUploaded byROY
- 08082014[1]Uploaded bySatishSharma
- BPE1_pre_reqUploaded byshahpoor
- assigem1Uploaded bySyed Kazim Ali
- sdarticle2Uploaded byapi-3697505
- 710007 [PDF Library]Uploaded bySuryaprakashrao Veldi
- Basic Electrical TheoryUploaded bymaxime78540
- Unit III-reactive Powerûvoltage ControlUploaded byLalith Krishnan
- FormulasUploaded bydeneme1212
- KEM MAD Sample Exam (EEE1)Uploaded byjaymie_llanera
- Power Factor Correction CapacitorsUploaded bygeorgel1980
- Ghosh Monday July 23 2003Uploaded byleo232
- 31713-31569-2-PBUploaded byGuru Anki
- ia02607001eUploaded byAlfredo Lopez Cordova
- 2914Uploaded byPrafull B
- insha1Uploaded bymamoon
- Day 2-A-Electrical Characteristics of Transmission LineUploaded bySudhir Aggarwal
- power trendUploaded byajayvarma02626
- CORRECCION DEL FACTOR DE POTENCIAUploaded byGuillermo Larios
- Self ReviewUploaded byEdnna Lp
- TransientUploaded byLester Kun
- Spectroscopy and Current Voltage Analysis_IIUploaded bynatasamat

- hspice2005Uploaded by何明俞
- Siemens Manual SIRIUS Softstarter en-USUploaded byDarius Yorim
- c18 EMCPII-III.pdfUploaded byAbdul Khaliq
- Time Duration Each ActivityUploaded byKhairel Riezzal
- Fuzzy PID for BLDCUploaded bysherykhann
- MG-Motor-Generators_L_KE000021.pdfUploaded bydinhvu
- X11SNI&OUploaded byprihartono_dias
- Cable_Design_Calculations_(Direct_Burial_&_Short_Circuit_Current).xlsUploaded byInayat Hathiari
- Sistemas Inductivos AIT y DIL(Full Permission)Uploaded bySanPer86
- PSIM v11 User ManualUploaded byLogan Gender
- Power SupplyUploaded byRajbir Saini Singh
- Plano Electricidad Cat 325Uploaded byaguadojorge
- Full Text 01Uploaded bySlim Abid
- 76244679 Manual Soil Resistivity Wenner MethodUploaded byadeoye_okunoye
- Module 3 - Rdf1Uploaded byMona Lee
- Diamond LED Light Bulb Cross Reference Chart 2014Uploaded byjeanyoper
- Physics HomeworkUploaded bytom_soden
- 22 Deborah Chung's Apparent Negative ResistanceUploaded byKarunakar Reddy M
- Flatpack2 PS System, 16kW, 48VDC, Outdoor 1.3m Fan Cooled Cabinet (DS - CF1017.003.DS3 - 1 - 1)Uploaded byDmitry059
- YyyUploaded byalexpc1988
- Ultrasonic Transmitter and ReceiverUploaded byArun Mose
- Electric-and-Magnetic-Fields-from-Overhead-Power-Lines.pdfUploaded byJHON ANTAY ALVA
- 9702_y16_sp_4Uploaded byAvinash Boodhoo
- CIGRE - Benefits and Economical Aspects - [2004].pdfUploaded byadriasiq3068
- Datasheet - AX5312 12-bit ±10 12 15V DAC MAX5312Uploaded bycarruba
- Power Transmisison Towers Loading TreeUploaded byAnonymous ep7LE5ZdP5
- Ats 1Uploaded byserban_el
- 1-s2.0-S0169433201009011-main.pdfUploaded byltbm0908
- Tda 7267Uploaded byMiloud Chougui
- Pek Lead Acid BatteriesUploaded byTris Ramadhan Zarkoni

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.