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The SOA Architecture

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¦ Service: A software component that
encapsulates a high-level business concept
¦ t consists of a contract, one or more interfaces,
and an implementation
¦ SOA: a software architecture that is based on
the key concepts of an application frontend,
service, service repository, and service bus.
  ³Your Next T Strategy,´ by: John
Hagel and John S. Brown, Harvard Business
Review, October, 2001, pp. 105-113.
|    6
¦   
     
¦ ey benefits include:
± Reuse
± More efficient development process
± Better fit for business infrastructure
± Cost savings
± Evolutionary approach, risk mitigation, and
independence from technology
{ 
¦ Specifies the purpose, functionality,
constraints, and usage of the service. May
also contain a formal interface definition in
a language such as interactive data
language) or WS Web Services
escription anguage)
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¦ Store information about services
¦ Allows one to discover services and obtain
information for their use
¦ Repository can provide information such as
physical location, information about the
provider, contact persons, usage fees,
technical constraints, security levels and
available service levels
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¦ S have been ³proprietary´ -- own hardware, own
applications, big staffs to keep everything up and
running. Has not worked well.
¦ The ERP systems have advantages, but relatively
inflexible, tend to lock companies into rigid
business processes
¦ t becomes hard to adapt quickly to changes in
market place, and strategic restructurings, through
acquisitions, divestitures, and partnerships become
difficult to pull off.
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¦ Software standards such as XM) and
¦ Communication protocols such as SOAP

Make it possible for diverse applications


and organizations to do business together
electronically.
|-
Middle layer is the service grid, through which
specialized utilities provide key services and tools¶

Four types of utilities operate over the service grid.


1. Shared utilities
2. Transport management utilities
3. Resource knowledge management utilities
4. Service management utilities
9 -
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¦ Support day-to-day business activities


and processes- everything from
procurement and supply chain
management to marketing
communications and sales.
 
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¦ By sharing same standards for data description and
communication protocols, applications   .
!    , without costly
reprogramming.
¦          when
they are needed, the architecture can reduce
investments in T assets.
¦ The architecture will enable connections between
applications - ' !      
± to be managed automatically
6 6 
¦ Merrill ynch is leading initiatives to take advantages of Web
services
¦ Creation of an innovative portfolio analysis system for use by
brokers and selected customers
¦ sing XM to link systems within Merrill ynch and from
partners, the new system ties together customer information,
product information and real time market data in a flexible low cost
way.
¦ Enables brokers and clients to use a variety of devices, including
computers, PAs, cell phones and conventional phones
¦ Competitive advantage for sales-people while delivering added
value to customers
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¦ M developed a new build-to-order manufacturing
and distribution model, generate added revenue and
use its assets much more efficiently.
¦ M also to roll out an order-to-delivery application to
shorten the lead time between placing a customer
order and delivering the vehicle.
¦ The 
  to change allows M to shift its
architecture graudally.
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¦ Once a group of companies with different
internal systems and standards, begins to
collaborate electronically, establishing clear
lines of authority becomes difficult.
¦ Shared meaning and trust between business
partners must develop more organically
which provides a room for experiment to see
what works and what doesn¶t.


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¦ More easily   ! . ! so that more types of
tasks can be handled by claims processors and don't land
on the desks of more highly paid adjusters.
¦ Able to   ! , such as one that
determines the best path to immediate settlement for a
specific type claim, that can be reused for other types of
claims.
¦ More easily do    on claims to make sure there's
even more consistency, identifying cases where there is a
payout amount discrepancy between two seemingly
identical types of claims
   ,
¦ BM announced SOMA service-oriented
modeling and architecture): a SOA related
methodology in 2004.
¦ BCM +   { |   
 : a
comprehensive approach and proven
techniques that enable SOA and support
enterprise agility and interoperability.
¦ SAP Enterprise Services Architecture
¦ The 
 >     ,  
6    ,  6  
66) is examining SOA standards
6 +     
¦ SOA as a mechanism for defining business
services and operating models, a business
mapping tool to ensure that the services
created properly represent the business view
and are not just what technologists think the
business services should be.
¦ Enterprise Business Architecture should
represent the highest architecture. Every
service should be created with the intent to
bring value to the business in some way and
must be traceable back to the business
architecture. Article #8 & #10)
What have we learned?
¦ Problems for traditional S development
¦ Needs and motivation for a more adaptive
approach
¦ Three-layer architecture
¦ Advantages of SOA
¦ Three guidelines
¦ New business architecture