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Molecular Immunology

-Cells and Tissues of the
Immune System

SathiyaRaj
Dept. of Oriental Medicinal Materials and
Processing
School of Life Science,
Kyung Hee University.
South korea.
ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

The immune system
is localized in several
parts of the body
 immune cells

develop in the
primary organs -
bone marrow and
thymus (yellow)

immune responses
occur in the
secondary organs
(blue)
Our 1 Line of Defense...
st

 The Integumentary System…
 Skin
 Mucous membranes
 Mucous

 providesa physical barrier
preventing microbial access
The Invaders . . .
 Bacteria
http://www.hhs.gov/asphep/presentation/images/bacteria.jpg

http://www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/epidemic/teachers/background.html

 Viruses
 < Click to find out more about Microbes & Disease >

 parasites

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/biology/plant_bio/lab13.FUNGI.html

such as fungi,
worm trichura.jpg
Other mechanisms of
Defense...
 Physiological variables
 pH of our environment
 temperature of our environment

 chemical defenses
 nitric
oxide, enzymes, proteins,
complement

 AND the IMMUNE SYSTEM…
Immune System : 2 branches
 The Innate Immune system =
a general response to anything other
than recognized “self cells”

 The Adaptive Immune System =
a specific counter-assault against a
“known foreign” invader [previously
recognized]
Cells of the Immune
System
The cells of the adaptive system are normally
present as circulating cells in the blood and
lymph as anatomically defined collections in
lymphoid organs, and as scattered cells in
virtually all tissues.

Only a small number of lymphocytes
specifically recognize and respond to any one
antigen.
Adaptive immune responses are initiated in
specialized tissues called peripheral lymphoid
organs, which efficiently concentrate antigens
that are intrduced through the common portals
of entry (skin and gastrointestinal and
respiratory tracts)
Lymphocytes are the only cells in the body
capable of specifically recognizing and
distinguishing different antigenic determinants
and are therefore responsible for the two
defining characteristics of the adaptive
Cells of the Immune System

Source:  http://www.biologymad.com/
B Menu F
Classes of Lymphocytes
Phases of
Lymphocyte Naive Activated Effector
Activation
B Menu F
Granulocytes

Neutrophil

Eosinophil

Basophil
What Happens during an
infection?
Innate Immunity -
the troops are called to
battle…
 injury & infection
 macrophages slip between cells [extravasation]
to arrive
 cytokine chemicals attract other “troops”
[chemotaxis]
 histamine chemicals dilate blood vessels for
easier access to injury [vasodilation]
 < Click on link to view Movie of inflammation >

 http://www.muhealth.org/~pharm204/inflammation.mov
Principal mechanisms of defense against microbes

Antibodies                   Phagocytes T cells (CTLs)
  (may work with antibodies, T cells)

All microbes  Intracellular 
microbes, esp. 
viruses
All microbes
Lymphoid Organs

Primary/Generative Secondary

Thymus Spleen

Bone Marrow Lymph Nodes
Bursa

Peyer's Patches Cutaneous
(Ruminants,Pigs)

Mucosal
Lymphoid Organs

• Primary • Secondary
(Generative) Lymphoid Organs
Lymphoid Organs – efficient at
– maturation site of trapping and
concentrating
lymphoid cells
foreign
– bone marrow, substances
bursa of Fabricius,
– site of Ag-driven
thymus, Peyer’s
proliferation and
Patches in Pigs
differentiation;
and Ruminants
e.g. Ab production
– spleen, lymph
nodes, diffuse
Anatomy of a
lymph node

Naïve lymphocytes
circulate between
blood and lymphoid
tissues; antigen in
tissue arrives at
draining lymph node
via lymph flow and
being carried by
dendritic cells
Mechanism for
directing the
immune response
against microbes
and not against
self, food, etc.

Applies to B cells
and T cells
For T cells:
costimulatory
molecules include B7-1
and B7-2 on dendritic
cells
LYMPHOCYTE DEVELOPMENT

Congenital immunodeficiency diseases are often caused by blocks 
at different stages of lymphocyte maturation
The Immunoglobulin Superfamily
(a few examples)
Integrins: Regulated Cell-cell and
cell- ECM adhesion
Cytokine receptor families
How can antibodies
distinguish “self”cells from
foreign invaders?
• Adaptive Immune System - origin
• There are 2 types of lymphocytes:
– 1st Type -
T
lymphocytes -
[ T - Helper
cells ]
begin in the
red
bone marrow
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/skeletonorg.html
& migrate to the thymus gland ...

• These Lymphocytes
are sorted into 2 types

• Identification tag is a
protein called Major
Histocompatability
Complex [MHC]

Foreign Self- ID
B cells differentiate into . . .

– Antibody producing cells [attack mode]
– Memory cells [remembers & future
protection]
Antigen & T-helper cell

antibodies

memory
Inflammatory reaction
Lymphocyte
Maturation

Antibody Mediated Cell Mediated
Immunity Immunity

Stem Cells
B Cells Mature T Cells Mature
of the Bone
in Marrow in Thymus
Marrow

Released into Macrophages
Identify
blood, spleen, carry foreign
Antigens cells to T
lymph
Helper cells

B Cells Replicate T Helper cells (Th)
to form produce proteins
Plasma cells

B Memory Release Secrete Secrete
Cells Antibodies Interleukins lymphokines

Replicate Stimulates
Cytotoxic (killer) Phagocytosis
T (Tc) Cells

Effector Tc Tm Memory
Cells Cells
Antibody Mediated Immunity
• Animation of Antibody Mediat

• What kind of cell does the 
macrophage activate in the 
humoral immune response?

• What occurs during the effector 
phase of the humoral response?

http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/immune/immune00.htm
Cell Mediated Immunity:

http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/immune/immune00.htm