Molecular Immunology

-Cells and Tissues of the Immune System
SathiyaRaj
Dept. of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing School of Life Science, Kyung Hee University. South korea.

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
The immune system is localized in several parts of the body  immune cells develop in the primary organs bone marrow and thymus (yellow)  immune responses occur in the secondary organs (blue)

Our 1 Line of Defense...
st
 The

Integumentary System…
membranes

 Skin  Mucous  Mucous

 provides

a physical barrier preventing microbial access

The Invaders . . .
 Bacteria  Viruses

http://www.hhs.gov/asphep/presentation/images/bacteria.jpg http://www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/epidemic/teachers/background.html

< Click to find out more about

Microbes & Disease >

 parasites
http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/biology/plant_bio/lab13.FUNGI.html

such as fungi,
worm trichura.jpg

Other mechanisms of Defense...
 Physiological
 pH

variables

of our environment  temperature of our environment
 chemical
 nitric

defenses

oxide, enzymes, proteins, complement

 AND

the IMMUNE SYSTEM…

Immune System : 2 branches
 The
a

Innate Immune system =

general response to anything other than recognized “self cells”

 The
a

Adaptive Immune System =

specific counter-assault against a “known foreign” invader [previously recognized]

Cells of the Immune System

The cells of the adaptive system are normally present as circulating cells in the blood and lymph as anatomically defined collections in lymphoid organs, and as scattered cells in virtually all tissues. Only a small number of lymphocytes specifically recognize and respond to any one antigen. Adaptive immune responses are initiated in specialized tissues called peripheral lymphoid organs, which efficiently concentrate antigens that are intrduced through the common portals of entry (skin and gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts) Lymphocytes are the only cells in the body capable of specifically recognizing and distinguishing different antigenic determinants and are therefore responsible for the two defining characteristics of the adaptive

Cells of the Immune System

Source:  http://www.biologymad.com/

B

Menu

F

Classes of Lymphocytes

Phases of Lymphocyte Activation

Naive

Activated

Effector

B

Menu

F

Granulocytes Neutrophil

Eosinophil

Basophil

What Happens during an infection?
Innate
battle…
 injury

Immunity -

the troops are called to

& infection  macrophages slip between cells [extravasation] to arrive  cytokine chemicals attract other “troops” [chemotaxis]  histamine chemicals dilate blood vessels for easier access to injury [vasodilation]

< Click on link to view Movie of inflammation >
http://www.muhealth.org/~pharm204/inflammation.mov

Principal mechanisms of defense against microbes
Antibodies                   Phagocytes T cells (CTLs)   (may work with antibodies, T cells)

All microbes  All microbes

Intracellular  microbes, esp.  viruses

Lymphoid Organs Primary/Generative Thymus Bone Marrow Bursa Peyer's Patches (Ruminants,Pigs) Secondary Spleen Lymph Nodes Cutaneous Mucosal

Lymphoid Organs
• Primary (Generative) Lymphoid Organs
– maturation site of lymphoid cells – bone marrow, bursa of Fabricius, thymus, Peyer’s Patches in Pigs and Ruminants

• Secondary Lymphoid Organs
– efficient at trapping and concentrating foreign substances – site of Ag-driven proliferation and differentiation; e.g. Ab production – spleen, lymph nodes, diffuse

Anatomy of a lymph node

Naïve lymphocytes circulate between blood and lymphoid tissues; antigen in tissue arrives at draining lymph node via lymph flow and being carried by dendritic cells

Mechanism for directing the immune response against microbes and not against self, food, etc.

Applies to B cells and T cells For T cells: costimulatory molecules include B7-1 and B7-2 on dendritic cells

LYMPHOCYTE DEVELOPMENT

Congenital immunodeficiency diseases are often caused by blocks  at different stages of lymphocyte maturation

The Immunoglobulin Superfamily (a few examples)

Integrins: Regulated Cell-cell and cell- ECM adhesion

Cytokine receptor families

How can antibodies distinguish “self”cells from foreign invaders?
• Adaptive Immune System - origin • There are 2 types of lymphocytes:
– 1st Type lymphocytes cells ] begin in the
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/skeletonorg.html

T [ T - Helper red

bone marrow

& migrate to the thymus gland ...
• These Lymphocytes are sorted into 2 types • Identification tag is a protein called Major Histocompatability Complex [MHC]

Foreign

Self- ID

B cells differentiate into . . .
– Antibody producing cells [attack mode] – Memory cells [remembers & future protection]
Antigen & T-helper cell

antibodies

memory

Inflammatory reaction

Lymphocyte Maturation Antibody Mediated Immunity Cell Mediated Immunity

B Cells Mature in Marrow

Stem Cells of the Bone Marrow Released into blood, spleen, lymph

T Cells Mature in Thymus Macrophages carry foreign cells to T Helper cells T Helper cells (Th) produce proteins

Identify Antigens

B Cells Replicate to form Plasma cells B Memory Cells

Release Antibodies

Secrete Interleukins Replicate Cytotoxic (killer) T (Tc) Cells Effector Tc Cells Tm Memory Cells

Secrete lymphokines Stimulates Phagocytosis

Antibody Mediated Immunity
• What kind of cell does the  macrophage activate in the  humoral immune response? What occurs during the effector  phase of the humoral response?

• Animation of Antibody Mediat

http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/immune/immune00.htm

Cell Mediated Immunity:

http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/immune/immune00.htm

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