REVOLUTIONARY WRITERS

´ENLIGHTEN THE PEOPLE GENERALLY, AND TYRANNY AND OPPRESSIONS OF BODY AND M IND WILL VANISH LIKE EVIL SPIRITS AT THE DAWN OF DAYµ³THOM AS JEFFERSON

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS ‡ ‡ ‡ How did the ideals of the Enlightenment influence Revolutionary writers? What was the effect of the American Revolution on literature? What techniques do authors use to persuade their readers? .

RHETORICAL TRIANGLE Subject Audience Purpose .

ARISTOTLE·S CLASSICAL APPEALS .

on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence .THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) ‡ Born to a wealthy Virginia family ‡ Attends College of William and Mary and earns a law degree ‡ Helps nation win its independence ‡ Served as nations first secretary of state and the second vice president ‡ 3rd president of America ‡ Founded University of Virginia ‡ Dies on the morning of July 4. 1826.

.THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE ‡ Written in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson to write a declaration of the colonies· independence from England ‡ The Declaration of Independence details the philosophy of the colonial revolutionaries and outlines their experiences with the tyrannical king of England. ‡ Highlights ´self-evidentµ truths such as the equality of men and their ´unalienable rights.µ ‡ Reasons that because of Britain·s failures the United States of America must become independent of Britain. King George III.

³The pen is mightier than the sword?´ ‡ What does this statement mean? ‡ Do you agree or disagree with this quote? ‡ Can you give an example from history where a writer was more influential than a soldier? .

and in 1779 was named clerk of the Pennsylvania assembly ‡ ‡ ‡ . a persuasive pamphlet that advocated American independence from Great Britain. 1737 Emigrated to American in 1774 and settled in Philadelphia.THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809) ‡ ‡ Born in England on January 29. Pennsylvania. just in time to take part in the American Revolution Wrote Common Sense. often credited with turning the tide of public opinion in favor of independence Considered a radical intellectual with an ability to present complex ideas in clear and concise language Served (1777²1779) as secretary to the committee on foreign affairs of the Continental Congress.

convicted of treason. Died in New York City on June 8. Part II. and outlawed from England. Other works include The Age of Reason (Part I. he was tried. he moved to France. After being outlawed from England. 1794. In 1792. 1796) Returned to the United States in 1802. Paine wrote The Rights of Man (1791) defending the French revolution and calling on the English to overthrow their monarchy and form a republic.THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809) ‡ Went to Great Britain in 1787. While there. 1809 ‡ ‡ ‡ .

which was published just six months later ‡ Though Paine profited from his publications. Common Sense condemned monarchy as an evil institution and advocated independence ‡ Laid the philosophical groundwork for American independence ‡ Instrumental in bringing about The Declaration of Independence.000 copies of the pamphlet were sold. 1776 ‡ An estimated 500. Some scholars estimate that by the end of 1776 nearly half of all Americans had read or were familiar with Paine·s arguments ‡ At a time when many colonists were anxious about the prospects of separation.COMMON SENSE ‡ First published anonymously on January 9. . he put the money back into furthering the cause of liberty.

THE CRISIS ‡ A series of sixteen pamphlets published irregularly over a period of seven years (1776²1783) ‡ The Crisis. ‡ George Washington ordered that The Crisis. 1 be read to the troops. and unprincipled. cowardly. 1776 ‡ Written by Paine while he was serving as an enlisted soldier in the Continental army ‡ Designed to bolster morale among patriots in the early years of the war with Great Britain ‡ Paine argues that the severity of the soldiers· situation will make their triumph more glorious ‡ Vows that G-d would never desert those who fight for just causes ‡ Criticizes Tories for being shortsighted because a revolution is inevitable ‡ Those who step aside are depicted as evil. ‡ The British are thieves that must be punished. cold-hearted. . 1 was published on December 23. No. and soon all Americans had the opportunity to read it. No.

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