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Anatomy

and Physiology
Learning Objectives

1. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology and


identify several branches of each.
2. Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to
most complex in terms of the six level of organizations
3. Identify the requirements for survival
4. Define homeostasis and explain its importance to
normal human functioning
5. Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key
body structures, body regions, and directions in the
body.
Imagine a house without a design.
Imagine a house without a framework.
 Anatomy – the study of the structure and shape
of the body and body parts & their relationships
to one another. The term anatomy comes from
the Greek words meaning to cut (tomy) apart
 (ana).
Gross anatomy( macroscopic anatomy) –
the study of large, easily observable
structures (by naked eye), such as the heart
or bone.
Microscopic anatomy (cytology, histology)
– the study of very small structures, where a
magnifying lens or microscope is needed.
 Anatomists take two general approaches to the
study of the body’s structures: regional and
systemic.

 Regional anatomy is the study of the


interrelationships of all of the structures in a
specific body region, such as the abdomen.
 systemic anatomy is the study of the structures
that make up a discrete body system—that is, a
group of structures that work together to perform
a unique body function.
 Physiology – the study of how the body and its
parts work or function
physio =nature , ology = the study of.

 Physiology has many subdivisions. For example,


neurophysiology explains the working of the
nervous system , and cardiac physiology studies the
function of the heart.
How are anatomy and physiology related?

Anatomy and Physiology are always related .


Structure determines what functions can take
place.
 For example, the lungs are not muscular
chambers like the heart and can not pump
blood, but because the walls of lungs are very
thin, they can exchange gasses and provide
oxygen to the body.
Hierarchical Organization of Life

Organism

Level of Organization Organ System

Organ Level

Tissue level

Cellular level

Chemical
Level
Levels of Structural Organization
The human body exhibits 6 levels of
structural complexity :
1- Chemical level , the simplest level of
structural ladder .At this level atoms
combine to form molecules such as
water, sugar, & proteins
2- Cellular level the smallest units of
living things .
3- Tissue level , groups of similar cells
that have a common function
4- Organ level, an organ is a
structure composed of 2 or more
tissue types that performs a specific
function .
5- Organ System is a group of
organs that work together to
accomplish a common purpose (each
organ has its own job to do)
6- Organismal level , represents the
highest level of structural
organization( total of 11 organ
systems)
Body systems: The human body has 11 systems

1-INTEGUMENTARY
ORGANS
 Skin

FUNCTIONS
 Waterproofs, cushions, protects
deeper tissue
 Excretes salts & urea; pain, pressure
 Regulates body temp; synthesize
vitamin D
2-SKELETAL
ORGANS
 Bones, cartilages, ligaments,
joints

FUNCTIONS
 Protects & supports body organs
 Framework for muscles &
movement
 Hematopoiesis; store minerals
3- MUSCULAR

ORGANS
 Skeletal muscle (attached to bone)

FUNCTIONS
 Contraction & mobility
(locomotion)
 Facial expression, posture
 Produce body heat
4- NERVOUS

ORGANS
 Brain, spinal cord, nerves, &
sensory receptors

FUNCTIONS
 Fast-acting central control system
 Responds to external/internal
stimuli via nerve impulses
(electrical messages)
5- ENDOCRINE
ORGANS
 Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids,
adrenals, thymus, pancreas,
pineal, ovaries, testes…..etc.

FUNCTIONS
 Slow -acting control system
 Glands produce hormones that
regulate growth, reproduction,
metabolism,…. etc.
6- Circulatory
ORGANS
 Heart, blood vessels, capillaries
&blood

FUNCTIONS
 Carries O2 nutrients, hormones, &
other substances to and from tissue
cells
 White blood cells protect against
bacteria, toxins, tumors
7- LYMPHATIC
ORGANS
 Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes,
spleen, tonsils

FUNCTIONS
 Complements circulatory system
by returning leaked fluid back to
blood vessels
 Cleanses the blood; involved in
immunity
8- RESPIRATORY
ORGANS
 Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, & lungs

FUNCTIONS
 Keeps blood supplied with O2 &
removes CO2
 Carries out gas exchanges through
air sacs in lungs
9- DIGESTIVE
ORGANS
 Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach,
small intestine, large intestine,
rectum, anus (liver & pancreas)

FUNCTIONS
 Breaks food down into
absorbable units that enter the
blood; indigestible food
eliminated as feces
10- URINARY (EXCRETORY)
ORGANS
 Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder,
urethra

FUNCTIONS
 Eliminates nitrogenous waste
from the body (urea & uric acid)
 Regulates water, electrolytes, &
acid-base balance of the blood
11- REPRODUCTIVE
ORGANS
 Male
 Seminal vesicles, prostate, penis,
vas deferens, testis, scrotum
 Female
 Ovaries, mammary glands, uterus,
vagina, uterine tube

FUNCTIONS
 Primary function for both sexes is
to produce offspring
 Male – testes produce sperm & male
sex hormones
 Female – ovaries produce eggs &
female sex hormones; mammary
glands for nourishment
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE

Organization

Metabolism

Responsiveness

Movement

Development

Growth

Reproduction
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE
Organization

• A human body consists of trillions of cells


organized in a way that maintains distinct
internal compartments.

• Example: intestinal tract, cell membrane,


blood vessels, surface tissue of skin
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE
Metabolism

• It is a broad term that includes all chemical


reactions that occur within body cells.
• It includes breaking down substances into their
simpler building blocks (catabolism),
synthesizing more complex cellular structures
from simpler substances (anabolism), and using
nutrients and oxygen to produce (via cellular
respiration) ATP, that power cellular activities.
Figure 1.6 Metabolism Anabolic reactions are building reactions, and
they consume energy. Catabolic reactions break materials down and
release energy. Metabolism includes both anabolic and catabolic
reactions.
Metabolism (animation)
Figure 1.7 Marathon Runners demonstrate two characteristics of living humans—
responsiveness and movement. Anatomic structures and physiological processes allow
runners to coordinate the action of muscle groups and sweat in response to rising
internal body temperature. (credit: Phil Roeder/flickr)
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE
Responsiveness
• Responsiveness is the ability of an organism to
adjust to changes in its internal and external
environments.
• An example of responsiveness to external stimuli
could include moving toward sources of food and
water and away from perceived dangers.
• Changes in an organism’s internal environment,
such as increased body temperature, can cause the
responses of sweating and the dilation of blood
vessels in the skin in order to decrease body
temperature, as shown by the runners in the
figure.
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE
Movement
• Human movement includes not only actions at the
joints of the body, but also the motion of
individual organs and even individual cells.
Example:
• red and white blood cells are moving throughout
your body
• muscle cells are contracting and relaxing to
maintain your posture and to focus your visions
• glands are secreting chemicals to regulate body
functions.
Development,
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE Growth,
Reproduction

Development is all of the changes the body goes


through in life.
• Development includes the process of
differentiation, in which unspecialized cells
become specialized in structure and function to
perform certain tasks in the body.
• Development also includes the processes of
growth and repair, both of which involve cell
differentiation.
Development,
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE Growth,
Reproduction

Growth is the increase in body size.


• Humans, like all multicellular organisms, grow
by increasing the number of existing cells,
increasing the amount of non-cellular material
around cells (such as mineral deposits in bone),
and, within very narrow limits, increasing the
size of existing cells.
Development,
FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN LIFE Growth,
Reproduction

Reproduction is the formation of a new organism


from parent organisms.
• In humans, reproduction is carried out by the
male and female reproductive systems.
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs

Oxygen

Nutrients

Narrow Range of Temperature

Narrow Range of Atmospheric Pressure

Development

Growth

Reproduction
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs

Oxygen

Nutrients

Narrow Range of Temperature

Narrow Range of Atmospheric Pressure

Development

Growth

Reproduction
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs

Oxygen

Nutrients

Narrow Range of Temperature

Narrow Range of Atmospheric Pressure

Development

Growth

Reproduction
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs

Oxygen

Nutrients

Narrow Range of Temperature

Narrow Range of Atmospheric Pressure

Development

Growth

Reproduction
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs
Requirements for Life: Survival Needs

Oxygen

Nutrients

Narrow Range of Temperature

Narrow Range of Atmospheric Pressure

Development

Growth

Reproduction
Homeostasis
Homeostasis
 Describes the body’s ability to maintain
relatively stable internal conditions even
though the outside world is continuously
changing
 The literal translation of homeostasis is
“unchanging,”( homeo= the same, stasis
= standing still which is not true).
The term does not really mean a static, or
unchanging, state. Rather, it indicates a
dynamic state of equilibrium, or a
balance, in which internal conditions vary,
but always within relatively narrow limits.

In general, the body is in homeostasis when its


needs are adequately met and it is functioning
smoothly.
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

 Communication within the body is essential


for homeostasis.
 Communication is accomplished chiefly by the
nervous and endocrine systems, which use neural
electrical impulses or blood borne hormones,
respectively, as information carriers.
 Regardless of the factor being regulated (the
variable) all homeostatic control mechanisms
have at least three interdependent components .
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

 Communication within the body is essential


for homeostasis.
 Communication is accomplished chiefly by the
nervous and endocrine systems, which use neural
electrical impulses or blood borne hormones,
respectively, as information carriers.
 Regardless of the factor being regulated (the
variable) all homeostatic control mechanisms
have at least three interdependent components .
The first component, the receptor, is some
type of sensor that monitors the environment
and responds to changes, called stimuli, by
sending information (input) to the second
component, the control center. Input flows
from the receptor to the control center along
the so-called afferent pathway. The control
center, analyzes the input it receives and then
determines the appropriate response or course
of action.
The third component, the effector,
provides the means of response (output) to
the stimulus. Information flows from the
control center to the effector along the
efferent pathway. The results of the
response then feed back to influence the
stimulus, either depressing it (negative
feedback) so that the whole control
mechanism is shut off or enhancing it
(positive feedback) so that the reaction
continues at an even faster rate.
 Homeostatic control mechanisms are TWO:
 Negative feedback mechanisms – the net effect of
the response to the stimulus is the shut off of the
original stimulus or to reduce its intensity
E.g. – body temp, blood chemical levels
 Positive feedback mechanisms – tend to increase
the original disturbance (stimulus) and push the
variable farther from its original value
E.g. – ovulation, blood clotting, birth
Negative Feedback Mechanisms

• Most homeostatic control mechanisms are


negative feedback mechanisms.
• In these systems, the output shuts off the
original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
• These mechanisms cause the variable to
change in a direction opposite to that of
the initial change, returning it to its “ideal”
value; thus the name “negative” feedback
mechanisms.
Environmental Detects the
change change in
Sensor internal
environment
inhibits

Regulatory
Reversal
Center

Reverses the activates


environmental
change and Effector
bring back to
normal again
Positive Feedback Mechanisms

• In positive feedback mechanisms, the result


or response enhances the original stimulus
so that the activity (output) is accelerated.
• This feedback mechanism is “positive”
because the change that occurs proceeds in
the same direction as the initial disturbance,
causing the variable to deviate further and
further from its original value or range.
Environmental Detects the
change change in
Sensor internal
environment
inhibits

Regulatory
Reversal
Center

Reverses the activates


environmental
change and Effector
bring back to
normal again
• In contrast to negative feedback controls,
which maintain many physiological
functions or keep blood chemicals within
narrow ranges, positive feedback
mechanisms usually control infrequent events
that do not require continuous adjustments.
• However, TWO familiar examples of their
use as homeostatic mechanisms are the
enhancement of labor contractions during birth
and blood clotting.
• The body’s ability to regulate its internal
environment is fundamental, and all
negative feedback mechanisms have the
same goal: preventing sudden severe
changes within the body.
• Body temperature and blood volume are
only two of the variables that need to be
regulated. There are hundreds!
• Other negative feedback mechanisms
regulate heart rate, blood pressure, the rate
and depth of breathing, and blood levels of
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and minerals.
Homeostatic Imbalance

• Homeostasis is so important that most


disease can be regarded as a result of its
disturbance, a condition called homeostatic
imbalance.
• As we age, our body’s control systems become
less efficient, and our internal environment
becomes less and less stable. These events
increase our risk for illness and produce the
changes we associate with aging.
The Language of
Anatomy
Anatomical Regional Directional
terms Terms Terms
Anterior (or
Examples: Medial
ventral)
brachium and
antebrachium Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Body Posterior (dorsal)


Body planes subdivisions cavities
cavities
Anterior (ventral
cavities)
Frontal Abdominal regions
sagittal
(coronal) and quadrants
Membranes of anterior
transvere
(ventral body cavity)
Anatomical Position

 Standing erect
 Feet parallel
 Arms hanging at the sides
 Palms facing forward
Anterior view Posterior view
Anatomical Regional Directional
terms Terms Terms
Anterior (or
Examples: Medial
ventral)
brachium and
antebrachium Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Body Posterior (dorsal)


Body planes subdivisions cavities
cavities
Anterior (ventral
cavities)
Frontal Abdominal regions
sagittal
(coronal) and quadrants
Membranes of anterior
transvere
(ventral body cavity)
Anterior view Posterior view
Anatomical Regional Directional
terms Terms Terms
Anterior (or
Examples: Medial
ventral)
brachium and
antebrachium Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Body Posterior (dorsal)


Body planes subdivisions cavities
cavities
Anterior (ventral
cavities)
Frontal Abdominal regions
sagittal
(coronal) and quadrants
Membranes of anterior
transvere
(ventral body cavity)
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Anterior (or ventral)


• Describes the front or
direction toward the front
of the body. The toes are
anterior to the foot.
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Posterior (dorsal)
• Describes the back or
direction toward the back of
the body. The popliteus is
posterior to the patella.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Superior (or cranial)


• Describes a position above or
higher than another part of
the body proper. The orbits
are superior to the oris.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Inferior (caudal)
• describes a position below or lower than another
part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in
humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal
column). The pelvis is inferior to the abdomen.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Lateral
• describes the side or direction
toward the side of the body. The
thumb (pollex) is lateral to the
digits.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Medial
• describes the middle or
direction toward the middle of
the body. The hallux is the
medial toe.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Proximal
• Proximal describes a position in a
limb that is nearer to the point of
attachment or the trunk of the body.
The brachium is proximal to the
antebrachium.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Distal
• describes a position in a limb that is
farther from the point of attachment
or the trunk of the body. The crus is
distal to the femur.
Anterior view Posterior view
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Superficial (external)
• describes a position closer to the surface of the body.
The skin is superficial to the bones.
Directional
Terms
Anterior (or
Medial
ventral)
Posterior (or
Proximal
dorsal)
Superior (or
distal
cranial)
Inferior (or Superficial
caudal) (external)

Lateral Deep
(internal)

Deep (internal)
• describes a position farther from the surface of the body.
The brain is deep to the skull.
1. The navel is --------------to the breastbone
2. The heart is ------------- to the breastbone
3. The arms are ------------ to the chest
4. The elbow is ------------ to the wrist
5. The skin is ------------- to the skeleton
6. The forehead is ------------------ to the nose
7. The breastbone is------------ to the spine
8. The heart is ------------to the arm
9. The armpit is ---------between the
breastbone and the shoulder
10. The knee is ---------to the thigh
11. The lungs are ---------to the rib cage
Examples:
 The navel is inferior to the breastbone
 The heart is posterior to the breastbone
 The arms are lateral to the chest
 The elbow is proximal to the wrist
 The skin is superficial to the skeleton
 The forehead is superior to the nose
 The breastbone is anterior to the spine
 The heart is medial to the arm
 The armpit is intermediate between the breastbone and
the shoulder
 The knee is distal to the thigh
 The lungs are deep to the rib cage
Body Planes and Sections
A plane is an
imaginary two- Planes Sections
dimensional
surface that
passes through A cut made
Sagittal
along a
the body. plane
plane

Frontal
plane

Transverse
plane
Planes
Sagittal
plane

Frontal
plane
Sagittal Plane
• is the plane that divides the body or an organ
Transverse vertically into right and left sides. If this vertical
plane plane runs directly down the middle of the body, it
is called the midsagittal or median plane.
• If it divides the body into unequal right and left
sides, it is called a parasagittal plane or less
commonly a longitudinal section.
Planes

 Sagittal Plane –
 divides body into
right and left parts.
 Midsagittal =median
plane –
 dividesbody into
two equal halves.
Planes
Sagittal
plane

Frontal
plane

Transverse Frontal Plane


plane • is the plane that divides the body or an
organ into an anterior (front) portion and a
posterior (rear) portion. The frontal plane is
often referred to as a coronal plane.
(“Corona” is Latin for “crown.”)
Planes

 Frontal = coronal
plane – divides body
into anterior and
posterior parts
Planes
Sagittal
plane

Frontal
plane

Transverse Transverse plane


plane • Is the plane that divides the body or organ
horizontally in to upper and lower portions.
Transverse planes produce images referred to as
cross sections.
Planes

 Transverse plane =
cross
Section= horizontal
section divides into
upper and lower
parts
Body Cavities
Dorsal Ventral
(posterior) (anterior) body
body Cavity Cavity

Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity

Vertebral or Abdominopelvic
spinal cavity cavity
Body Cavities
Dorsal Ventral
(posterior) (anterior) body
body Cavity Cavity

Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity

Vertebral or Abdominopelvic
spinal cavity cavity
Body Cavities
Dorsal Ventral
(posterior) (anterior) body
body Cavity Cavity

Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity

Vertebral or Abdominopelvic
spinal cavity cavity
Body Cavities
Dorsal Ventral
(posterior) (anterior) body
body Cavity Cavity

Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity

Vertebral or Abdominopelvic
spinal cavity cavity
Body Cavities
Dorsal Ventral
(posterior) (anterior) body
body Cavity Cavity

Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity

Vertebral or Abdominopelvic
spinal cavity cavity
Abdominopelvic Regions and
Quadrants
 Because the abdominopelvic cavity is
large and contains several organs, it
helps to divide it into smaller areas for
study.
 One division method, used primarily
by anatomists, uses two transverse and
two parasagittal planes. These planes,
divide the cavity into nine regions
Abdominopelvic
Regions

• The umbilical region is the centermost region deep


to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel).
Abdominopelvic
Regions

• The epigastric region is located superior to the


umbilical region (epi = upon, above; gastri = belly).
Abdominopelvic
Regions

• The hypogastric (pubic) region is located inferior to


the umbilical region (hypo = below).
Abdominopelvic
Regions

• The right and left iliac, or inguinal, regions (ing′gwĭ-


nal) are located lateral to the hypogastric region (iliac
= superior part of the hip bone).
Abdominopelvic
Regions

• The right and left lumbar regions lie lateral to the


umbilical region (lumbus = loin).
Abdominopelvic
Regions

• The right and left hypochondriac regions flank the


epigastric region laterally (chondro = cartilage).
• A simpler scheme to localize the
abdominopelvic cavity organs is to imagine
one transverse and one median sagittal plane
pass through the umbilicus at right angles.

• The resulting quadrants are named


according to their positions from the
subject’s point of view:
• right upper quadrant (RUQ),
• left upper quadrant (LUQ),
• right lower quadrant (RLQ), and
• left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Abdominopelvic Quadrants