Introduction to system

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What is a System? What are its characteristics? Types of Systems Types of Business Information Systems What is Systems Development Life Cycle Who is Systems Analyst?

‡ What is the job of a Systems Analyst?

What is a System?

Orderly grouping of independent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific goal.

System ‡ ‡ A system exists within an environment A boundary separates a system from its environment .

A system exhibits a number of characteristics ‡ Organisation ‡ Interaction ‡ Interdependence ‡ Integration ‡ Central Objective ‡ ‡ ‡ Input and Output Interfaces with the environment Constraints .

manageable subsystems ‡ Focus on one area at a time ‡ Concentrate on component pertinent to one group of users ‡ Build different components at independent times .Important System Concepts Decomposition The process of breaking down a system into smaller components which allows the systems analyst to: ‡ Break a system into small.

Important System Concepts ‡ Modularity ± ± Process of dividing a system into modules of a relatively uniform size Modules simplify system design ‡ Coupling ± Subsystems that are dependent upon each other are coupled ‡ Cohesion ± Extent to which a subsystem performs a single function Page 7 .

Systems Integration ± Allows hardware and software from different vendors to work together. ± Enables procedural language systems to work with visual programming systems ± Visual programming environment uses client/server model .

so that can respond to the changing needs of the user and the environment.Types of Systems Systems can be classified in different ways: ‡ Physical or Abstract ‡ Open or Closed ‡ Deterministic or Probabilistic ‡ Man-made information System Systems are required to be flexible. . dynamic and open.

.Information system Information System which is nothing but flow of data from one person to another in a system.

Components of an INFORMATION System .

Components of an Information System ‡ People Resources ± End Users ± IS Specialists ‡ Data Resources ± Data versus Information ‡ Hardware Resources ± Computer systems ± Peripherals ‡ Network Resources ± Communication media ± Network support ‡ Software Resources ± System software ± Application software .

Components of an Information System .

Information Products ‡ Focus is on the end-user. ‡ They are the result of IS activities« ± ± ± ± ± Input Processing Output Storage Control .

Major Roles of IS Support Competitive Advantage Support Business Decision Making Support of Business Processes and Operations .

The Present and the Future New technologies are being integrated into traditional systems: ‡ Ecommerce uses the Web to perform business activities. ‡ Wireless and handheld devices. including mobile commerce (mcommerce). . ‡ Open source software. ‡ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has the goal of integrating many different information systems within the corporation.


Trends in Information Systems .

Types of Information Systems .

Types of Information Systems ‡ Operations Support Systems ± Transaction processing systems ‡ Batch ± transaction data accumulate over time. ‡ Real-time ± data processed immediately after a transaction occurs. processed periodically. ± Process Control Systems ± monitor & control physical processes. ± Enterprise Collaboration Systems .

± Executive Information Systems ± critical information tailored to the information needs of executives. ± Decision Support Systems ± provide interactive ad hoc support.) ‡ Management Support Systems ± Management Information Systems ± pre-specified reports & displays to support decision-making.Types of Information Systems (cont. .

) ‡ Other Classifications ± Expert systems ± expert advice ± Knowledge management systems ± support the creation. organization. & dissemination of business knowledge ± Functional business systems ± support the basic business functions ± Strategic information systems ± strategic advantage .Types of Information Systems (cont.

Types of Information Systems and Systems Development less Strategic Planning DSS Management Control MIS more Operational Control more TPS Operations .

. Decision support systems (DSS).Categories of Information Systems Information systems fall into one of the following eight categories: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transaction processing systems (TPS). Expert systems (ES) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Management information systems (MIS). ‡ Executive support systems (EES). Group decision support systems (GDSS) and Computer-Supported Collaborative Work Systems. Knowledge work systems (KWS). Office automation systems (OAS).

including mobile commerce (mcommerce).The Present and the Future New technologies are being integrated into traditional systems: ‡ Ecommerce uses the Web to perform business activities. ‡ Open source software. ‡ Wireless and handheld devices. . ‡ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has the goal of integrating many different information systems within the corporation.


Types of Information Systems and Systems Development ‡ Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) ± Automate handling of data about business activities (transactions) ‡ Management Information Systems (MIS) ± Converts raw data from transaction processing system into meaningful form ‡ Decision Support Systems (DSS) ± Designed to help decision makers ± Provides interactive environment for decision making .

Types of Information Systems and Systems Development ‡ Expert Systems (ES) ± Replicates decision-making process ± Knowledge representation describes the way an expert would approach the problem .

common transactions that occur are: placing orders.Transaction Processing Systems(TPS) TPS assists in carrying out day to day activities in an organization. It helps in processing transactions occurring at the operational level on a daily basis. billing customer. In any organization big or small. depositing checks etc. .

Capturing and then storing data 2. Routine jobs like withdraw and deposition of money in a Bank are carried out by TPS . .TPS Transaction Processing Systems(TPS) help in following activities: 1. Provides data input to other CBIS These are routine activities for which systems (computer applications) are developed to carry out the procedures in a speedy and accurate manner. Retrieval of stored Information 4. Classifying. Eg. updating and maintaining data 3.

. Transactions are similar in nature 3. 4. Few exceptions to the normal procedures occur. Helps in handling volumes of data transactions 2. There is no decision making at this stage. Procedures for processing the transactions are well understood. 5.TPS Other characteristics of TPS : 1.

Management Information Systems (MIS) In Contrast to TPS which comprises of applications assisting in automation of routine jobs in an organization. MIS assists managers in decision Making. management planning and controlling. While decision making they utilize the data stored by TPS and other information. .

In a Banking scenario.Management Information Systems (MIS) MIS is used for making recurring and structured decision on a weekly. rate of consumer spending etc. . MIS may be helping the middle level management for making regular recurring decisions: 1. 2. MIS also involves generation of regular reports based on fixed parameters in an organization related to the data collected. Performance of branch of a bank based on the total deposits and withdrawals. demand for loan. monthly or quarterly basis. interest paid to customers etc. Making decisions regarding levels of interest to be charged for loans and also offered to depositors based on external information on economic trends. ratio of loans given to the cash reserves.

They also used for making unstructured or semi-structured decisions (which are decisions not based on clear procedures and the decisions can not be identified in advance). Eg: In a banking scenario. The DSS supports the manager judgment and not replaces it. . limit of withdrawals from ATM. location of ATM.Decision Support System (DSS) Systems used for making decisions which are non-recurring in nature. the decisions like no. charge to be imposed on services. of ATMs to be open by a bank. Input information needs to be defined to arrive at a meaningful decision though it is impossible to predesign formats of reports and its contents.


Top Five Reasons for Success User involvement Executive management support Clear statement of requirements Proper planning Top Five Reasons for Failure Lack of user input Incomplete requirements and specifications Changing requirements and specifications Lack of executive support Realistic expectations Technological incompetence .Managerial challenges of information technology ‡ Information systems can be mismanaged and misapplied so that they create both technological and business failure.

Developing IS Solutions to Business Challenges .

Data and Processes ‡ Three key components of an information system ² Data ² Data Flows ² Processing Logic .

Data and Processes ‡ Data ± ± ± ± ± Understanding the source and use of data is key to good system design Various techniques are used to describe data and the relationship amongst data Groups of data that move and flow through the system Include description of sources and destination for each data flow Describe steps that transform data and events that trigger the steps ‡ Data Flows ‡ Processing Logic Page 39 .

Who is Systems Analyst? A person who conducts a study. He plays a major role in seeing business benefit from computer technology. He identifies the problems and provides the solutions for the business problems. identifies activities and objectives and determines a procedure to achieve the objectives in an organisation at the time of systems development. . He helps in Designing and implementing systems to suit organizational needs are the functions of the systems analyst System analyst facilitates the development of Information system. Helps in achieving business goals. He coordinates the efforts of different of persons in an organization to achieve business goal.

.Who is Systems Analyst? System Analysts are called the planners He does the job of system analysis and systems design. The solutions provided by systems analyst could be any of the areas: processing. Systems Design: specification of technical computer based solution for the requirements identified during system analysis. System Analysis: study of business problem and then recommend improvements. Specify the business requirements. communication systems etc. flow and management of data.

resources. work on a team of analysts and developers. ‡ Knowledge of Business functions (knowledge of accounting and marketing principles. Managerial and Interpersonal . For in-house projects. Technical. ‡ Managerial Ability to manage projects.Attributes of an effective Systems Analyst ‡ Ability to communicate with people. company's product and services and management's policies) ‡ Knowledge of Data processing principles (understand the potential and limitations of computers) ‡ An analytical mind (analytical mind to select pertinent data and ignore the rest of the unnecessary data available) ‡ Ability to learn quickly how people do their jobs and develop ways for them to do it better. Effective written and oral communication skills. risk and change Skills required in a system analyst are: Analytical.

Systems Development Life Cycle .

‡ It is divided into seven phases.Systems Development Life Cycle ‡ The systems development life cycle is a systematic approach to solving business problems. ‡ Each phase has unique activities. .


Personnel involved for Preliminary survey are analyst or user management or Systems management. ‡ Identifying the following in the system: ± Problems. In this stage you identify. .Phase 1: Preliminary survey This phase is also called Recognition of need or Initial investigation. define and evaluate the problems in the system. ± Opportunities. ± Objectives. ‡ We prepare the statement of scope and objective after the Initial investigation of the system.

Phase 2: Feasibility Study The two stages involved as part of Feasibility study : 1. identification and description of the candidate system. Cost estimates. Recommendations and conclusions . Investigation and evaluation of the problem in the existing system and 2. The result of the feasibility study is the report with a formal document with details regarding: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Statement of the problem Summary of findings and recommendations: Evaluation of the existing system and procedures Analysis of the suggested alternate candidate systems.

± Complete the data dictionary. ± Prepare and present the system proposal. ± Recommend the optimal solution to management. . ± Make semi-structured decisions. ± Document procedural logic for data flow diagram processes.Phase 3: System Analysis ± Using information gathering tools the system analyst collects information ± Create data flow diagrams.

.Context-Level Data Flow Diagram (DFD) ‡ A context-level data flow diagram is an important tool for showing data used and information produced by a system. ‡ It provides an overview of the setting or environment the system exists within: which entities supply and receive data/information.

department.Context-Level DFD Symbols ‡ Entity. Customer . or system that supplies or receives information. group. a person. ‡ It is labeled with a noun.

representing the entire system. 0 Customer Sy . ‡ It is given the number 0.Context-Level DFD Symbols (Continued) ‡ Process.

‡ Data flow is labeled with a noun. Travel Request Passenger Reservation . represented by an arrow.Context-Level DFD Symbols (Continued) ‡ Data flow. ‡ It shows information that passes to or from the process.

Data Flow Example .

‡ Symbols are used to represent entities and relationships. .Entity-Relationship Diagrams (E-R Diagrams) ‡ Entity-relationship diagrams help the analyst understand the organizational system and the data stored by the organization.

± Associative entity. describing a person. place. or thing.Entities There are three types of entities: ± Fundamental entity. ± Attributive entity. . linking entities. to describe attributes and repeating groups.

‡ Design output. . Produce program specifications. ± ± ± ± Design system controls. Produce decision trees or tables. Design files and/or database.Phase 4: System Design (logical design) ‡ Designing the recommended system: ± Design the user interface. ‡ Design input.

± Walkthrough program design. and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions. procedure manuals. NassiSchneiderman charts. and pseudocode.Phase 5: Physical design ‡ Developing and documenting software: ± Design computer programs using structure charts. ± Write computer programs. ± Document software with help files. .

Convert files.Phase 6: Testing and implementation ‡ Testing of the system: ± Test and debug computer programs. Review and evaluate system. . ± Test the computer system. Train users. ‡ Implementation the system: ± ± ± ± ± ± Implementation Plan conversion. Install system. Purchase and install new equipment.

Implementing stage ‡ Evaluating ‡ Maintaining ‡ Enhancement of the system .Phase 7: Post.

System Maintenance ‡ System maintenance is: ± Removing undetected errors. . and ± Enhancing existing software.

Alternative methods of System Development ‡ Prototyping ‡ Rapid application development (RAD) ‡ Extreme Programming (XP) .

interactive process between users and analysts to create and refine portions of a new system.Approaches to System Development Prototyping ± Building a scaled-down working version of the system ± Advantages: ‡ Users are involved in design ‡ Captures requirements in concrete form Prototyping is a rapid. It can be used as part of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) for requirements determination or as an alternative to the SDLC. Rapid Application Development (RAD) Utilizes prototyping to delay producing system design until after user requirements are clear .

Managers and Analysts work together for several days ± System requirements are reviewed ± Structured meetings .Approaches to Development ‡ Joint Application Design (JAD) ± Users.

Prototyping ‡ Prototyping is an information-gathering technique. . ‡ Prototyping may be used as an alternative to the systems development life cycle. suggestions. innovations. and revision plans. ‡ Prototypes are useful in seeking user reactions.


First-of-a-series. Non operational scale model.Four Kinds of Prototypes The four conceptions of prototypes are : ± ± ± ± Patched-up prototype. . Prototype that contains only some of the essential system features.

‡ Users can interact with the system. . ‡ Storage and retrieval of data may be inefficient.Patched-up Prototype ‡ This is a working model with all the features but is inefficient. ‡ May contain only basic features.

except for certain features to be tested.Non-operational Scale Models ‡ A nonoperational scale mode is one that is not operational. .

‡ Useful when many installations of the same information system are planned. . ‡ Prototype is an operation model. and later implemented in other locations.First-of-a-Series Prototype ‡ Pilot system is created. tested and modified as necessary. ‡ An example is a system to be installed in one location.

Selected Features Prototype ‡ An operational model includes some. ‡ With the acceptance of these features. of the final system features. ‡ System is built in modules. but not all. ‡ These are part of the actual system. ‡ Some menu items are available. later essential features are added. .

Prototyping may be used as an alternative. ± User requirements change over time.Prototyping As an Alternative to the Systems Life Cycle Two main problems with the SDLC: ± Extended time required to go through the development life cycle. .

. Stress the user interface.Prototype Development Guidelines Guidelines for developing a prototype are: ± ± ± ± Work in manageable modules. Modify the prototype in successive iterations. Build the prototype rapidly.

Prototype Disadvantages
‡ Managing the prototyping process is difficult because of its rapid, iterative nature. ‡ Incomplete prototypes may be regarded as complete systems.

Prototype Advantages
‡ Potential for changing the system early in its development ‡ Opportunity to stop development on an unworkable system ‡ Possibility of developing a system that closely addresses users needs and expectations

Rapid Application Development
Rapid Application development (RAD) is an objectoriented approach to systems development.

Summary ‡ Information systems analysis and design ± Process of developing and maintaining an information system ‡ Modern approach to systems analysis ± Process-Oriented ± Data-Oriented .

Summary ‡ Role of Systems Analyst ‡ Four types of information systems ± ± ± ± Transaction Processing (TPS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support (DSS) Expert Systems (ES) .

Summary ‡ Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) ± ± ± ± Systems Planning and Selection Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Implementation ‡ Alternatives to Systems Development Life Cycle ± Prototyping ± Rapid Application Development (RAD) ± Joint Application Design (JAD) .