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Dynamic Behavior and Stability of
Closed-Loop Control Systems

In this chapter we consider the dynamic behavior of
processes that are operated using feedback control.

This combination of the process, the feedback controller,
and the instrumentation is referred to as a feedback control
loop or a closed-loop system.
Block Diagram Representation
To illustrate the development of a block diagram, we return to a
previous example, the stirred-tank blending process considered in
earlier chapters.
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Figure 11.1 Composition control system for a stirred-tank
blending process.
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Next, we develop a transfer function for each of the five elements
in the feedback control loop. For the sake of simplicity, flow rate
w
1
is assumed to be constant, and the system is initially operating
Process
In section 4.3 the approximate dynamic model of a stirred-tank
blending system was developed:
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
(11-1)
τ 1 τ 1
K K
X s X s W s
s s
| ` | `
′ ′ ′
· +

+ +
. , . ,
where
1
1 2
ρ 1
, , and (11-2)
w V x
K K
w w w
τ

· · ·
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Figure 11.2 Block diagram of the process.
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Composition Sensor-Transmitter (Analyzer)
We assume that the dynamic behavior of the composition sensor-
transmitter can be approximated by a first-order transfer function:
( )
( )
(11-3)
τ 1
m
m
m
X s
K
X s s

·

+
Controller
Suppose that an electronic proportional plus integral controller is
used. From Chapter 8, the controller transfer function is
( )
( )
1
1 (11-4)
τ
c
I
P s
K
E s s

| `
· +

. ,
where and E(s) are the Laplace transforms of the controller
output and the error signal e(t). Note that and e are
electrical signals that have units of mA, while K
c
is dimensionless.
The error signal is expressed as
( )
P s

( )
p t

p

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( ) ( ) ( )
(11-5)
sp m
e t x t x t
′ ′
· − %
or after taking Laplace transforms,
( ) ( ) ( )
(11-6)
sp m
E s X s X s
′ ′
· −
%
The symbol denotes the internal set-point composition
expressed as an equivalent electrical current signal. This signal
is used internally by the controller. is related to the actual
composition set point by the composition sensor-
transmitter gain K
m
:
( )
sp
x t
′ %
( )
sp
x t
′ %
( )
sp
x t

( ) ( )
(11-7)
sp m sp
x t K x t
′ ′
· %
Thus
( )
( )
(11-8)
sp
m
sp
X s
K
X s

·

%
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Figure 11.3 Block diagram for the composition sensor-
transmitter (analyzer).
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Current-to-Pressure (I/P) Transducer
Because transducers are usually designed to have linear
characteristics and negligible (fast) dynamics, we assume that the
transducer transfer function merely consists of a steady-state gain
K
IP
:
( )
( )
(11-9)
t
IP
P s
K
P s

·

Control Valve
As discussed in Section 9.2, control valves are usually designed
so that the flow rate through the valve is a nearly linear function
of the signal to the valve actuator. Therefore, a first-order transfer
function usually provides an adequate model for operation of an
installed valve in the vicinity of a nominal steady state. Thus, we
assume that the control valve can be modeled as
( )
( )
2
(11-10)
τ 1
v
t v
W s
K
P s s

·

+
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Figure 11.5 Block diagram for the I/P transducer.
Figure 11.6 Block diagram for the control valve.
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Figure 11.7 Block diagram for the entire blending process
composition control system.
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Closed-Loop Transfer Functions
The block diagrams considered so far have been specifically
developed for the stirred-tank blending system. The more general
block diagram in Fig. 11.8 contains the standard notation:
Y = controlled variable
U = manipulated variable
D =disturbance variable (also referred to as load
variable)
P =controller output
E = error signal
Y
m
=measured value of Y
Y
sp
=set point
internal set point (used by the controller)
sp
Y ·
%
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Figure 11.8 Standard block diagram of a feedback
control system.
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Y
u
= change in Y due to U
Y
d
= change in Y due to D
G
c
=controller transfer function
G
v
=transfer function for final control element
(including K
IP
, if required)
G
p
= process transfer function
G
d
=disturbance transfer function
G
m
=transfer function for measuring element and
transmitter
K
m
m
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Block Diagram Reduction
In deriving closed-loop transfer functions, it is often convenient to
combine several blocks into a single block. For example, consider
the three blocks in series in Fig. 11.10. The block diagram
indicates the following relations:
1 1
2 2 1
3 3 2
(11-11)
X GU
X G X
X G X
·
·
·
By successive substitution,
3 3 2 1
(11-12) X G G GU ·
or
3
(11-13) X GU ·
where
3 2 1
. G G G G @
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Figure 11.10 Three blocks in series.
Figure 11.11 Equivalent block diagram.
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Set-Point Changes
Next we derive the closed-loop transfer function for set-point
changes. The closed-loop system behavior for set-point changes is
also referred to as the servomechanism (servo) problem in the
control literature.
(11-14)
0 (because 0) (11-15)
(11-16)
d u
d d
u p
Y Y Y
Y G D D
Y G U
· +
· · ·
·
Combining gives
(11-17)
p
Y G U ·
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Figure 11.8 also indicates the following input/output relations for
the individual blocks:
(11-18)
(11-19)
(11-20)
(11-21)
(11-22)
v
c
sp m
sp m sp
m m
U G P
P G E
E Y Y
Y K Y
Y G Y
·
·
· −
·
·
%
%
Combining the above equations gives
( )
( )
(11-23)
(11-24)
(11-25)
p v p v c
p v c sp m
p v c m sp m
Y G G P G G G E
G G G Y Y
G G G K Y G Y
· ·
· −
· −
%
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Rearranging gives the desired closed-loop transfer function,
(11-26)
1
m c v p
sp c v p m
K G G G
Y
Y G G G G
·
+
Disturbance Changes
Now consider the case of disturbance changes, which is also
referred to as the regulator problem since the process is to be
regulated at a constant set point. From Fig. 11.8,
(11-27)
d u d p
Y Y Y G D G U · + · +
Substituting (11-18) through (11-22) gives
( )
(11-28)
d p d p v c m sp m
Y G D G U G D G G G K Y G Y · + · + −
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Because Y
sp
= 0 we can arrange (11-28) to give the closed-loop
transfer function for disturbance changes:
A comparison of Eqs. 11-26 and 11-29 indicates that both
closed-loop transfer functions have the same denominator,
1 + G
c
G
v
G
p
G
m
. The denominator is often written as 1 + G
OL

where G
OL
is the open-loop transfer function,
At different points in the above derivations, we assumed that
D = 0 or Y
sp
= 0, that is, that one of the two inputs was constant.
But suppose that D ≠ 0 and Y
sp
≠ 0, as would be the case if a
disturbance occurs during a set-point change. To analyze this
situation, we rearrange Eq. 11-28 and substitute the definition of
G
OL
to obtain
(11-29)
1
d
c v p m
G Y
D G G G G
·
+
.
OL c v p m
G G G G G @
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(11-30)
1 1
m c v p
d
sp
OL OL
K G G G
G
Y D Y
G G
· +
+ +
Thus, the response to simultaneous disturbance variable and set-
point changes is merely the sum of the individual responses, as
can be seen by comparing Eqs. 11-26, 11-29, and 11-30.
This result is a consequence of the Superposition Principle for
linear systems.
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where:
Zis the output variable or any internal variable within the
control loop
Z
i
is an input variable (e.g., Y
sp
or D)
= product of the transfer functions in the forward path from
Z
i
to Z
= product of every transfer function in the feedback loop
f
Π
e
Π
General Expression for Feedback Control Systems
Closed-loop transfer functions for more complicated block
diagrams can be written in the general form:
(11-31)
1
f
i e
Z
Z
Π
·
+ Π
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Figure 11.12 Complex control system.
Example 11.1
Find the closed-loop transfer function Y/Y
sp
for the complex
control system in Figure 11.12. Notice that this block diagram has
two feedback loops and two disturbance variables. This
configuration arises when the cascade control scheme of Chapter
16 is employed.
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Figure 11.13 Block diagram for reduced system.
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Figure 11.14 Final block diagrams for Example 11.1.
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Closed-Loop Responses of Simple
Control Systems
In this section we consider the dynamic behavior of several
elementary control problems for disturbance variable and set-
point changes.
Solution
Using the general rule in (11-31), we first reduce the inner loop to
a single block as shown in Fig. 11.13. To solve the servo problem,
set D
1
= D
2
= 0. Because Fig. 11.13 contains a single feedback
loop, use (11-31) to obtain Fig. 11.14a. The final block diagram is
shown in Fig. 11.14b with Y/Y
sp
= K
m1
G
5
. Substitution for G
4
and
G
5
gives the desired closed-loop transfer function:
1 1 2 1 2 3
2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1
1
m c c
sp c m c m c
K G G G G G Y
Y G G G G G G G G G
·
+ +
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Consider the liquid-level control system shown in Fig. 11.15. The
liquid level is measured and the level transmitter (LT) output is
sent to a feedback controller (LC) that controls liquid level by
2
. A second inlet flow rate q
1
is
the disturbance variable. Assume:
1. The liquid density ρ and the cross-sectional area of the tank A
are constant.
2. The flow-head relation is linear, q
3
= h/R.
3. The level transmitter, I/P transducer, and control valve have
negligible dynamics.
4. An electronic controller with input and output in % is used (full
scale = 100%).
The transient responses can be determined in a straightforward
manner if the closed-loop transfer functions are available.
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Figure 11.15 Liquid-level control system.
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Derivation of the process and disturbance transfer functions
directly follows Example 4.4. Consider the unsteady-state mass
balance for the tank contents:
1 2 3
ρ ρ ρ ρ (11-32)
dh
A q q q
dt
· + −
3
= h/R, and introducing
deviation variables gives
1 2
(11-33)
dh h
A q q
dt R
′ ′
′ ′
· + −
Thus, we obtain the transfer functions
( )
( )
( )
2
(11-34)
τ 1
p
p
K
H s
G s
Q s s

· ·

+
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where K
p
= R and = RA. Note that G
p
(s) and G
d
(s) are identical
because q
1
and q
2
are both inlet flow rates and thus have the same
effect on h.
( )
( )
( )
1
(11-35)
τ 1
p
d
K
H s
G s
Q s s

· ·

+
τ
Proportional Control and Set-Point Changes
If a proportional controller is used, then G
c
(s) = K
c
. From Fig.
11.6 and the material in the previous section, it follows that the
closed-loop transfer function for set-point changes is given by
( )
( )
( )
( )
/τ 1
(11-36)
1 /τ 1
c v p m
sp c v p m
K K K K s
H s
H s K K K K s
+ ′
·

+ +
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Figure 11.16 Block diagram for level control system.
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This relation can be rearranged in the standard form for a first-
order transfer function,
( )
( )
1
1
(11-37)
τ 1
sp
H s
K
H s s

·

+
where:
1
(11-38)
1
OL
OL
K
K
K
·
+
1
τ
τ (11-39)
1
OL
K
·
+
and the open-loop gain K
OL
is given by
(11-40) ·
OL c v p m
K K K K K
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From Eq. 11-37 it follows that the closed-loop response to a unit
step change of magnitude M in set point is given by
( )
( )
1

1
1 (11-41)
t
h t K M e

· −
This response is shown in Fig. 11.17. Note that a steady-state
error or offset exists because the new steady-state value is K
1
M
rather than the desired value of M. The offset is defined as
( ) ( )
offset (11-42)
sp
h h
′ ′
∞ − ∞ @
For a step change of magnitude M in set point, .
From (11-41), it is clear that . Substituting these
values and (11-38) into (11-42) gives
1
offset (11-43)
1
OL
M
M K M
K
· − ·
+
( )
sp
h M

∞ ·
( )
1
h K M

∞ ·
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Figure 11.17 Step response for proportional control (set-
point change).
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Proportional Control and Disturbance Changes
From Fig. 11.16 and Eq. 11-29 the closed-loop transfer function
for disturbance changes with proportional control is
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
/τ 1
(11-53)
1 /τ 1
p
OL
K s
H s
Q s K s
+ ′
·

+ +
Rearranging gives
( )
( )
2
1 1
(11-54)
τ 1
H s
K
Q s s

·

+
where is defined in (11-39) and K
2
is given by
1
τ
2
(11-55)
1
p
OL
K
K
K
·
+
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A comparison of (11-54) and (11-37) indicates that both closed-
loop transfer functions are first-order and have the same time
constant.
• However, the steady-state gains, K
1
and K
2
, are different.

From Eq. 11-54 it follows that the closed-loop response to a
step change in disturbance of magnitude M is given by
( )
( )
1

2
1 (11-56)
t
h t K M e

· −
The offset can be determined from Eq. 11-56. Now
since we are considering disturbance changes and
for a step change of magnitude M.
Thus,
( )
0
sp
h

∞ ·
( )
2
h K M

∞ ·
( )
2
offset 0 (11-57)
1
p
OL
K M
h K M
K

· − ∞ · − · −
+
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Figure 11.18 Set-point responses for Example 11.2.
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Figure 11.19 Load responses for Example 11.3.
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PI Control and Disturbance Changes
For PI control, . The closed-loop transfer
function for disturbance changes can then be derived from Fig.
11.16:
( ) ( )
1 1/τ
c c I
G s K s · +
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
/τ 1
(11-58)
1 1 1/τ / τ 1
p
OL I
K s
H s
Q s K s s
+ ′
·

+ + +
Clearing terms in the denominator gives
( )
( ) ( )
τ
1
(11-59)
τ τ 1 τ
I
p s
I OL I
K
H s
Q s s s K s

·

+ +
Further rearrangement allows the denominator to be placed in the
standard form for a second-order transfer function:
( )
( )
3
2 2
1
3 3 3
(11-60)
τ 2ζ τ 1
H s
K s
Q s
s s

·

+ +
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where
3
3
3
τ / (11-61)
1 τ 1
ζ (11-62)

τ ττ / (11-63)
I c v m
OL I
OL
I OL
K K K K
K
K
K
·
| `
+
·

. ,
·
For a unit step change in disturbance, , and (11-59)
becomes
( )
1
1/ Q s s

·
( )
3
2 2
3 3 3
(11-64)
τ 2ζ τ 1
K
H s
s s

·
+ +
For , the response is a damped oscillation that can be
described by
3
0ζ 1 < <
( )
3 3
ζ / τ 2
3
3 3
2
3 3
sin 1ζ / τ (11-65)
τ 1 ζ
t
K
h t e t

]

· −
]
]

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PI Control of an Integrating Process
Consider the liquid-level control system shown in Fig. 11.22. This
system differs from the previous example in two ways:
1. the exit line contains a pump and
2. the manipulated variable is the exit flow rate rather than an
inlet flow rate.
In Section 5.3 we saw that a tank with a pump in the exit stream
can act as an integrator with respect to flow rate changes because
( )
( )
( )
3
1
(11-66)
p
H s
G s
Q s As

· · −

( )
( )
( )
1
1
(11-67)
d
H s
G s
Q s As

· ·

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Figure 11.22 Liquid-level control system with pump in exit line.
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If the level transmitter and control valve in Eq. 11.22 have
negligible dynamics, the G
m
(s) = K
m
and G
v
(s) = K
v
. For PI
control, . Substituting these expressions
into the closed-loop transfer function for disturbance changes
( )
( )
1
(11-68)
1
d
c v p m
H s
G
Q s G G G G

·

+
( ) ( )
1 1/τ
c c I
G s K s · +
and rearranging gives
( )
( )
4
2 2
1
4 4 4
(11-69)
τ 2ζ τ 1
H s
K s
Q s
s s

·

+ +
where
4
4
4
τ / (11-70)
τ τ / (11-71)
ζ 0.5 τ (11-72)
c v m
I OL
OL I
K K K K
K
K
· −
·
·
And K
OL
= K
c
K
v
K
p
K
m
with K
p
= - 1/A.
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Stability of Closed-Loop Control Systems
Example 11.4
Consider the feedback control system shown in Fig. 11.8 with
the following transfer functions:
1
(11-73)
2 1
c c v
G K G
s
· ·
+
1 1
(11-74)
5 1 1
p d m
G G G
s s
· · ·
+ +
Show that the closed-loop system produces unstable responses if
controller gain K
c
is too large.
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Figure 11.23. Effect of controller gains on closed-loop
response to a unit step change in set point (example 11.1).
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Stability

Most industrial processes are stable without feedback control.
Thus, they are said to be open-loop stable or self-regulating.

state after a transient disturbance (one that is not sustained)
occurs.

By contrast there are a few processes, such as exothermic
chemical reactors, that can be open-loop unstable.
Definition of Stability. An unconstrained linear system is
said to be stable if the output response is bounded for all
bounded inputs. Otherwise it is said to be unstable.
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Characteristic Equation
As a starting point for the stability analysis, consider the block
diagram in Fig. 11.8. Using block diagram algebra that was
developed earlier in this chapter, we obtain
(11-80)
1 1
m c v p
d
sp
OL OL
K G G G
G
Y Y D
G G
· +
+ +
where G
OL
is the open-loop transfer function,
G
OL
= G
c
G
v
G
p
G
m
. For the moment consider set-point changes
only, in which case Eq. 11-80 reduces to the closed-loop
transfer function,
(11-81)
1
m c v p
sp OL
K G G G
Y
Y G
·
+
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Comparing Eqs. 11-81 and 11-82 indicates that the poles are also
the roots of the following equation, which is referred to as the
characteristic equation of the closed-loop system:
1 0 (11-83)
OL
G + ·
General Stability Criterion. The feedback control system in Fig.
11.8 is stable if and only if all roots of the characteristic
equation are negative or have negative real parts. Otherwise,
the system is unstable.
Example 11.8
Consider a process, G
p
= 0.2/-s + 1), and thus is open-loop
unstable. If G
v
= G
m
= 1, determine whether a proportional
controller can stabilize the closed-loop system.
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Figure 11.25
Stability regions
in the complex
plane for roots
of the charact-
eristic equation.
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Figure 11.26
Contributions of
characteristic
equation roots to
closed-loop
response.
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1
1
The characteristic equation for this system is
0.2 1 0 (11-92)
c
s K + − ·
Which has the single root, s = -1 + 0.2K
c
. Thus, the stability
requirement is that K
c
< 5. This example illustrates the important
fact that feedback control can be used to stabilize a process that
is not stable without control.
Routh Stability Criterion
The Routh stability criterion is based on a characteristic equation
that has the form
1
1 1 0
0 (11-93)
n n
n n
a s a s a s a

+ + + + · K
Solution
51
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Routh array:
Row
1 a
n
a
n-2
a
n-4
2 a
n-1
a
n-3
a
n-5
3 b
1
b
2
b
3
4 c
1
c
2
n + 1 z
1
M
M
L
L
L
L
1 2 3
1
1
1 4 5
2
1
(11-94)
(11-95)
n n n n
n
n n n n
n
a a a a
b
a
a a a a
b
a
− − −

− − −

·

·
M
where:
52
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
1 3 1 2
1
1
1 5 1 3
2
1
(11-96)
(11-97)
n n
n n
b a a b
c
b
b a a b
c
b
− −
− −

·

·
M
Routh Stability Criterion:
A necessary and sufficient condition for all roots of the
characteristic equation in Eq. 11-93 to have negative real parts
is that all of the elements in the left column of the Routh array
are positive.
and:
53
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Example 11.9
Determine the stability of a system that has the characteristic
equation
4 3 2
5 3 1 0 (11-98) s s s + + + ·
Solution
Because the s term is missing, its coefficient is zero. Thus,
the system is unstable. Recall that a necessary condition for
stability is that all of the coefficients in the characteristic
equation must be positive.
54
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Example 11.10
Find the values of controller gain K
c
that make the feedback
control system of Eq. 11.4 stable.
Solution
From Eq. 11-76, the characteristic equation is
3 2
10 17 8 1 0 (11-99)
c
s s s K + + + + ·
All coefficients are positive provided that 1 + K
c
> 0 or K
c
< -1.
The Routh array is
10 8
17 1 + K
c
b
1
b
2
c
1
55
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
To have a stable system, each element in the left column of the
Routh array must be positive. Element b
1
will be positive if
K
c
< 7.41/0.588 = 12.6. Similarly, c
1
will be positive if K
c
> -1.
Thus, we conclude that the system will be stable if
1 12.6 (11-100)
c
K − < <
Direct Substitution Method

The imaginary axis divides the complex plane into stable and
unstable regions for the roots of characteristic equation, as
indicated in Fig. 11.26.

On the imaginary axis, the real part of s is zero, and thus we
can write s=jω . Substituting s=jω into the characteristic
equation allows us to find a stability limit such as the maximum
value of K
c
.
• As the gain K
c
is increased, the roots of the characteristic
equation cross the imaginary axis when K
c
= K
cm
.
56
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Example 11.12
Use the direct substitution method to determine K
cm
for the system
with the characteristic equation given by Eq. 11-99.
Solution
Substitute and K
c
= K
cm
into Eq. 11-99: ω s j ·
3 2
10ω 17ω 8 ω 1 0
cm
j j K − − + + + ·
or (11-105)
( ) ( )
2 3
1 17ω 8ω 10ω 0
cm
K j + − + − ·
57
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Equation 11-105 is satisfied if both the real and imaginary parts
are identically zero:
2
1 17ω 0 (11-106a)
cm
K + − ·
( )
3 2
8ω 10ω ω 8 10ω 0 (11-106b) − · − ·
Therefore,
2
ω 0.8 ω 0.894 (11-107) · ⇒ · t
and from (11-106a),
12.6
cm
K ·
58
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Root Locus Diagrams
Example 11.13
Consider a feedback control system that has the open-loop
transfer function,
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
4
(11-108)
1 2 3
c
OL
K
G s
s s s
·
+ + +
Plot the root locus diagram for 0 20.
c
K ≤ ≤
Solution
The characteristic equation is 1 + G
OL
= 0 or
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4 0 (11-109)
c
s s s K + + + + ·
59
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1

The root locus diagram in Fig. 11.27 shows how the three roots
of this characteristic equation vary with K
c
.
• When K
c
= 0, the roots are merely the poles of the open-loop
transfer function, -1, -2, and -3.
60
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Figure 11.27 Root locus diagram for third-order system. X
denotes an open-loop pole. Dots denote locations of the closed-
loop poles for different values of K
c
. Arrows indicate change of
pole locations as K
c
increases.
61
C
h
a
p
t
e
r

1
1
Figure 11.29. Flowchart
for performing a stability
analysis.

Chapter 11
Figure 11.1 Composition control system for a stirred-tank blending process.
2

Next, we develop a transfer function for each of the five elements in the feedback control loop. For the sake of simplicity, flow rate w1 is assumed to be constant, and the system is initially operating at the nominal steady rate.

Chapter 11

Process
In section 4.3 the approximate dynamic model of a stirred-tank blending system was developed: K K ′ ( s ) =  1  X1 ( s ) +  2 W2 ( s ) ′ X     ′  τs + 1   τs + 1  where Vρ τ= , w w1 K1 = , and w 1− x K2 = w (11-2) (11-1)

3

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 4 .2 Block diagram of the process.

The error signal is expressed as 5 . Note that p′ and e are electrical signals that have units of mA. the controller transfer function is P′ ( s )  1  = K c 1 +  E ( s) τI s   (11-4) where P′ ( s ) and E(s) are the Laplace transforms of the controller output p′ ( t ) and the error signal e(t).Composition Sensor-Transmitter (Analyzer) We assume that the dynamic behavior of the composition sensortransmitter can be approximated by a first-order transfer function: ′ X m ( s) Km = (11-3) X ′ ( s ) τm s + 1 Chapter 11 Controller Suppose that an electronic proportional plus integral controller is used. while Kc is dimensionless. From Chapter 8.

This signal ′ % is used internally by the controller.′ ′ % e ( t ) = xsp ( t ) − xm ( t ) or after taking Laplace transforms. xsp ( t ) is related to the actual ′ composition set point xsp ( t ) by the composition sensortransmitter gain Km: ′ ′ % xsp ( t ) = K m xsp ( t ) Thus % ′ X sp ( s ) ′ X sp ( s ) (11-7) = Km (11-8) 6 . % ′ ′ E ( s ) = X sp ( s ) − X m ( s ) (11-5) (11-6) Chapter 11 ′ The symbol xsp ( t ) denotes the internal set-point composition % expressed as an equivalent electrical current signal.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 7 .3 Block diagram for the composition sensortransmitter (analyzer).

we assume that the transducer transfer function merely consists of a steady-state gain KIP : Pt′( s ) = K IP (11-9) P′ ( s ) Chapter 11 Control Valve As discussed in Section 9. we assume that the control valve can be modeled as ′ W2 ( s ) Kv = Pt′( s ) τ v s + 1 (11-10) 8 .2. a first-order transfer function usually provides an adequate model for operation of an installed valve in the vicinity of a nominal steady state. Therefore.Current-to-Pressure (I/P) Transducer Because transducers are usually designed to have linear characteristics and negligible (fast) dynamics. control valves are usually designed so that the flow rate through the valve is a nearly linear function of the signal to the valve actuator. Thus.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. Figure 11.5 Block diagram for the I/P transducer. 9 .6 Block diagram for the control valve.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 10 .7 Block diagram for the entire blending process composition control system.

8 contains the standard notation: Chapter 11 Y = controlled variable U = manipulated variable D =disturbance variable (also referred to as load variable) P =controller output E = error signal Ym =measured value of Y Ysp =set point % Ysp = internal set point (used by the controller) 11 . 11.Closed-Loop Transfer Functions The block diagrams considered so far have been specifically developed for the stirred-tank blending system. The more general block diagram in Fig.

8 Standard block diagram of a feedback control system. 12 .Chapter 11 Figure 11.

if required) Gp = process transfer function Gd =disturbance transfer function Gm =transfer function for measuring element and transmitter Km =steady-state gain for Gm 13 .Yu = change in Y due to U Yd = change in Y due to D Gc =controller transfer function Chapter 11 Gv =transfer function for final control element (including KIP .

it is often convenient to combine several blocks into a single block. X 3 = G3G2G1U or X 3 = GU (11-12) (11-13) (11-11) G where G @ 3G2G1.Block Diagram Reduction In deriving closed-loop transfer functions. For example. 11.10. consider the three blocks in series in Fig. 14 . The block diagram indicates the following relations: Chapter 11 X1 = G1U X 2 = G2 X1 X 3 = G3 X 2 By successive substitution.

Chapter 11 Figure 11.11 Equivalent block diagram. 15 . Figure 11.10 Three blocks in series.

The closed-loop system behavior for set-point changes is also referred to as the servomechanism (servo) problem in the control literature. Chapter 11 Y = Yd + Yu Yd = Gd D = 0 (because D = 0) Yu = G pU Combining gives Y = G pU (11-14) (11-15) (11-16) (11-17) 16 .Set-Point Changes Next we derive the closed-loop transfer function for set-point changes.

Figure 11.8 also indicates the following input/output relations for the individual blocks: U = Gv P P = Gc E % E = Y −Y sp m (11-18) (11-19) (11-20) (11-21) (11-22) Chapter 11 % Ysp = K mYsp Ym = GmY Combining the above equations gives Y = G p Gv P = G p GvGc E % = G p Gv Gc Ysp − Ym (11-23) (11-24) (11-25) 17 ( ) = G p Gv Gc ( K mYsp − GmY ) .

11.8. From Fig. Y = Yd + Yu = Gd D + G pU Substituting (11-18) through (11-22) gives Y = Gd D + G pU = Gd D + G p GvGc K mYsp − GmY (11-27) ( ) (11-28) 18 . which is also referred to as the regulator problem since the process is to be regulated at a constant set point. K mGcGvG p Y = Ysp 1 + Gc Gv G p Gm (11-26) Chapter 11 Disturbance Changes Now consider the case of disturbance changes.Rearranging gives the desired closed-loop transfer function.

But suppose that D ≠ 0 and Ysp ≠ 0.Because Ysp = 0 we can arrange (11-28) to give the closed-loop transfer function for disturbance changes: Gd Y = D 1 + Gc Gv G p Gm (11-29) Chapter 11 A comparison of Eqs. as would be the case if a disturbance occurs during a set-point change. At different points in the above derivations. that one of the two inputs was constant. To analyze this situation. 1 + GcGvGpGm. GOL @ c Gv G p Gm . we rearrange Eq. The denominator is often written as 1 + GOL G where GOL is the open-loop transfer function. we assumed that D = 0 or Ysp = 0. 11-28 and substitute the definition of GOL to obtain 19 . 11-26 and 11-29 indicates that both closed-loop transfer functions have the same denominator. that is.

K mGcGvG p Gd Y= D+ Ysp 1 + GOL 1 + GOL (11-30) Chapter 11 Thus. 11-29. 20 . as can be seen by comparing Eqs. 11-26. the response to simultaneous disturbance variable and setpoint changes is merely the sum of the individual responses. and 11-30. This result is a consequence of the Superposition Principle for linear systems.

.General Expression for Feedback Control Systems Closed-loop transfer functions for more complicated block diagrams can be written in the general form: Chapter 11 Πf Z = Zi 1 + Π e (11-31) where: Zis the output variable or any internal variable within the control loop Ziis an input variable (e. Ysp or D) Π f = product of the transfer functions in the forward path from Zi to Z Π e = product of every transfer function in the feedback loop 21 .g.

Notice that this block diagram has two feedback loops and two disturbance variables. This configuration arises when the cascade control scheme of Chapter 16 is employed.12 Complex control system. 22 .1 Find the closed-loop transfer function Y/Ysp for the complex control system in Figure 11.12.Example 11. Chapter 11 Figure 11.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 23 .13 Block diagram for reduced system.

24 .1.14 Final block diagrams for Example 11.Chapter 11 Figure 11.

use (11-31) to obtain Fig. we first reduce the inner loop to a single block as shown in Fig. 25 . 11. Because Fig. 11. set D1 = D2 = 0.13. To solve the servo problem.14a. 11.Solution Using the general rule in (11-31). The final block diagram is shown in Fig.14b with Y/Ysp = Km1G5.13 contains a single feedback loop. Substitution for G4 and G5 gives the desired closed-loop transfer function: K m1Gc1Gc 2G1G2G3 Y = Ysp 1 + Gc 2G1Gm 2 + Gc1G2G3Gm1Gc 2G1 Chapter 11 Closed-Loop Responses of Simple Control Systems In this section we consider the dynamic behavior of several elementary control problems for disturbance variable and setpoint changes. 11.

15. An electronic controller with input and output in % is used (full scale = 100%). and control valve have negligible dynamics. A second inlet flow rate q1 is the disturbance variable. I/P transducer. Assume: 1.The transient responses can be determined in a straightforward manner if the closed-loop transfer functions are available. 3. 2. The liquid level is measured and the level transmitter (LT) output is sent to a feedback controller (LC) that controls liquid level by adjusting volumetric flow rate q2. The liquid density ρ and the cross-sectional area of the tank A are constant. The level transmitter. 26 Chapter 11 . Consider the liquid-level control system shown in Fig. 4. The flow-head relation is linear. q3 = h/R. 11.

15 Liquid-level control system. 27 .Chapter 11 Figure 11.

Derivation of the process and disturbance transfer functions directly follows Example 4. q3 = h/R. we obtain the transfer functions Kp H ′( s) = Gp ( s) = ′ Q2 ( s ) τs + 1 (11-34) (11-33) 28 . and introducing deviation variables gives dh′ h′ ′ ′ A = q1 + q2 − dt R Thus. Consider the unsteady-state mass balance for the tank contents: dh ρA = ρq1 + ρq2 − ρq3 dt (11-32) Chapter 11 Substituting the flow-head relation.4.

Note that Gp(s) and Gd(s) are identical because q1 and q2 are both inlet flow rates and thus have the same effect on h.Kp H ′( s ) = Gd ( s ) = ′ Q1 ( s ) τs + 1 (11-35) Chapter 11 where Kp = R and τ = RA. From Fig. 11. then Gc(s) = Kc. Proportional Control and Set-Point Changes If a proportional controller is used. it follows that the closed-loop transfer function for set-point changes is given by K c K v K p K m /τ s + ) ( 1 H ′( s) = ′ H sp ( s ) 1 + K c K v K p K m /τ s + ( 1 ) (11-36) 29 .6 and the material in the previous section.

30 .16 Block diagram for level control system.Chapter 11 Figure 11.

H ′( s) K1 = ′ H sp ( s ) τ1s + 1 (11-37) Chapter 11 where: KOL K1 = 1 + KOL τ τ1 = 1 + KOL and the open-loop gain KOL is given by KOL = K c K v K p K m (11-40) (11-38) (11-39) 31 .This relation can be rearranged in the standard form for a firstorder transfer function.

hsp ( ∞ ) = M . 11. The offset is defined as offset @ sp ( ∞ ) − h′ ( ∞ ) h′ (11-42) ′ For a step change of magnitude M in set point. it is clear that h′ ( ∞ ) = K1M .17. 11-37 it follows that the closed-loop response to a unit step change of magnitude M in set point is given by h′ ( t ) = K1M 1 − e−t /τ 1 ( ) (11-41) Chapter 11 This response is shown in Fig. Note that a steady-state error or offset exists because the new steady-state value is K1M rather than the desired value of M. From (11-41). Substituting these values and (11-38) into (11-42) gives M offset = M − K1M = 1 + KOL (11-43) 32 .From Eq.

17 Step response for proportional control (setpoint change). 33 .Chapter 11 Figure 11.

Proportional Control and Disturbance Changes From Fig. 11. 11-29 the closed-loop transfer function for disturbance changes with proportional control is Chapter 11 K p /τ s + ) ( 1 H ′( s ) = ′ Q1 ( s ) 1 + KOL /τ s + ( 1 Rearranging gives H ′( s ) K2 = ′ Q1 ( s ) τ1s + 1 ) (11-53) (11-54) where τ1 is defined in (11-39) and K2 is given by K2 = Kp 1 + KOL (11-55) 34 .16 and Eq.

offset = 0 − h′ ( ∞ ) = − K 2 M = − K pM 1 + KOL (11-57) 35 . are different. K1 and K2. Chapter 11 • From Eq. 11-54 it follows that the closed-loop response to a step change in disturbance of magnitude M is given by h′ ( t ) = K 2 M 1 − e −t /τ 1 ( ) (11-56) ′ The offset can be determined from Eq. Now hsp ( ∞ ) = 0 since we are considering disturbance changes and h′ ( ∞ ) = K 2 M for a step change of magnitude M.• A comparison of (11-54) and (11-37) indicates that both closedloop transfer functions are first-order and have the same time constant. 11-56. Thus. • However. the steady-state gains.

18 Set-point responses for Example 11. 36 .Chapter 11 Figure 11.2.

3.Chapter 11 Figure 11. 37 .19 Load responses for Example 11.

16: K p /τ s + ) ( 1 H ′( s ) = (11-58) ′ Q1 ( s ) 1 + KOL ( 1 + 1/τ I s ) / ( τ s +1 ) Clearing terms in the denominator gives K pτ I s H ′( s ) = ′ Q1 ( s ) τ I s ( τs + 1) + KOL τ I s (11-59) Chapter 11 Further rearrangement allows the denominator to be placed in the standard form for a second-order transfer function: H ′( s ) K3 s = 2 2 ′ Q1 ( s ) τ3 s + 2ζ 3 τ3 s + 1 (11-60) 38 . 11. Gc ( s ) = K c ( 1 + 1/τ I s ) .PI Control and Disturbance Changes For PI control. The closed-loop transfer function for disturbance changes can then be derived from Fig.

where K3 = τ I / K c K v K m 1  1 + KOL  τ I ζ3 =    K  2τ OL   (11-61) (11-62) (11-63)

Chapter 11

τ3 = ττ I / KOL

′ For a unit step change in disturbance, Q1 ( s ) = 1/ s , and (11-59) becomes K3 H ′( s ) = 2 2 (11-64) τ3 s + 2ζ 3 τ3 s + 1 < For 0ζ 31< , the response is a damped oscillation that can be described by K3 ′( t ) = h e −ζ 3t / τ3 sin  1ζ 3/ tτ 3  − 2 (11-65)     τ 1 − ζ2
3 3
39

PI Control of an Integrating Process
Consider the liquid-level control system shown in Fig. 11.22. This system differs from the previous example in two ways: 1. the exit line contains a pump and

Chapter 11

2. the manipulated variable is the exit flow rate rather than an inlet flow rate. In Section 5.3 we saw that a tank with a pump in the exit stream can act as an integrator with respect to flow rate changes because H ′( s ) 1 = Gp ( s) = − ′ Q3 ( s ) As H ′( s ) 1 = Gd ( s ) = ′ Q1 ( s ) As (11-66)

(11-67)
40

Chapter 11
Figure 11.22 Liquid-level control system with pump in exit line.
41

(11-69) (11-70) (11-71) (11-72) 42 . 11.1/A.22 have negligible dynamics. Gc ( s ) = K c ( 1 + 1/τ I s ) .Chapter 11 If the level transmitter and control valve in Eq. the Gm(s) = Km and Gv(s) = Kv.5 KOL τ I And KOL = KcKvKpKm with Kp = . For PI control. Substituting these expressions into the closed-loop transfer function for disturbance changes H ′( s ) Gd = (11-68) ′ Q1 ( s ) 1 + Gc Gv G p Gm and rearranging gives H ′( s ) K4s = 2 2 ′ Q1 ( s ) τ 4 s + 2ζ 4 τ 4 s + 1 where K 4 = −τ / Kc Kv K m τ 4 = τ I / KOL ζ 4 = 0.

8 with the following transfer functions: Gc = K c 1 G p = Gd = 5s + 1 1 Gv = 2s + 1 1 Gm = s +1 (11-73) (11-74) Chapter 11 Show that the closed-loop system produces unstable responses if controller gain Kc is too large.Stability of Closed-Loop Control Systems Example 11. 43 . 11.4 Consider the feedback control system shown in Fig.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 44 .23. Effect of controller gains on closed-loop response to a unit step change in set point (example 11.1).

An unconstrained linear system is said to be stable if the output response is bounded for all bounded inputs. 45 . they are said to be open-loop stable or self-regulating. that can be open-loop unstable. Definition of Stability. Otherwise it is said to be unstable. such as exothermic chemical reactors. • By contrast there are a few processes. Thus. Chapter 11 • An open-loop stable process will return to the original steady state after a transient disturbance (one that is not sustained) occurs.Stability • Most industrial processes are stable without feedback control.

GOL = GcGvGpGm. in which case Eq. K mGcGv G p Y = (11-81) Ysp 1 + GOL 46 . we obtain Chapter 11 Y= K mGcGvG p 1 + GOL Gd Ysp + D 1 + GOL (11-80) where GOL is the open-loop transfer function. For the moment consider set-point changes only. 11.8.Characteristic Equation As a starting point for the stability analysis. consider the block diagram in Fig. Using block diagram algebra that was developed earlier in this chapter. 11-80 reduces to the closed-loop transfer function.

8 is stable if and only if all roots of the characteristic equation are negative or have negative real parts. and thus is open-loop unstable. the system is unstable. Otherwise. 11-81 and 11-82 indicates that the poles are also the roots of the following equation. determine whether a proportional controller can stabilize the closed-loop system. 11. Gp = 0. If Gv = Gm = 1.2/-s + 1).Comparing Eqs. The feedback control system in Fig.8 Consider a process. which is referred to as the characteristic equation of the closed-loop system: 1 + GOL = 0 (11-83) Chapter 11 General Stability Criterion. 47 . Example 11.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 48 .25 Stability regions in the complex plane for roots of the characteristic equation.

Chapter 11 Figure 11.26 Contributions of characteristic equation roots to closed-loop response. 49 .

Solution The characteristic equation for this system is s + 0. Routh Stability Criterion The Routh stability criterion is based on a characteristic equation that has the form an s n + an−1s n−1 + K + a1s + a0 = 0 (11-93) 50 .2 K c − 1 = 0 (11-92) Chapter 11 Which has the single root.2Kc. the stability requirement is that Kc < 5. s = -1 + 0. Thus. This example illustrates the important fact that feedback control can be used to stabilize a process that is not stable without control.

Row 1 2 3 4 M n+1 where: b1 = Routh array: an an-1 b1 c1 M z1 an-2 an-3 b2 c2 an-4 an-5 b3 L L L L Chapter 11 an−1an−2 − an an−3 an−1 (11-94) (11-95) an−1an−4 − an an −5 b2 = an−1 M 51 .

and: b1an−3 − an−1b2 c1 = b1 (11-96) (11-97) Chapter 11 b1an−5 − an−1b3 c2 = b1 M Routh Stability Criterion: A necessary and sufficient condition for all roots of the characteristic equation in Eq. 52 . 11-93 to have negative real parts is that all of the elements in the left column of the Routh array are positive.

Recall that a necessary condition for stability is that all of the coefficients in the characteristic equation must be positive. 53 . Thus. its coefficient is zero.9 Determine the stability of a system that has the characteristic equation s 4 + 5 s 3 + 3s 2 + 1 = 0 (11-98) Chapter 11 Solution Because the s term is missing.Example 11. the system is unstable.

the characteristic equation is 10 s3 + 17 s 2 + 8s + 1 + K c = 0 (11-99) All coefficients are positive provided that 1 + Kc > 0 or Kc < -1.10 Find the values of controller gain Kc that make the feedback control system of Eq. The Routh array is 10 17 b1 c1 54 8 1 + Kc b2 .4 stable.Example 11. Solution Chapter 11 From Eq. 11. 11-76.

Substituting s=jω into the characteristic equation allows us to find a stability limit such as the maximum value of Kc. Element b1 will be positive if Kc < 7. the roots of the characteristic equation cross the imaginary axis when Kc = Kcm .To have a stable system. each element in the left column of the Routh array must be positive.41/0. Similarly. as indicated in Fig.6 (11-100) Chapter 11 Direct Substitution Method • The imaginary axis divides the complex plane into stable and unstable regions for the roots of characteristic equation. 11. Thus.588 = 12. • On the imaginary axis. we conclude that the system will be stable if −1 < K c < 12.26. • As the gain Kc is increased. 55 . and thus we can write s=jω . c1 will be positive if Kc > -1.6. the real part of s is zero.

Solution Chapter 11 Substitute s = jω and Kc = Kcm into Eq. 11-99: −10ω j or 3 − 17ω 2 + ω + + K cm = 8 j 1 0 (1+ K − 17ω 2 + j 8ω − 10ω3 = 0 cm ) ( ) (11-105) 56 .Example 11. 11-99.12 Use the direct substitution method to determine Kcm for the system with the characteristic equation given by Eq.

6 ( ) (11-107) 57 .8 ⇒ ω = ±0. ω2 = 0. K cm = 12.894 and from (11-106a).Equation 11-105 is satisfied if both the real and imaginary parts are identically zero: 1 + K cm − 17ω 2 = 0 (11-106a) (11-106b) Chapter 11 8ω − 10ω3 = ω 8 − 10ω2 = 0 Therefore.

13 Consider a feedback control system that has the open-loop transfer function. 4Kc GOL ( s ) = ( s + 1) ( s + 2 ) ( s + 3) Plot the root locus diagram for 0 ≤ K c ≤ 20. Solution The characteristic equation is 1 + GOL = 0 or (11-108) Chapter 11 ( s + 1) ( s + 2 ) ( s + 3) + 4 Kc = 0 (11-109) 58 .Root Locus Diagrams Example 11.

the roots are merely the poles of the open-loop transfer function. -2.• The root locus diagram in Fig. and -3. 11. • When Kc = 0.27 shows how the three roots of this characteristic equation vary with Kc. -1. Chapter 11 59 .

60 .27 Root locus diagram for third-order system. X denotes an open-loop pole. Arrows indicate change of pole locations as Kc increases. Dots denote locations of the closedloop poles for different values of Kc.Chapter 11 Figure 11.

Chapter 11 Figure 11. 61 . Flowchart for performing a stability analysis.29.