THE PRODUCT ‡ Products are almost always combinations of the tangible and intangible.

The entire package is sometimes referred to as the augmented product. ‡ The mix of tangibles and intangibles in the augmented product varies from one product or service to another.

THE PRODUCT ‡ Product is a key element in the market offering. Marketing mix planning begins with formulating an offering to meet target customers¶ needs or wants. ‡ The customer will judge the offering by three basic elements : product features and quality, services mix and quality, and price appropriateness.

Value based pricing

Attractiveness of the market offering Product features and quality Services mix and quality

( Contd«. the marketer needs to think through five levels of the product. ) . ‡ Each level adds more customer value.PRODUCT LEVELS ‡ In planning its market offering. and the five constitute a customer value hierarchy.

FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT (5) Potential Product (1) Core Product (2) Basic Product (4) Augmented Product (3) Expected Product .

FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT ‡ (1) Core Product / Core Benefit : The fundamental service or benefit that the customer is really buying. the marketer has to turn the core benefit into a basic product. ‡ (2) Basic Product : At the same level. ‡ (3) Expected Product : A set of attributes and conditions buyers normally expect when they purchase this product. .

FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT ‡ (4) Augmented Product : The marketer prepares an augmented product that exceeds customer expectations. ( In less developed countries. ( Contd.«. ) . competition takes place mostly at the expected product level ).. ‡ Today¶s competition essentially takes place at the product-augmentation level.

delivery arrangements. customer advice. services.FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT ( Augmented Product ) ‡ According to Levitt : The new competition is not between what companies produce in their factories. warehousing. financing. but between what they add to their factory output in the form of packaging. advertising. . and other things that people value.

augmented benefits soon become expected benefits. For gaining competitive advantage one will have to search for still other features and benefits. ‡ Second. each augmentation adds cost. The marketer has to ask whether customers will pay enough to cover the extra cost. .FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT Some things should be noted about product-augmentation strategy : ‡ First.

. Thus alongside the growth of fine products we see the emergence of lower-cost products for the clients who simply want the basic product. some competitors can offer a ³ Stripped-down ´ version at a much lower price. as companies raise the price of their augmented product.FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT ( product-augmentation strategy ) ‡ Third.

´ . ) ³ The best way to hold customers is to constantly figure out how to give them more for less.FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT ‡ (5) Potential Product : encompasses all the possible augmentations and transformations the product might undergo in the future. Companies search for new ways to satisfy customers and distinguish their offer. ‡ ( Successful Companies add benefits to their offering that not only satisfy customers but also surprise and delight them.

design. mail. conformance. style. reliability.PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION The challenge before the product marketers is to create relevant and distinctive product differentiation. performance.. features. fax.. internet ) . packaging ) ‡ Availability Differences ( eg. The product differentiation may be based on : ‡ Physical Differences ( eg. available from stores or orderable by phone. durability.

. very high price. consulting. training. installation. symbols. low price. repair ) ‡ Price Differences ( eg. media ) .. very low price ) ‡ Image Differences ( eg. maintenance. medium price. events. delivery.PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION ‡ Service Differences ( eg.. atmosphere.

CHALLENGES FOR PRODUCT INNOVATORS Any successful differentiation will tend to draw imitators. The innovator faces three choices : ‡ Lower the price to protect market share and accept lower profits. ‡ Maintain the price and lose some market share and profits. ‡ Find a new basis to differentiate the product and maintain current price. .


(1) NON-DURABLES ‡ These are tangible goods normally consumed in one or few uses. charge only a small mark up and advertise heavily to induce trial and build preference. . Because these goods are consumed quickly and purchased frequently. the appropriate strategy is to make them available at many locations.

and require more seller guarantees. Normally require more personal selling and service.(2) DURABLES ‡ These are tangible goods that normally survive many uses. . command a higher margin.

superior credibility. inseperable. . Normally require more quality control. variable and perishable products. and adaptability.(3) SERVICES These are intangible.


‡ (C) Emergency Goods: are purchased when a need is urgent. .(1) CONVENIENCE GOODS ‡ are goods that the customer usually purchases frequently. immediately. ‡ (A) Staples: Consumers purchase on a regular basis. ‡ (B) Impulse Goods: are purchased without any planning or search efforts. and with a minimum of efforts.

quality. ‡ (B) Heterogeneous Shopping Goods: differ in product features and services that may be more important than price. in the process of selection and purchase.(2) SHOPPING GOODS ‡ are goods that the customer . characteristically compares on such basis as suitability. price and style. . ‡ (A) Homogeneous Shopping Goods: are similar in quality but different enough in price to justify shopping comparisons.

(3) SPECIALITY GOODS ‡ are goods with unique characteristics or brand identification for which buyer is willing to make a special purchasing effort. .

(4) UNSOUGHT GOODS ‡ are goods the consumer does not know about or does not normally think of buying. . These goods require advertising and personal selling support.

PRODUCT STRATEGY ‡ Calls for coordinated decisions on : ‡ (1) Product Mix ‡ (2) Product Line ‡ (3) Individual Product ‡ (4) Service Product .

length. . depth and consistency. ‡ A company¶s product mix has a certain width.PRODUCT MIX ‡ A product mix (also called product assortment) is the set of all products and items that a particular seller offers for sale. ‡ A total group of products that an organization markets.

DIMENSIONS OF PRODUCT MIX ‡ The width of company¶s (say HLL¶s) product mix refers to how many different product lines the company carries. food products. shampoos. such as bathing soap. detergents. . toothpaste.

Pears. . HLL has several product items like Lux.. in the product line of bathing soaps. Liril. Lifebuoy.DIMENSIONS OF PRODUCT MIX ‡ The length of a company¶s product mix refers to the total number of items in its product mix. Thus in each of the product line HLL has a number of product items. Eg.

. Thus if close up toothpaste comes in three formulations and in three sizes. Close up has a depth of nine (3x3).DIMENSIONS OF PRODUCT MIX ‡ The depth of a company¶s product mix refers to how many variants are offered of each product in the line. The average depth of HLL product mix can be calculated by averaging the number of variants within the brand groups.

distribution channels. or some other way. . HLL¶s product lines are consistent insofar as they are consumer goods that go through the same distribution channels. production requirements.DIMENSIONS OF PRODUCT MIX ‡ The Consistency of the product mix refers to how closely related the various product lines are in end-use.

can lengthen each product line. The company can expand its business in four ways. can pursue more product-line consistency or less. . can add new product lines. The Co. ‡ 2. can add more product variants to each product and deepen its product mix. ‡ 4. ‡ 3. The Co. The Co. thus widening its product mix. The Co.DIMENSIONS OF PRODUCT MIX ‡ These four dimensions of the product mix provide the handles for defining the company¶s product strategy. depending upon whether it wants to acquire a strong reputation in a single field or participate in several fields. ‡ 1.

are marketed through the same channels or fall within the given price ranges. . are sold to the same customer groups. ‡ The product mix may be composed of several product lines. because they perform a similar function.PRODUCT LINE ‡ A product line is a group of products that are closely related.

. or divest.e. maintain.. They also need to understand each product¶s market profile. harvest. how their product line is positioned against competitors¶ product lines (The Product Map).PRODUCT LINE ANALYSIS ‡ Product line managers need to know the sales and profits of each item in their line in order to determine which items to build. i.

PRODUCT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT ‡ Filling in the Product Line ( adding more items within the present range of line ) ‡ Product Line Modernization ‡ Product Line Featuring ‡ Product Line Pruning .

INDIVIDUAL PRODUCT DECISIONS ‡ Product Attribute Decisions ‡ Brand Decisions ‡ Brand Positioning ‡ Packaging and Labeling .

intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. or a combination of them. term. ´ .DEFINITION OF BRAND ‡ American Management Association defines brand as follows : ³ A brand is a name. symbol. or design. sign.

THE MEANING OF BRAND ‡ The brand is not a product but it gives the product meaning and defines its identity in both time and space. ‡ Companies want to stamp their mark on different sectors and set their imprint on their products. ‡ Brands are a direct consequence of the strategy of market segmentation and product differentiation. .

BUILDING THE BRAND ‡ ³The art of marketing is the art of brand building. When something is not a brand, it will probably viewed as a commodity. Then price is what counts. When price is the only thing that counts, the only winner is the low-cost producer.´ . ( Philip Kotler )

BRAND NAME DECISIONS ‡ Individual Names ‡ Blanket Family Names ‡ Separate Family Names for all products ‡ Company Trade name combined with individual product names.

BRAND NAME ‡ It should suggest something about the product¶s benefits. ‡ It should suggest something about product qualities. ‡ It should be easy to pronounce, recognize and remember. ‡ It should be distinctive. ‡ It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages.

. and provide the basis for brand extension. affect feelings towards a product and the use experience. ‡ A brand¶s associations are assets that can differentiate. provide reasons to buy. The most common association is that of product attributes or customer benefits. instil confidence and trust.BRAND IDENTITY AND ASSOCIATION ‡ A brand identity or association is anything that is directly or indirectly linked in memory to a brand.

and substance. there must be a reason. awareness provides the brand with a sense of familiarity. The logic is that if a name is recognized. commitment. name awareness can be a signal of presence. . and people like the familiar.BENEFITS OF BRAND AWARENESS ‡ First. the salience of a brand will determine if it is recalled at a key time in the purchasing process. ‡ Third. ‡ Second.

Excessive resources are required when entering a market in which existing customers must be enticed away from an established brand that they are loyal to. since existing customers are relatively easier to hold. brand loyalty represents a substantial barrier to competitors.BRAND LOYALTY ‡ First. a relatively large. Brand loyalty provides trade leverage. and enduring product. ‡ Third. successful. brand loyalty provides the time to respond to competitive moves. ‡ Second. satisfied customer base provides an image of a brand as an accepted. brand loyalty reduces the marketing costs of doing business. ‡ Fourth. ‡ Finally. .

‡ Brand equity generates value to the customer that can emerge either as a price premium or enhanced brand loyalty. .DEFINITION OF BRAND EQUITY ‡ Brand equity is a set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand¶s name and symbol that add to or substract from the value provided by a producer or service to a firm and / or that firm¶s customers.

BRAND EQUITY Brand Awareness Brand Equity Perceived Quality Brand Identity Brand Loyalty ( Powerful brands have high brand equity. higher brand loyalty.) .

TOOLS FOR BUILDING BRAND ‡ Advertising ‡ Sponsorship of games and events ‡ Social Causes ‡ Public Facilities ‡ Founder¶s personality .

BRAND STRATEGY DECISIONS ‡ Line Extensions ‡ Brand Extensions ‡ Multibrands ‡ New brands ‡ Co-brands .

BRAND STRATEGY DECISIONS Product Category Existing Existing Line Extension New Brand Extension New Brand Names Brand Name New Multibrands .

usually with new flavours. added ingredients. ‡ Line extensions generally have a higher chance of survival than new products. Ries and Trout call this ³ Line Extension Trap . colours. ‡ On the down side extensions may lead to the brand name losing its specific meanings. package sizes and so on.´ .LINE EXTENSION ‡ Line extension occurs when a company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name. forms.

BRAND EXTENSION ‡ Brand Extension occurs when a company decides to use an existing brand name to launch a product in the new category. -Instant recognition and earlier acceptance -Saves considerable advertisement costs . ‡ Brand Extension offers a number of advantages.

The brand name may loose its special positioning in the consumer¶s mind through over extension .BRAND EXTENSION ‡ Brand Extension also involves risks.The new product might disappoint buyers and damage their respect for company¶s other products. .a phenomenon called ³ brand dilution . .´ .

It also enables the company to lock up more distributor shelf space and protest its major brand by setting up flanker brands. . .MULTI BRANDS ‡ A company will often introduce additional brands in the same product category.One of the motives for multibranding is to establish different features and/or appeal to different buying motives. .

. ‡ When the present brand image is not likely to help the new product.NEW BRANDS ‡ When a company launches products in a new category. companies are better off creating new brand names. it may find that none of its current brand names are appropriate.

‡ Each brand sponsor expects that other brand name will strengthen brand preference or purchase intention.CO-BRANDS ‡ Co-branding occurs when two different companies pair their respective brands in a collaborative marketing effort. .

one should first understand its parent concept. .PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ‡ The Product Life Cycle ( PLC ) is an important concept in marketing that provides insights into a product¶s competitive dynamics. ‡ To fully understand the concepts of PLC . the demand and technology life cycles.

. but rather with a need. ‡ A need is satisfied by some technology. ‡ The product exists as one solution among many to meet a need. ‡ The PLC portrays distinct stages in the sales history of a product. ‡ Each new technology normally satisfies the need in a superior way and it shows a demand-technology life cycle.DEMAND / TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE ‡ Marketing thinking should not begin with a product or even a product class.


STAGES IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Sales & Profits Time Introduction Growth Maturity Decline .

‡ Products require different marketing. ( V = B/P ). manufacturing. in order to succeed.STAGES IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ‡ By identifying the stage that a product is in. it is absolutely essential to constantly improve products to increase the value offered to customers. ‡ Marketers must pursue appropriate marketing strategies in each stage of PLC. companies can formulate better marketing plans. . financial. ‡ Today. or may be headed toward. purchasing and personnel strategies in each stage of their life cycle. ‡ The success of competitors is based on creating value for the customer by differentiating their product. ( Competitive Differential ).

EXTENDING THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Sales Time ‡( When the sales of a product starts declining marketers may choose suitable strategy for further growth of product /business/enterprise.) .

. ‡ --Changes in number of potential buyers Stages in PLC : Introduction. Growth.PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Reasons for change in behavior of PLC : ‡ --Changes in the consumer needs and preferences ‡ --Advancing Technology ‡ --Competition. Government Policies etc. Maturity. And Decline.

MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE INTRODUCTION STAGE Promotion High High Price Low Low Rapid Skimming Strategy Rapid Penetration Strategy Slow Skimming Strategy Slow Penetration Strategy .

flavors. ‡ It enters new market segments.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE GROWTH STAGE ‡ It improves product quality and adds new product features and improved styling. ‡ It adds new models and flanker products (i.e. products of different sizes. . ‡ It shifts from product-awareness advertising to product-preference advertising. ‡ It increases its distribution coverage and enters new distribution channels.. ‡ It lowers prices to attract the next layer of pricesensitive buyers. and so forth that protect the main product ).

. ‡ Profits are beginning to decline. ‡ The manufacturer assume a greater share of the total promotional effort in the fight to retain dealers and shelf space in their stores. ‡ Price competition increases.MATURITY STAGE ‡ Sales are increasing but at a decreasing rate.

. we can devide Maturity Stage into three stages : ‡ Growth Maturity : When the rate of sales growth starts to decline because of distribution saturation. ‡ Decaying Maturity : The sales level starts to decline as some of the customers move towards other competitive and substitute products.MATURITY STAGE To understand better. ‡ Stable Maturity : When the rate of sales growth starts declining due to market saturation.

MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE ‡ Market Modification ‡ Product Modification ‡ Marketing Mix Modification .

Convert non-users .MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE Market Modification ‡ Expand number of users : .New and more varied uses .More usage per occasion .Enter new market segments .Win competitors¶ customers ‡ Increase annual usage : .More frequent use .

or convenience. accessories ) that expand the product¶s versatility. speed.size. additives. materials.its durability. safety.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE Product Modification ‡ A strategy of quality improvement aims at increasing the product¶s functional performance . taste. . weight. ‡ A strategy of feature improvement aims at adding new features ( for example . reliability.

The periodic introduction of new car models amounts to style competition rather than quality or feature competition. .) ‡ A strategy of style improvement aims at increasing the product¶s aesthetic appeal.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE Product Modification (contd.

MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE Marketing Mix Modification Prices Distribution Advertising Sales Promotion Personal Selling Services ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

modify its marketing strategy. many companies appoint a product-review committee with representatives from marketing.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DECLINE STAGE ‡ Identifying the Weak Products To do this. . R&D. The product review committee makes a recommendation for each dubious product--leave it alone. manufacturing and finance. or drop it.

Maintaining the firm¶s investment level until the uncertainties about the industry are resolved.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DECLINE STAGE (Contd. (Contd.) ‡ Determining Marketing Strategies : ( Go Strategy ) Continuation Strategy : -Increasing the firm¶s investment ( to dominate the market or strengthen the competitive position ) .) .

.Divesting the business quickly by disposing of its assets as advantageously as possible. by dropping unprofitable customer groups.Decreasing the firm¶s investment level selectively.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DECLINE STAGE (Contd) ‡ Determining Marketing Strategies : ( Go Strategy ) Concentration Strategy : . Harvesting Strategy : . while simultaneously strengthening the firm¶s investment in lucrative niches.

If the company can¶t find any buyers. It must also decide on how much parts inventory and service to maintain for past customers. the company can probably sell it to another firm. If the product has strong distribution and residual goodwill. . .When a company decides to drop a product. it must decide whether to liquidate the brand quickly or slowly. it faces further decisions.MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DECLINE STAGE (Contd) ‡ The Drop Strategy .

NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ (1) Idea Generation (2) Screening (3) Concept Development and Testing (4) Marketing Strategy (5) Business Analysis (6) Product Development (7) Market Testing (8) Commercialization .

‡ Interest : The consumer is stimulated to seek information about the innovation. . ‡ Evaluation : The consumer considers whether to try the innovation.THE CONSUMER ADOPTIONPROCESS (STAGES IN THE ADOPTION PROCESS ) ‡ Awareness : The consumer becomes aware of the innovation but lacks information about it. ‡ Trial : The consumer tries the innovation to improve his or her estimate of its value. ‡ Adoption : The consumer decides to make full and regular use of the innovation.